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An Annotated Catalog of Primary Types of Siphonaptera in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Nancy E. Adams and Robert E. Lewis
86 pages
1995 (Date of Issue: 4 January 1995)
Number 560, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.560
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Annotated accounts for the 417 siphonapteran primary types in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, are presented. Each account includes the name, author, date of description, genus, computer reference number, citation, collection locality, host species, date of collection, and collector, if known. The kind of primary type and its sex are designated, accompanied by the USNM type number. The remarks section includes the current status of the name and other pertinent information. Of these accounts, 63 names are junior synonyms, one of which is synonymized here. Of the remaining 354 valid taxa, nine primary types are in the Natural History Museum, London, although for various reasons they warrant further discussion. Twenty-seven lectotypes are designated. Five appendices are included. They are an alphabetical index of host/parasite names by species; a list of junior synonyms and their equivalents; a list of type localities by country and the species described from them; an alphabetical list of the valid genera, species, and subspecies represented by primary types in the collection, including their USNM numbers; and the supraspecific classification of the Siphonaptera.


Annotated Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of Peru
Hernan Ortega and Richard P. Vari
25 pages, 1 figure, 1 table
1986 (Date of Issue: 10 October 1986)
Number 437, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.437
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Abstract

Listed here are 736 species of native and introduced fishes of 301 genera for the freshwaters of Peru. Eighty-five percent of the species inhabit the Amazonian drainages of the eastern portion of the country, 5.3% of the ichthyofauna occurs in the Lago Titicaca drainage basin of the Andean altiplano, 2.8% of the fishes are found in high-altitude Andean rivers, and only 5% of the species live in the widely separated rivers of the xeric Pacific coastal slope. Introduced species constitute 1.8% of the fauna and are largely utilized in fish culture. The number of species cited for the fresh waters of Peru has increased 31.5% since the last checklist by Fowler (1945a), and species described since that compilation represent 18.7% of the ichthyofauna.

Se presenta una lista sistemática anotada que comprende 736 especies de peces nativos e introducidos que habitan las aguas continentales del Perú. El 85% de las especies habitan la región oriental del pais que corresponde a la red de drenaje del Río Amazonas; un 5.3% ocurre en la cuenca del Lago Titicaca; el 2.8% en diferentes cuerpos de agua de los Andes y solamente el 5% de las especies viven en los ríos de la costa que conforman la extensa cuenca del Oceáno Pacífico. Las especies introducidas constituyen el 1.8% y son utilizadas principalmente en piscicultura.

Las especies descritas desde el último catálogo (Fowler, 1945a) representan el 18.7%, pero, las registradas para la ictiofauna peruana desde ese entonces alcazan el 31.5%.

La mayor parte de la información proviene de una revisión bibliográfica basada en el Zoological Record (hasta 1981) y en publicaciones periódicas (inclusive de 1985); otra considerable parte, del examen directo de material biológico colectado desde 1971 y depositado en diferentes colecciones ictiológicas, siendo las principales: AMNH, MZUSP, USM, y USNM.

La clasificación en la lista está de acuerdo a Lauder y Liem (1983) con las familias reconocidas por Greenwood et al. (1966) con las modificaciones de Lauder y Liem (1983) y Parenti (1982) para Osteoglossiformes y Cyprinodontiformes respectivamente.

En la lista las categorías superiores están ordenadas filogenéticamente, los géneros y las especies son listados alfabéticamente dentro de las familias. A continuación del género y especie se menciona el autor y año de la descripción; la cuenca de drenaje que habita en el pais; el nombre común que se conoce y la referencia bibliográfica que indica su registro para el Perú. En otros casos se refiere el Museo donde esta depositado el material biológico o si consiste en una comunicacion personal de alguno de los especialistas que actualmente se encuentra investigando diferentes grupos taxonómicos de la ictiofauna continental sudamericana.


An Annotated List of the Marine Mollusks of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Joseph Rosewater
41 pages, 24 figures, 3 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 30 May 1975)
Number 189, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.189
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Abstract

Eighty-nine marine mollusks of Ascension are identified and short synonymies, distributional information, and remarks concerning their morphology, relationships, and zoogeography are given. Comparisons are made between the molluscan faunas of St. Helena and Ascension, overall findings showing that species of both islands are derived in similar proportions from the various other world faunal areas. Species endemicity is many times greater on St. Helena than on Ascension, probably due in part to the considerably greater geological age of the former island.


Antarctic Ostracoda (Myodocopina)
Louis S. Kornicker
Part 1: vii, pp.1-371, figures, plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 8 August 1975)
Number 163 part 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Extensive benthic collections of myodocopid ostracodes made principally from the research vessels Eltanin, Anton Bruun, Hero, and Vema between Antarctica and 35°S, but including some previously reported collections, contain 35 genera, of which 10 are new, and 122 species, of which 60 were previously undescribed. Diagnostic keys are presented to assist in identification. Faunal resemblances between areas based on the Simpson Index are highest between Antarctica and South America, lowest between Antarctica and southern Africa and intermediate between Antarctica and New Zealand and Antarctica and Australia. Four biofacies are delimited: (1) Skogsbergiella-Empoulsenia biofacies, which includes shelf and bathyal depths, has outer limits roughly coinciding with the boundary of the Subantarctic region; (2) Cypridinodes biofacies, which includes shelf and upper slope depths, extends south from the Indo-West-Pacific region and includes Australia and New Zealand; (3) Rutidermatidae biofacies, which is restricted to shelf depths, extends southward into the study area along the coast of Chile; (4) Spinacopia-Metavargula-Azygocypridininae biofacies, which is restricted mainly to bathyal and abyssal depths, includes all abyssal and lower bathyal regions of the Antarctic and extends northward into other oceans. The relationship of morphology and feeding habit to distribution is investigated; some new data on reproduction are analyzed; and the microstructure of the carapace, the upper lip, and some appendages is examined with the aid of the scanning electron microscope.


Antarctic Ostracoda (Myodocopina)
Louis S. Kornicker
Part 2: v, pp.375-720 figures, plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 8 August 1975)
Number 163 part 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Extensive benthic collections of myodocopid ostracodes made principally from the research vessels Eltanin, Anton Bruun, Hero, and Vema between Antarctica and 35°S, but including some previously reported collections, contain 35 genera, of which 10 are new, and 122 species, of which 60 were previously undescribed. Diagnostic keys are presented to assist in identification. Faunal resemblances between areas based on the Simpson Index are highest between Antarctica and South America, lowest between Antarctica and southern Africa and intermediate between Antarctica and New Zealand and Antarctica and Australia. Four biofacies are delimited: (1) Skogsbergiella-Empoulsenia biofacies, which includes shelf and bathyal depths, has outer limits roughly coinciding with the boundary of the Subantarctic region; (2) Cypridinodes biofacies, which includes shelf and upper slope depths, extends south from the Indo-West-Pacific region and includes Australia and New Zealand; (3) Rutidermatidae biofacies, which is restricted to shelf depths, extends southward into the study area along the coast of Chile; (4) Spinacopia-Metavargula-Azygocypridininae biofacies, which is restricted mainly to bathyal and abyssal depths, includes all abyssal and lower bathyal regions of the Antarctic and extends northward into other oceans. The relationship of morphology and feeding habit to distribution is investigated; some new data on reproduction are analyzed; and the microstructure of the carapace, the upper lip, and some appendages is examined with the aid of the scanning electron microscope.


Anthuridean Isopod Crustaceans from the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1960-1965, in the Smithsonian Collections
Brian Kensley
37 pages, 25 figures
1980 (Date of Issue: 29 January 1980)
Number 304, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.304
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Abstract

In the family Paranthuridae, four species are recorded, with Colanthura pigmentata described as new. In the family Anthuridae, 11 genera are recorded, of which four are described as new: Alloanthura, Diaphoranthura, Exallanthura, and Heteranthura. Fifteen species are recorded, of which the following 11 are described as new: Alloanthura sculpta, Apanthura microps, Cyathura rudloei, Diaphoranthura cracens, D. hapla, Exallanthura sexpes, Haliophasma poorei, Heteranthura anomala, Malacanthura mombasa, Mesanthura protei, and Panathura macronesia.


Anuran Locomotion—Structure and Function, 2: Jumping Performance of Semiaquatic, Terrestrial, and Arboreal Frogs
September 14, 1978
September 14, 1978
1978 (Date of Issue: 14 September 1978)
Number 276, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.276
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Abstract

Frogs evolved as jumping machines. The earliest recognized anuran fossil possessed a foreshortened body and elongated hindlimbs, primary adaptations for jumping. The majority of extant frogs retain jumping as their primary mode of locomotion. Eighty species of frogs were tested to determine their absolute and relative (jumping distance divided by snout-vent length) jumping abilities. The species include representatives from the Ascaphidae, Bufonidae, Dendrobatidae, Pelodryadidae, Discoglossidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Microhylidae, Myobatrachidae, Pelobatidae, and Ranidae. Jumping performance is examined relative to taxonomic and habitat group, fatigue, body size, and sex. The ranking of jumping ability (distance jumped divided by body length) among the sampled species from weakest to strongest is Bufonidae, Pelobatidae, Discoglossidae, Microhylidae, Ranidae, Leptodactylidae, Dendrobatidae, Ascaphidae, Myobatrachidae, Hylidae, and Pelodryadidae for the families of frogs and semifossorial terrestrial, treetop arboreal, semiaquatic-terrestrial, terrestrial, scrub arboreal, and grass arboreal for the habitat groupings. Weak jumping species show little evidence of fatigue, whereas strong jumpers show a progressive decline in performance. Males tend to jump farther than equivalent-sized females, although the opposite or neutral situation occurs in a few species. Both inter- and intraspecifically, large frogs jump farther than small ones; however, a comparison of relative ability shows small frogs to be the strongest jumpers.


The Aquatic Beetle Subfamily Larainae (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies
Paul J. Spangler and Silvia Santiago-Fragoso
74 pages, 267 figures
1992 (Date of Issue: 14 August 1992)
Number 528, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.528
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Abstract

The aquatic beetle family Elmidae consists of two subfamilies, the Elminae and the Larainae. There are nine genera presently assigned to the subfamily Larainae in the Western Hemisphere; five of the laraine genera, Disersus Sharp (1882), Hexanchorus Sharp (1882), Hispaniolara Brown (1981a), Phanocerus Sharp (1882), and Pseudodisersus Brown (1981a), are known to occur in the area of this study—Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies. A new genus Pharceonus based on a previously undescribed species is described and brings the number of laraine genera from the area of study to six. Keys are provided for the following: adults of the 2 subfamilies, Elminae and Larainae; adults of the 6 laraine genera known from Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies; 13 species included in those genera; and the 5 known larvae of the subfamily from the area of study (larvae of Disersus, Hexanchorus, Hispaniolara, Phanocerus, and Pseudodisersus). All included taxa are described or redescribed; synonymies are cited; and maps showing known distribution are included for each species. Pertinent character states for recognition of the various taxa are discussed, illustrated by photographs, line drawings, or scanning electron micrographs. Habitats of adults and larvae are discussed and illustrated with photographs.

The following taxa presently are known to occur in the study area: Disersus longipennis Sharp (1882) and Disersus uncus Spangler and Santiago (1982); Hexanchorus caraibus (Coquerel, 1851), Hexanchorus gracilipes Sharp (1882), Hexanchorus crinitus, new species, Hexanchorus browni, new species, Hexanchorus usitatus, new species, and Hexanchorus emarginatus, new species; Hispaniolara farri Brown (1981a); Phanocerus clavicornis Sharp (1882), Phanocerus congener Grouvelle (1898); Pharceonus volcanus, new genus, new species; and Pseudodisersus goudotii (Guérin-Méneville, 1843). Two species, Phanocerus helmoides Darlington (1936) and Phanocerus hubbardi Schaeffer (1911), are synonymized with Phanocerus clavicornis Sharp and the subspecies Hexanchorus gracilipes orientalis Zaragoza (1982) is synonymized with Hexanchorus gracilipes.


Arboreal Beetles of Neotropical Forests: Agra Fabricius, the Novaurora Complex (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini: Agrina)
Terry L. Erwin
33 pages, 102 figures, 1 table
2000 (Date of Issue: 6 March 2000)
Number 608, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.608
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Abstract

The rufoaenea and quararibea groups (section Rufoaenea); the famula, formicaria, and phaenicodera groups (section Erythropus); and the capitata, cyanea, dimidiata, neblina, novaurora, and poguei groups constituted the study group for this paper because they share cribriform elytral interneurs, an easily recognizable attribute for selecting specimens for study. They are referred to as the “Novaurora complex.” The pusilla group, which shares interneur structural features with the Novaurora complex but little else, also was included in the key to groups. All of the above are treated in the key and are tersely described at the group level. The following groups are herein revised.

The novaurora group is a northern Amazon-Orinoco lineage comprising five species with a composite range extending from Ecuador to French Guiana and south into Brazil. Four specific taxa of the novaurora group are described as new (type locality in parentheses): alinahui (Ecuador: Napo Province, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°00′S, 077°25′W), orinocensis (Venezuela: Caño Marcareo, Orinoco Delta), novaurora (Ecuador: Napo province, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°00′S, 077°25′W), superba (Venezuela: T.F. Amazonas, confluence of Rio Negro and Rio Baria, 00°55′N, 066°10′W).

The dimidiata group, predominantly northern Neotropical, comprises 16 species with a composite range extending from Mexico to northern Peru, and east to easternmost Venezuela. Thirteen specific taxa of the dimidiata group are described as new: bci (Panama: Barro Colorado Id., 09°10′N, 079°50′W), duckworthorum (Panama: Barro Colorado Id., 09°10′N, 079°50′W), eponine (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Quepos, Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio, 09°24′N, 084°09′W), falcon (Venezuela: Falcón, Sanare, Finca Tillerias, 09°39′N, 069°45′W), hespenheide (Costa Rica: Heredia, La Selva, 10°26′N, 084°01′W), hovorei (Mexico: Vera Cruz, Estacion Biologica Los Tuxtlas, 18°27′S, 095°13′W), inbio (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Mata de Limón, 09°55′54″N, 084°42′42″W), maracay (Venezuela: Maracay, 10°15′N, 067°36′W), paratax (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Estacion Biologica Carara, E Quebrada Bonita, 09°46′25″N, 084°36′24″W), pichincha (Ecuador: Pichincha, Santo Domingo, Tinalandia, 00°18′S, 079°04′W), samiria (Peru: Loreto, Cocha Shinguito, 05°08′S, 074°45′W), tuxtlas (Mexico: Veracruz, Estacion Biologica Los Tuxtlas, near 18°27′S, 095°13′W), zapotal (Guatemala: Alta Verapaz, San Cristobal Verapaz, Quixal, 15°23′N, 090°24′W).

The quararibea group is a southern and western Amazon-Pantanal lineage comprising five species with a composite range extending from the upper Xingu drainage of Brazil west into Peru and Ecuador. Four specific taxa of the quararibea group are described as new: magnifica (Peru: Madre de Dios, “Avispas” (Avispal), 12°59′S, 071°34′W), othello (Ecuador: Napo, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°04′S, 077°25′W), smurf (Brazil: Amazonas, Taperinha, Santarem, 02°32′S, 054°17′W), suprema (Brazil: Mato Grosso, Rosario Oeste, 14°50′S, 056°25′W).

Distributions are dot-mapped and are discussed in general for each of the species in these three groups. Geographical ranges are given for all the groups of the Novaurora complex herein discussed.


Arizona Hydrobiidae (Prosobranchia: Rissocea)
Robert Hershler and J. Jerry Landye
63 pages, 49 figures, 6 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 13 April 1988)
Number 459, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.459
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A diverse fauna of Arizona Hydrobiidae is documented as a result of recent collecting from numerous springs in the state. The fauna is composed of 14 species in two genera, Pyrgulopsis Call and Pilsbry and Tryonia Stimpson. Thirteen species are described as new herein and the fourteenth represents a new state record. All have relatively restricted distributions, and two are single-spring endemics. All congeners are allopatric to one another.

Stepwise canonical discriminant function analyses using sets of shell and anatomical data confirmed the distinctiveness of the 12 species of Arizona Pyrgulopsis, as classification of (grouped) topotypes was 89%-93% using shell data, and 100% using anatomical data. Discriminant analyses also confirmed that differentiation among congeners largely involves male anatomy (especially penial features), as this data set yielded the best separation of species in plots of discriminant function scores.


Displaying 11 - 20 from the 644 total records