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Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press Smithsonian Institution Libraries
Displaying 1 - 7 from the 7 total records
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Astronaut Observations from the Apollo-Soyuz Mission
Farouk El-Baz
400 pages, 280 figures, 11 tables
1977 (Date of Issue: 22 December 1977)
Number 1, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
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Abstract

During the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab flights, orbiting astronauts collected valuable information by means of observations and photography of Earth. Strengthened by the experience gained on these flights, the Earth Observations and Photography Experiment was carried out as on of the American objectives of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project in July 1975. The main goal of the experiment was to utilize the special capabilities of trained observers (namely, the American astronauts of the joint mission) in visually studying and photographing specific Earth features and dynamic phenomena. These special capabilities include the sensitivity of the human eye to subtle color variations (e.g., to desert sands or sea water), and the speed with which the eye-brain interaction results in interpretation of the scene and recognition of important features. This latter capability allows instantaneous selection of important sites for photographic documentation at any moment, which in turn, enhances the quality of photographic data from space platforms. Another goal of the experiment was to establish the role of human observers in future space programs, particularly the Space Shuttle.

This book contains a detailed account of the experiment objectives, training of astronauts, preparation of aids for their use, and the results of experiment performance. These details serve as a historical-archival record and as a guide for conducting similar projects in the future.

The scientific objectives of the experiment included the collection of data in support of ongoing research in the fields of geology (particularly desert studies), oceanography, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science. A summary of significant results in given; however, detailed scientific analyses are currently being performed by a number of investigators in various fields in the United States and abroad and their results will be published later, as a special publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


United States Women in Aviation through World War I
Claudia M. Oakes
44 pages, 48 illustrations
1978 (Date of Issue: 14 November 1978)
Number 2, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.2.1
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Abstract

Women who participated in aviation in the United States from 1880 through World War I, as supporters, passengers, designers, and pilots, are presented in this publication. Rare photographs, documents, newspaper clippings, and other archival materials held by the library of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, provide the nucleus of the study.


High Technology on Earth: Studies in Using Aerospace Systems and Methods
Paul A. Hanle, editor
59 pages, 1 figure
1979 (Date of Issue: 21 November 1979)
Number 3, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.3.1
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This collection of case studies describes how engineers or managers applied their arts to five complex problems on earth. A variety of aerospace methods and hardware were employed. Two of the cases concern “hard” technological developments: the construction of liquefied natural gas tankers and the creation of an automated system to transport people in Morgantown, West Virginia, both investigated by Susan Frutkin. Three cases address aerospace software and methods of analysis: the use of a technique of prediction developed by defense consultants, called “Delphi,” by which opinions are collected and a sort of consensus is induced, investigated by J. Gordon Milliken; the use of mathematical modeling in a computer to simulate the flow of financial securities; and an attempt to reform some of California's public services through aerospace systems analysis, both investigated by Carole R. Cristiano. The focal point of each study lies in analyzing the political, technical, and bureaucratic forces at work in developing a complex system. Each study is summarized in a separate, short comment, which also discusses how conflicts of goals and judgment conditioned the outcome of the development. The editor's critical introduction to the entire work places the five studies in a context of contemporary writing on technology and society.


In the Cause of Flight: Technologists of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Howard S. Wolko
121 pages
1981 (Date of Issue: 25 June 1981)
Number 4, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.4.1
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Many of the individuals who made prominent contributions to the technology of flight have attracted little historical attention; yet their accomplishments served to stimulate progress in aerospace development. This work represents an effort to foster interest in flight technologists and their contributions to vehicle performance. Information scattered throughout the literature is assembled herein to provide students of flight history with a convenient source of biographical material on 129 technologists. The biographical sketches are arranged in chronological order of contribution following each topical discussion. The topics include bouyant flight; aerodynamics; air-breathing propulsion; materials, structures, and design; vertical flight; and rocketry and space flight.


United States Women in Aviation 1919-1929
Kathleen L. Brooks-Pazmany
57 pages, 79 illustrations
1983 (Date of Issue: 9 December 1983)
Number 5, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.5.1
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Abstract

Women who were active in aviation in the United States from 1919 through 1929 as pilots, barnstormers, promoters, passengers, and supporters are presented in this publication. Rare photographs, documents, newspaper clippings, and other archival materials held by the Library of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, have provided the nucleus of this study. They have been supplemented by photographs and materials from private collections, as well as by firsthand accounts from participants in the events of the day.


United States Women in Aviation 1930-1939
Claudia M. Oakes
70 pages, 71 figures
1985 (Date of Issue: 14 August 1985)
Number 6, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.6.1
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In the 1930s, aviation was a very visible and exciting aspect of life and culture in the United States. The names of aerial explorers and record-setting air racers were headline news and household words. Women pilots were very much a part of the aviation community. Amelia Earhart defined for the decade what women pilots were trying to prove: Flying is safe, and women make good pilots. This publication presents some of the women who were working to prove this dual message. Photographs, documents, newspaper accounts, and magazine articles held by the library of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, provide the nucleus of the study.


United States Women in Aviation, 1940-1985
Deborah G. Douglas
142 pages, 70 figures, 4 tables
1990 (Date of Issue: 27 July 1990)
Number 7, Smithsonian Studies in Air and Space
DOI: 10.5479/si.01977245.7.1
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Covering the years 1940-1985, this study explores two main periods—World War II and the postwar era-in the story of American women in aviation. It is a history of the female pilots, engineers, aircraft industry personnel, and flight attendants who met the challenges of the aviation world, and who had to overcome particular barriers because they were women. Their contributions and achievements in times of war and peace are illustrated by photographs, documents and newspaper accounts of the day, and by personal memoirs. The unusual experiences of these women are examined in this review of the impact of gender on aviation history.


Displaying 1 - 7 from the 7 total records

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