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Chasing Venus: Observing the Transits of Venus 1631-2004
Introduction
What is a Transit of Venus?
Discovering the Transits: The 1631 and 1639 Transits
Measuring the Universe: The 1761 and 1769 Transits
New Possibilities: The 1874 and 1882 Transits
The Transits of 2004 and 2012
Credits and Financial Support
Education and Events
Resources and Links

All Images from the Exhibition

Images of Venus: UV Image of Venus Showing Cloud Patterns.


Images of Venus: UV Image of Venus Showing Cloud Patterns.

Courtesy of NASA/JPL/Caltech

UV Image of Venus Showing Cloud Patterns. Ultraviolet images taken from the Galileo probe show Venus's cloud patterns.


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Images of Venus: The Surface of Venus


Images of Venus: The Surface of Venus

Courtesy of NASA/JPL/Caltech

The Surface of Venus. Radar imagery from the Magellan space probe gives us a view of the planet's surface.


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Images of Venus: Venus in Visible Light


Images of Venus: Venus in Visible Light

Courtesy of NASA/JPL/Caltech

Venus in Visible Light. Seen in visible light from the space probe Galileo, the planet appears without distinguishing features.


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Images of Venus: Venus in Transit


Images of Venus: Venus in Transit

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Venus in Transit. During a transit, Venus looks like a black dot on the Sun's surface.


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Tabulæ Rudolphinæ

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)
Tabulæ Rudolphinæ (Rudolphine Tables)
Ulm: J. Saurii, 1627.
Gift of the Burndy Library

Page from Tabulæ Rudolphinæ


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Rosa Ursina

Christoph Scheiner (1575-1650)
Rosa Ursina (The Rose of Orsini)
Bracciani: Andream Phæum, 1630.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Rosa Ursina

Christoph Scheiner (1575-1650)
Rosa Ursina (The Rose of Orsini)
Bracciani: Andream Phæum, 1630.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Rosa Ursina

Christoph Scheiner (1575-1650)
Rosa Ursina (The Rose of Orsini)
Bracciani: Andream Phæum, 1630.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Opera omnia

Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)
"Mercurius in sole visus & Venus invisa". Opera omnia (Mercury seen upon the Sun & Venus unseen)
Florence: Typis Regiæ Celsitudinis …, 1727. Volume 4
Gift of the Burndy Library

Page from Opera omnia


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Mercurius in Sole visus

Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)
Mercurius in Sole visus (Mercury seen upon the Sun)
Gdansk: by the author, 1662.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Transit of Venus across the Sun

Jeremiah Horrocks (c. 1617-1641)
Transit of Venus across the Sun
London: William Macintosh, 1859?.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Transit of Venus across the Sun

Jeremiah Horrocks (c. 1617-1641)
Transit of Venus across the Sun
London: William Macintosh, 1859?.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Jeremiah Horrocks Watching the Transit of Venus in 1639

Eyre Crowe (1824-1910)
Jeremiah Horrocks Watching the Transit of Venus in 1639
1891.
Courtesy of National Museums Liverpool (The Walker)

Jeremiah Horrocks Watching the Transit of Venus in 1639


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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
"Methodus singularis qual Solis Parallaxis sive distantia a Terra (Remarkable method for determining the solar parallax of the distance from the Sun to the Earth)". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
London: W. Innys, 1717. Volume 29
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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De magnitudinibus, et distantiis solis, et lunae

Aristarchus of Samos
De magnitudinibus, et distantiis solis, et lunae (On the sizes and the distances of the Sun and the Moon)
Pisa: Camillo Fanchischini, 1572.
Gift of the Burndy Library

Page from De magnitudinibus, et distantiis solis, et lunae


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Catalogus stellarum australium

Edmond Halley (1656-1742)
Catalogus stellarum australium (Catalogue of the southern stars)
London: T. James, 1679.
Gift of the Burndy Library

Page from Catalogus stellarum australium


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Histoire de l' Academie Royale des sciences, annee 1753

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
"De la conjunction inferieure de Venus avec le Soleil (On the inferior conjunction of Venus with the sun)". Histoire de l' Academie Royale des sciences, annee 1753
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1757.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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Histoire de l' Academie Royale des sciences, annee 1753

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
"De la conjunction inferieure de Venus avec le Soleil (On the inferior conjunction of Venus with the sun)". Histoire de l' Academie Royale des sciences, annee 1753
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1757.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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Machinæ coelestis

Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687)
Machinæ coelestis (Celestial Machines)
Gdansk: by the author, 1673.
Gift of the Burndy Library

The astronomers Johannes and Elisabetha Hevelius using their sextant at their private observatory in Gdansk.


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Orrery

James Giles
Orrery
London: 1740-80.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center

Orrery


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Portrait John Withrop

John Singleton Copley (1738-1815)
Portrait John Withrop
c. 1773.
Courtesy of the Harvard University Portrait Collection, Gift of the executors of the Estate of John Winthrop, grandson, 1894

Portrait John Withrop


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Instructions relative to the observations of the ensuing transit of the planet Venus. . .

Nevil Maskelyne (1731-1811)
Instructions relative to the observations of the ensuing transit of the planet Venus. . .
London: W. Richardson and S. Clark, 1768.
Gift of the Burndy Library

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Instructions relative to the observations of the ensuing transit of the planet Venus. . .

Nevil Maskelyne (1731-1811)
Instructions relative to the observations of the ensuing transit of the planet Venus. . .
London: W. Richardson and S. Clark, 1768.
Gift of the Burndy Library

Page from Instructions relative to the observations…


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New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769

Benjamin West (1730-1813)
New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769
Boston: Mein and Fleeming, [1768].
Gift of Ronald S. Wilkinson

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New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769

Benjamin West (1730-1813)
New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769
Boston: Mein and Fleeming, [1768].
Gift of Ronald S. Wilkinson

Page from The New-England almanack


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New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769

Benjamin West (1730-1813)
New-England almanack … for the year of our Lord Christ, 1769
Boston: Mein and Fleeming, [1768].
Gift of Ronald S. Wilkinson

Page from The New-England almanack


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Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers


Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts et des metiers (Encyclopedia or descriptive dictionary of the sciences, arts, and trades, plate volume XII)
Paris: Chez Panckoucke et al., 1777.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Page from Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences


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Gregorian reflecting telescope

George Adams
Gregorian reflecting telescope
London: c. 1750-1800.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center

Gregorian reflecting telescope


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Portrait of Rev. Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal from 1765 to 1811

Edward Scriven (1775-1841)
Portrait of Rev. Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal from 1765 to 1811 (from a portrait by Van de Puyl)

Gift of the Burndy Library

Portrait of Rev. Nevil Maskelyne


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Deutliche Abhandlung … von dem bevorstehenden merkwürdigen Durchgang der Venus…

Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826)
Deutliche Abhandlung … von dem bevorstehenden merkwürdigen Durchgang der Venus… (Clear treatise on the forthcoming remarkable transit of Venus)
Hamburg: Dieterich Anton Harmsen, 1769.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Deutliche Abhandlung


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Deutliche Abhandlung … von dem bevorstehenden merkwürdigen Durchgang der Venus…

Johann Elert Bode (1747-1826)
Deutliche Abhandlung … von dem bevorstehenden merkwürdigen Durchgang der Venus… (Clear treatise on the forthcoming remarkable transit of Venus)
Hamburg: Dieterich Anton Harmsen, 1769.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Deutliche Abhandlung


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Portrait of Jean Chappe d’Auteroche

Artist Unknown
Portrait of Jean Chappe d’Auteroche



For the 1769 transit, Jean Chappe d’Auteroche led a party to the southern tip of Baja California. They observed the transit under ideal conditions, but a few days later an epidemic struck the area, killing three-fourths of the local population and everyone in the expedition except for Chappe and Pauly, his engineer. Chappe lingered for a short while but died before leaving Baja. Pauly managed to get back to France with all of the observation records


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Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1779.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Title page


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Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1779.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Ruins of Pondicherry; Le Gentil’s observing station was on the structure just to the right of the flagpole


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Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1779.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Figure of Hindu god Brahma


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Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde

Guillaume Le Gentil de La Galaisiere (1725-1792)
Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde
Paris: deI'Imprimerie Royale, 1779.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Figures


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Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London

Charles Mason (1730-1787) ; Dixon, Jeremiah d. 1777
"Observations made at the the Cape of Good Hope". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London
London: L. Davis and C. Reymers, 1762. Volume LII (1761)
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London

Samuel Dunn (d. 1794)
"A Determination of the exact Moments of Time when the Planet Venus was at external and internal contace with the Sun's Limb…,". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London
London: Lockyer Davis, 1771. Volume LX (1770)
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

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account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…

John Hawkesworth (1715?-1773)
account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…
London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1773. Vol. II
Gift of the Burndy Library

Tahitian vessel from John Hawkesworth’s An Account of the voyages…, vol. II, 1773


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account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…

John Hawkesworth (1715?-1773)
account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…
London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1773. Vol. II
Gift of the Burndy Library

Hawkesworth’s well-known accounts of Cook’s voyages helped publicize a new era of exploration. This account of the first voyage includes a map of Tahiti (or “Otaheite”). At the top of the main island, you can see “Point Venus,” where Cook and Green observed the 1769 transit of Venus.


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account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…

John Hawkesworth (1715?-1773)
account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…
London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1773. Vol. II
Gift of the Burndy Library

Hawkesworth’s well-known accounts of Cook’s voyages helped publicize a new era of exploration. This account of the first voyage includes a map of Tahiti (or “Otaheite”). At the top of the main island, you can see “Point Venus,” where Cook and Green observed the 1769 transit of Venus.


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account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…

John Hawkesworth (1715?-1773)
account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…
London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1773. Vol. II
Gift of the Burndy Library

H.M.S. Swallow in Tahiti.

When Captain Samuel Wallis of the Swallow returned to England in 1768 and told everyone about the island of Tahiti, many agreed that it would be the best place to see the 1769 transit.


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account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…

John Hawkesworth (1715?-1773)
account of the voyages undertaken … for making discoveries in the Southern Hemisphere…
London: W. Strahan and T. Cadell, 1773. Vol. II
Gift of the Burndy Library

When Captain Samuel Wallis of the Swallow returned to England in 1768 and told everyone about the island of Tahiti, many agreed that it would be the best place to see the 1769 transit.


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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXI. For the year 1771

Charles Green ; Cook, James (1728-1779)
"Observations made … at King George's Island [Tahiti] in the South Sea". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXI. For the year 1771
London: Lockyer Davis …, 1772. Volume LXI (1771)


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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXI. For the year 1771

Charles Green ; Cook, James (1728-1779)
"Observations made … at King George's Island [Tahiti] in the South Sea". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. LXI. For the year 1771
London: Lockyer Davis …, 1772. Volume LXI (1771)


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Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) ; and others
"An account of the Transit of Venus…". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Philadelphia: R. Aitken & Son, 1789. vol. I, 2d ed. Corrected


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Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) ; and others
"An account of the Transit of Venus…". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Philadelphia: R. Aitken & Son, 1789. vol. I, 2d ed. Corrected


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Transactions of the American Philosophical Society

David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) ; and others
"An account of the Transit of Venus…". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society
Philadelphia: R. Aitken & Son, 1789. vol. I, 2d ed. Corrected


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Relation of a voyage from Boston to Newfoundland, for the observation of the transit of Benus, June 6, 1761

John Winthrop (1714-1779)
Relation of a voyage from Boston to Newfoundland, for the observation of the transit of Benus, June 6, 1761
Boston: Edes and Gill …, 1761.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

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Relation of a voyage from Boston to Newfoundland, for the observation of the transit of Benus, June 6, 1761

John Winthrop (1714-1779)
Relation of a voyage from Boston to Newfoundland, for the observation of the transit of Benus, June 6, 1761
Boston: Edes and Gill …, 1761.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

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Joseph Henry statue in front of Smithsonian


Joseph Henry statue in front of Smithsonian "Castle"

Smithsonian Institution

Joseph Henry statue in front of Smithsonian "Castle"


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John Philip Sousa in uniform as the leader of the U.S. Marine Band


John Philip Sousa in uniform as the leader of the U.S. Marine Band
c. 1892.
Courtesy of "The President's Own" U.S. Marine Band, Washington, DC

John Philip Sousa in uniform as the leader of the U.S. Marine Band


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Transit of Venus March

John Philip Sousa (1854-1932)
Transit of Venus March
Washington, D.C.:
Courtesy of Collections of Music Division, Library of Congress

Cover of "Transit of Venus March"


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transit of Venus

John Philip Sousa (1854-1932)
transit of Venus
Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, [1920].
Courtesy of George Washington University, Special Collections Department, Gelman Library

Page from The Transit of Venus


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transit of Venus

John Philip Sousa (1854-1932)
transit of Venus
Boston: Small, Maynard & Company, [1920].
Courtesy of George Washington University, Special Collections Department, Gelman Library

Page from The Transit of Venus


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transit of Venus

George Forbes (1849-1936)
transit of Venus
London, New York: Macmillan and Co., 1874.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Page from The Transit of Venus


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Scientific American, Volume XXXI, no. 8, August 22,


"The transit of Venus". Scientific American, Volume XXXI, no. 8, August 22,
New York: Munn & Co., 1874.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Page from Scientific American


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Instructions for observing the transit of Venus

U.S. Commission on the Transit of Venus
Instructions for observing the transit of Venus
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Instructions for observing the transit of Venus


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Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874

U.S. Commission on the Transit of Venus
Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Archives

Page from Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874


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Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874

U.S. Commission on the Transit of Venus
Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Archives

Page from Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874


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Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874

U.S. Commission on the Transit of Venus
Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Archives

Page from Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874


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Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874

U.S. Commission on the Transit of Venus
Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1873.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Archives

Page from Atlas to part II of the papers relating to the transit of Venus in 1874


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales


Observations of the transit of Venus, 9 December, 1874 : made at stations in New South Wales
Sydney: C. Potter, 1892.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Broken-tube transit instrument

Stackpole & Brothers
Broken-tube transit instrument
New York: 1874.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center

Broken-tube transit instrument


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Broken-tube transit instrument

Stackpole & Brothers
Broken-tube transit instrument
New York: 1874.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History, Behring Center

Broken-tube transit instrument


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Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory


Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Boxes used to house glass-plate negatives taken by the 1882 U.S. expeditions


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Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory


Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Boxes used to house glass-plate negatives taken by the 1882 U.S. expeditions


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Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory


Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Boxes used to house glass-plate negatives taken by the 1882 U.S. expeditions


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Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory


Glass-plate negative boxes used during the 1882 transit of Venus expeditions by the U.S. Naval Observatory

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Boxes used to house glass-plate negatives taken by the 1882 U.S. expeditions


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Mercury pendulum clock

E. Howard Clock Company
Mercury pendulum clock
Boston: 1874.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History

Mercury pendulum clock


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Mercury pendulum clock

E. Howard Clock Company
Mercury pendulum clock
Boston: 1874.
Courtesy of the National Museum of American History

Mercury pendulum clock


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passaggio di Venere sul sole dell'8-9 dicembre 1874

Pietro Tacchini (1838-1905)
passaggio di Venere sul sole dell'8-9 dicembre 1874 (The transit of Venus on 8-9 December 1874)
Palermo: Lao, 1875.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

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Account of observations of the transit of Venus, 1874, December 8

George Biddell Airy, editor (1801-1892)
Account of observations of the transit of Venus, 1874, December 8
London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1881.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Account of observations of the transit of Venus


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Viaje de la Comision Astronómica Mexicana al Japon : para observar el tránsito del planeta Vénus…

Franscisco Díaz Covarrubias (1833-1889)
Viaje de la Comision Astronómica Mexicana al Japon : para observar el tránsito del planeta Vénus… (Voyage of the Mexican Astronomical Commission to Japan to observe the transit of Venus)
Mexico City: C. Ramiro y Ponce de Leon, 1876.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

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Members of the U.S. transit-of-Venus expedition at the site of Kerguelen Island putting up the water casks at the photography building


Members of the U.S. transit-of-Venus expedition at the site of Kerguelen Island putting up the water casks at the photography building
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Members of the U.S. transit-of-Venus expedition at the site of Kerguelen Island


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Testing the equipment at the 1874 American transit-of-Venus observation station on Kerguelen Island


Testing the equipment at the 1874 American transit-of-Venus observation station on Kerguelen Island
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Testing the equipment at the 1874 American transit-of-Venus observation station on Kerguelen Island


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U.S. Naval Observatory staff at the observing station on Kerguelen Island, 1874


U.S. Naval Observatory staff at the observing station on Kerguelen Island, 1874
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

U.S. Naval Observatory staff at the observing station on Kerguelen Island


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U.S. Naval Observatory observing station in Nagasaki, Japan, 1874


U.S. Naval Observatory observing station in Nagasaki, Japan, 1874
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

U.S. Naval Observatory observing station in Nagasaki, Japan


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Observation station at the 1876 Centennial Exposition


Observation station at the 1876 Centennial Exposition
1876.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Observation station at the 1876 Centennial Exposition


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions


Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus taken by one of the U.S. Naval Observatory expeditions

Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Glass-plate negative photographs of the 1882 transit of Venus


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


Boxes containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions
1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Box containing records of the 1874 U.S. Naval Observatory transit-of-Venus expeditions


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Refracting telescope with 5-inch objective lens

Alvan Clark & Sons
Refracting telescope with 5-inch objective lens
Boston: 1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory

This telescope is one of eight identical models built expressly for the U.S. Naval Observatory’s expeditions to observe transits of Venus in the 19th century


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Refracting telescope with 5-inch objective lens

Alvan Clark & Sons
Refracting telescope with 5-inch objective lens
Boston: 1874.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory

This telescope is one of eight identical models built expressly for the U.S. Naval Observatory’s expeditions to observe transits of Venus in the 19th century


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil (Collection of memoirs, reports, and documents relating to the obsrvations of the transit of Venus, volum III, part II, atlas of plates)
Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1885.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Pages from Recueil de mémoires, rapports et documents relatifs à l'observation du passage de Vénus sur le soleil


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Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]

U.S. Naval Observatory
Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]

U.S. Naval Observatory
Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]

U.S. Naval Observatory
Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]

U.S. Naval Observatory
Observations of the transit of Venus…, part II, sections 1-4 [page proofs]
Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1881.
Courtesy of the U.S. Naval Observatory Library

Page from Observations of the transit of Venus


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