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Displaying 21 - 30 from the 644 total records
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Ataenius, Aphotaenius, and Pseudataenius of the United States and Canada (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)
Oscar L. Cartwright
106 pages, 24 figures, 3 plates
1974 (Date of Issue: 15 May 1974)
Number 154, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.154
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

All known species are fully described; literature citations, synonyms, and a key to the species are provided; and known distribution is recorded and shown by map figures. All species previously ascribed to the area are listed, and the present status of each is presented. Twenty new species are added to the fauna.

Ataenius waltherhorni Balthasar is transferred to the genus Pseudataenius. The following are placed in synonymy: A fleutiaui Paulian (=havanensis Balthasar), A. cribratus Van Dyke (=confertus Fall), A. linelli Cartwright (=languidus Schmidt), A. oblongus Horn (=sculptor Harold), A. sulcatula (Chevrolat) and A. frankenbergeri Balthasar (=brevicollis (Wollaston)), A. floridanus Brown and A. solitarius Blatchley (=rhyticephalus (Chevrolat)).

Lectotypes are designated for Pseudataenius socialis (Horn), Ataenius insculptus Horn, A. ovatulus Horn, A. cylindrus Horn, A. aequalis Harold, A. sulcatulus (Chevrolat), and A. cognatus (LeConte). Neotypes are established for A. confertus Fall, A. nocturnus (Nomura), A. texanus Harold, and A. strigatus (Say).

New taxa are Pseudataenius contortus (Florida), Ataenius edistoi (South Carolina), A. parkeri (Arizona), A. rugopygus (Texas), A. duncani (Arizona), A. superficialis (Florida), A. pseudohirsutus (Texas), A. sabinoi (Arizona), A. vandykei (California), A. barberi (Arizona), A. nunenmacheri (Arizona), A. stroheckeri (Florida), A. glaseri (Maryland), A. punctifrons (Minnesota), A. utahensis (Utah), A. hesperius (Arizona), A. sciurus (Florida), A. woodruffi (Florida), A. griffini (Texas), and A. stephani (Arizona).


Atlantic Deep-Sea Calanoid Copepoda
Ellsworth H. Wheeler, Jr.
31 pages, 109 figures, 4 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 18 August 1970)
Number 55, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.55
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Calanoid Copepoda from 2,000 m to 4,000 m were collected with closing nets on R.V. Trident cruises 023 and 036 in the North and South Atlantic. Both the Nansen vertical net and the large Clarke-Bumpus net are liable to contamination from surface-living species. Of 1,556 calanoid copepods examined, 310 were considered contaminants, 243 were adults, and 1,003 were juveniles.

Abundance of calanoid adults (excluding contaminants) was varied but always less than 29 adults/100 m3. These results are consistent with other investigations. The ratio of numbers of species to numbers of individuals increases with decreasing latitude when data from other Atlantic collections are included. Existing hypotheses explaining latitudinal gradients in diversity do not apparently apply to the 2,000-4,000 m interval. Diversity in the deep sea is probably echoing that of upper levels. The species assemblage is cosmopolitan, with many species occurring in all oceans.

The total length of adult calanoid copepods averaged 2.14 mm, a value consistent with size ranges found in samples from other oceans.

Sixty percent of the species were represented by females only. Three species, known only from below 2,000 m, were represented by males and females in the same tows. The presence of spermatophore sacs on some females and the large number of juvenile stages indicate some reproduction is occurring at depth.

Available alternatives for the nutrition of deep-sea Copepoda are other zooplankton, organic aggregates, autochthonous unicellular organisms, organic matter transported downward, and detritus.

Four new species are described: Mimocalanus sulcifrons, Paivella naporai, Undinella gricei, and Zenkevitchiella tridentae, with systematic remarks for eight others, including two species (Aetideopsis retusa and Scolecthricella timida) not previously known from the Atlantic Ocean.


The Atlantic Gall Crabs, Family Cryptochiridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)
Roy K. Kropp and Raymond B. Manning
21 pages, 10 figures, 1 table
1987 (Date of Issue: 8 December 1987)
Number 462, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.462
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The Atlantic cryptochirids comprise four species in four different genera. One new species and three new genera are named. Troglocarcinus corallicola Verrill, 1908, shows an amphi-Atlantic distribution and is a generalist insofar as coral host is concerned. Pseudocryptochirus hypostegus Shaw and Hopkins, 1977, is assigned to a new genus, Opecarcinus, the only genus known in the Atlantic that also is represented in the Pacific. It ranges from the western Atlantic to Ascension Island and lives on agariciid and siderastreid corals. Troglocarcinus balssi Monod, 1956, is assigned to a new genus, Detocarcinus. It is restricted to the eastern Atlantic and lives on rhizangiid, oculinid, caryophyllid, and dendrophyllid corals. A new genus and species, Cecidocarcinus brychius, is named for specimens taken on dendrophyllid corals from the Valdivia Ridge, southeastern Atlantic, in 512 meters; it is the deepest occurring cryptochirid.


The Atya-like Shrimps of the Indo-Pacific Region (Decapoda: Atyidae)
Fenner A. Chace, Jr.
54 pages, 24 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 13 October 1983)
Number 384, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.384
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The shrimps recognized in this study comprise six freshwater species that have often been referred, untenably and sometimes in synonymy, to the genus Atya. Three of the species are here assigned to the reestablished genus Atyoida: A. bisulcata, confined to Hawaii; A. pilipes, ranging eastward from eastern Indonesia and the Philippines to the Marquesas and Gambier islands; and A. serrata, possibly limited to Madagascar and smaller islands in the tropical western Indian Ocean. Two closely related forms compose the new genus Atyopsis: A. moluccensis, ranging through Thailand and Malaya to Indonesia and perhaps westward to Sri Lanka and northeastward to the Philippines; and A. spinipes, apparently inhabiting the eastern Lesser Sunda Islands and extending northward through the Philippines to Okinawa and eastward as far as Samoa. Atya striolata, occupying streams along the east coast of Australia, is assigned to the new genus Australatya. Keys are provided to the genera and species and, for each of the latter, there are a complete synonymy, review of the literature, references to published illustrations, a diagnosis, color notes if available, size limits, the known range and material examined, variations observed, ecological information, life-history notes if any, common names, and economic importance. Special attention is paid to the heteromorphism of the chelipeds in Atyoida, especially as displayed by a series of several hundred specimens of A. pilipes from Palau, Caroline Islands.


The Avifauna of Northern Latin America: A Symposium Held at the Smithsonian Institution 13-15 April 1966
Helmut K. Buechner and Jimmie H. Buechner, editors
119 pages, 4 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 3 April 1970)
Number 26, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.26
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Abstract

This conference was conceived by William Vogt, who is well known for his early concern with the ecological consequences of the human population explosion, as expressed in his book Road to Survival (New York: William Sloane Associates, 1948). Over three decades of field observation in Latin America have provided him with a view of environmental changes, particularly the destruction of forest vegetation, that few other scholars have experienced. The conference was convened to determine, through an exchange of information, whether the drastic modification and elimination of the wintering habitat of many breeding birds of North America may be responsible for depressed levels of populations.

The assemblage of most of the outstanding scholars of bird life in Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela at the Smithsonian Institution resulted in a remarkable accumulation of information and exchange of ideas. Fourteen individual papers were presented, each of which was followed by discussion. Further discussion took place in a plenary session after the papers on the individual countries. In lieu of resolutions the conferees agreed on a series of suggestions which are presented in these proceedings.

The conference was organized by the Smithsonian Office of Ecology, and made possible by a generous grant from the Conservation Foundation.

We would like to express our gratitude to Paul Slud, Associate Curator, Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, for verifying the spelling of scientific names and for his considerable assistance with the final editing.

The Editors


The Avifauna of the Cayerias of Southern Cuba, with the Ornithological Results of the Paul Bartsch Expedition of 1930
Donald W. Buden and Storrs L. Olson
34 pages, 3 figures, 7 tables
1989 (Date of Issue: 20 November 1989)
Number 477, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.477
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Abstract

The systematics and distribution of the avifauna of the numerous small islands scattered along the southern coast of Cuba are analyzed and discussed using a previously unstudied collection made by Paul Bartsch in 1930 and reports in the literature. Estimates of eustatic sea-level change indicate that this avifauna is no older than mid- to late Pleistocene, as the islands were doubtless submerged during earlier Pleistocene sea-level maxima. The cays were colonized from Cuba over water gaps at different times since their last emergence and over broad land connections probably during the Wisconsinan glacial age to as recently as ∼8000 years ago.

The avifauna is a depauperate sample of that of the Cuban mainland, comprising 28 species of resident land birds. Twenty-three (82%) of these are widely distributed elsewhere in the Antillean-Bahaman region. Only 3 (11%) of the 28 species are confined to the Cuban region: Xiphidiopicus percussus, Vireo gundlachii, Teretistris fernandinae. For the small scrub and mangrove covered islands in the Golfo de Guacanayabo, 8 of the 9 resident species (89%) are widespread. The occurrence of 25 species of land birds on Cayo Cantiles (the largest number on any island of the southern cayerias), in contrast to only 17 on the larger island of Cayo Largo, reflects the importance of habitat diversity over island area in determining species richness. Both islands have reasonably well-known avifaunas.

No species is endemic to the cayerias, but five have differentiated at the subspecific level within the islands: the woodpeckers Melanerpes superciliaris and Xiphidiopicus percussus, the flycatcher Contopus caribaeus, the vireo Vireo gundlachii, and the blackbird Agelaius humeralis. Populations of two other species, the thrush Turdus plumbeus and the grackle Quiscalus niger, appear to represent relict forms that have been largely replaced by other subspecies on mainland Cuba. Several puzzling patterns of distribution include the presence of Agelaius humeralis on Cayo Cantiles and in the Jardines de la Reina and its absence on the much larger Isle of Pines; the absence of the dove Columbina passerina from the Jardines de la Reina; and the absence of the flycatcher Tyrannus caudifasciatus from Los Canarreos.


Bathyal and Abyssal Myodocopid Ostracoda of the Bay of Biscay and Vicinity
Louis S. Kornicker
134 pages, 73 figures, 8 tables
1989 (Date of Issue: 3 August 1989)
Number 467, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.467
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Twenty one species (16 new) in 12 genera (2 new) in 3 families of myodocopid Ostracoda collected mostly at bathyal and abyssal depths in the Bay of Biscay and the eastern end of the West European Basin during 13 cruises (1969-1983) by personnel of the Centre National de Tri d'Océanographie Biologique (CENTOB), France, are described and illustrated. Seventeen species are reported from abyssal depths (below 2000 m), and 13 species are reported from bathyal depths (200-2000 m). All benthic species collected below 3480 m were blind, which is close to the depth of 3775 m previously reported for species in southern oceans (Kornicker, 1975a:48). Specimens collected extend northward the known ranges of the genera: Hadacypridina Paulson, 1962, Metavargula Kornicker, 1970, and Paradoloria Hanai, 1974.

Three species not included in the study area are presented in the text for purposes of comparison.


The Bee Family Oxaeidae with a Revision of the North American Species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)
Paul D. Hurd, Jr., and E. Gorton Linsley
75 pages, 68 figures, 3 plates, 3 maps, 2 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 25 June 1976)
Number 220, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.220
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Abstract

This study is a comparative treatment of the natural history of the family Oxaeidae. Information is presented on the biology, behavior, intrafloral ecology, and systematics of these bees together with a historical review of their classification and phylogeny. Included are diagnoses of the family and genera with a revision of the North American species. Characters useful for identification of the species are illustrated and complete distributional, biological, and synonymical data are provided and discussed. New taxa are Mesoxaea (type-species: Oxaea nigerrima Friese), Notoxaea (type-species: Oxaea ferruginea Friese) and Protoxaea australis, P. micheneri, Mesoxaea clypeata, and M. rufescens.


Behavior and Ecology of the Asiatic Elephant in Southeastern Ceylon
George M. McKay
113 pages, 63 figures, 23 tables
1973 (Date of Issue: 23 April 1973)
Number 125, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.125
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Abstract

This paper reports on a three-year study of the behavior and ecology of the Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus maximus L.) in the Gal Oya and Ruhunu National Park areas of Ceylon. The study area in eastern Ceylon is in a zone which shows a gradation in climate from moist to arid. This gradient is correlated with gradients in the distribution of plant species and of vegetation types.

Two populations were studied in detail. The first, in the area around the Gal Oya National Park, contained an estimated 260-300 elephants. A second population, in the area around Lahugala Tank, was estimated to contain about 150 individuals. An analysis of population structure is reported and the behavior patterns involved in locomotion, resting, feeding, drinking and bathing, rubbing, elimination, and thermoregulatory flapping of the ears are described. Movement rates while feeding were measured and mechanisms of visual communication are described, including two threat displays, nine vocalizations, and several nonvocal means of auditory communication.

Composition and structure of herd organization, seasonal movements, and variation in home ranges are discussed. Movement patterns of solitary adult and subadult males in relation to food availability and dominance roles are also considered.

Elephants make use of the full variety of vegetation types available to them. Food plants of 88 species were identified, the majority being trees and shrubs. Several important food plants were analyzed for caloric density, and chemical analyses of 8 species showed higher percentages of protein for shrubs as opposed to grasses.

Recommendations for management of the elephant within the park and the establishment of a buffer zone between the park and areas of intensive cultivation are made.


The Behavior of Ocellated Antbirds
Edwin O. Willis
57 pages, 25 figures, 9 tables
1973 (Date of Issue: 7 May 1973)
Number 144, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.144
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A ten-year study of color-banded Ocellated Antbirds (Phaenostictus mcleannani) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, showed that they persistently follow army ants for arthropods flushed by the ants. Dominant over the smaller antbirds that follow ants, they take the best zone low over the center of an ant swarm and drop to the ground for prey. They rest and preen for long periods of maintenance behavior each day, probably because as dominant birds they get food easily. Alarm behavior is similar to that of other antbirds. Agonistic behavior contrasts with other antbirds in having a silent challenging display and an unusually wide spectrum of submissive calls and postures. Courtship is mainly courtship feeding and singing; monogamous mates stay together for years.

The nest is probably sunk in the ground between tree buttresses. Males incubate in the morning and late afternoon, females in the early afternoon and at night. Males and females feed nestlings and fledglings. Pairs renest repeatedly during the rainy season, April to December, but nest predation is high. Young are feeding themselves a month after appearing at swarms with their parents, but then irregularly stay with their parents up to several months (females) or years (males). Loose patrilineal clans form, in which gene transfer between clans is mainly by movement of young females. Daughters-in-law are tolerated. Clan members sometimes forage together, but use much submissive display. They close ranks or “bunch” in disputes with other pairs or clans. The social system is somewhat like that of chimpanzee groups and perhaps like that of early man—two other dominant animals dependent on local and varying sources of food.

The clan system permits complete overlap of home ranges of pairs. The parental pair in an area tends to dominate trespassing pairs and their own offspring. This social system permits great local concentration over good ant swarms. It is facilitated by tolerance for related birds, silent (and thus less disturbing) challenging, and by a wide variety of submissive displays. The Ocellated Antbirds on Barro Colorado concentrated at ant swarms on escarpment zones near the center of the island. Even with these concentrations, however, the species declined to near extirpation between 1960 and 1971.


Displaying 21 - 30 from the 644 total records