Footnotes Part I
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1Between 1795 and 1822 the United States Government
established and operated trading
posts in the Indian Country. Headquarters of this system was the Office of Indian Trade in
Georgetown, D.C. (See: A history of the United States Indian Factory system, 1795-1822, by Ora
Brooks Peake. Denver, Colo. 1954.)
2In the preparation of the
foregoing section on shell hair-pipe manufacture I have utilized
information kindly furnished me by J.C. Storms, of Park Ridge, N.J., in a personal interview during
September 1952, in addition to the following published sources: Norton (1888), Smith (1885), Storms
(1939), Westervelt (1924), and an interview with Daniel Campbell reported in the Newark Evening News,
November 3, 1923. Mrs. Mary S. Curtis, curator, Bergen County Historical Society, North Hackensack,
N.J., has graciously assisted me in locating additional information on the history of the Campbell family
and on hair-pipe manufacture in that county.
3BAE negs. as follows: Comanche: 1743-a, 1727; Kiowa: 1381-a, 1476-c, 1476-d, 1376-a-2, 1378,
1374-b-1, 1382-a-3, 1387, 1380; Kiowa Apache: 2580-e-2, 2581-a; Kichai: 811-b; Tawaconie: 1362-a, Waco: 1363-a.
4These are BAE negs. 3513-a, 3536-Yanktonai; 3180-a, 3182-b-1, 3186-a-Hunkpapa.
5Reproduced as frontispiece in "Carl Bodmer Paints the Indian Frontier." Exhibition Catalog,
Smithsonian Institution, 1954. This is the only work of Bodmer's that appears to show any use of hair
pipes. I am indebted to Prince Karl Viktor zu Wied for an opportunity to examine photographs of the
entire collection of 220 Bodmer originals in the possession of the estate of Prince Maximilian zu Wied.
6In order mentioned, these photographs are BAE negs. 3689, 4051, 1335, and 1335-a.