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Displaying 1 - 10 from the 644 total records
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Notes on Some Stomatopod Crustacea from Southern Africa
Raymond B. Manning
17 pages, 4 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 1 January 1969)
Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.1
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Abstract

A small collection of stomatopods taken during the course of an ecological survey by the University of Capetown has provided the author the opportunity of redescribing the rare Lysiosquilla capensis Hansen, a species restricted to southern African waters. Analysis of the large series of Pterygosquilla armata (H. Milne-Edwards), which also has populations off South America and New Zealand, supports an earlier suggestion that the three populations are subspecifically distinct. The collection also includes several new records for southern African waters.


Species of Spalangia Latreille in the United States National Museum Collection (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
B. D. Burks
7 pages, 3 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.2
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Abstract

A reappraisal of species of Spalangia in the USNM collection. The types of nine species described by Ashmead, Girault, Richardson, and Howard are all redescribed, their present condition given, and lectotypes designated, if necessary. Spalangia brasiliensis Ashmead is synonymized under chontalensis Cameron; muscidarum var. texensis Girault is synonymized under cameroni Fullaway. Spalangia attae, from the nest of an Atta ant in El Salvador, and dozieri, parasite of the sarcophagid fly Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend in Puerto Rico, are described as new.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Bethyloidea (Hymenoptera)
Howard E. Evans
14 pages, 16 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.3
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Abstract

Two families of Bethyloidea are known to occur on Dominica: Bethylidae and Dryinidae. The family Bethylidae is represented by 19 species, of which 13 are here described as new. The two genera most commonly collected and containing the largest number of species are Parasierola and Goniozus; each genus contains 5 species on Dominica, and keys are presented for separating these species. The remaining genera are Apenesia and Dissomphalus (3 species each) and Pseudisobrachium, Anisepyris, and Holepyris (1 species each). Of the 19 species, only 6 are known to occur on other islands, one of these also on continental South America. The family Dryinidae is represented by one species of Mesodryinus and one species of Prodryinus, both described as new and both so far as known restricted to Dominica.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: West Indian Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)
W. Donald Duckworth
21 pages, 30 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.4
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Abstract

All the species of the microlepidopterous family Stenomidae known to occur in the West Indies are reviewed regarding their taxonomic history, zoogeography, identity, and morphology. Two new species are described, Chlamydastis dominicae and Mothonica cubana, one of which C. dominicae, is the first representative of the genus Chlamydastis recorded from the West Indies. Keys to the species based on structures of the male and female genitalia and characters of the wing maculation are provided. Distribution maps, photographs of the adults, drawings of the male and female genitalia, and all known biological information are included.


A Monograph of the Cephalopoda of the North Atlantic: The Family Cycloteuthidae
Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper
24 pages, 3 figures, 9 plates, 3 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 9 June 1969)
Number 5, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.5
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Abstract

A new family of oegopsid cephalopods, Cycloteuthidae, is erected as a result of the elevation of Naef's subfamily Cycloteuthinae. Cycloteuthis sirventi Joubin, 1919, is redescribed based on new material from the Atlantic Ocean. A new genus, Discoteuthis, and two new species, D. discus and D. laciniosa, are described from the Atlantic Ocean. Larvae of C. sirventi and D. laciniosa are described. The distributions of the species of cycloteuthids in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans are presented. The relationships of the family, genera, and species are discussed.


A Revision of Six Species of the Flavus-Bidentatus Group of Eunice (Eunicidae: Polychaeta)
Kristian Fauchald
15 pages, 6 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 6, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.6
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Abstract

The species here revised have yellow, bidentate subacicular hooks and branchiae limited to a short anterior region. They include E. biannulata Moore (1904), E. kobiensis McIntosh (1885, holotype examined), E. segregata (Chamberlin, 1919a, restricted), E. semisegregata, new species, E. valens (Chamberlin, 1919b, types examined), and E. websteri, new name for E. longicirrata Webster (1884, holotype examined). The relationship between the six species is discussed.


Recent Ostracodes of the Family Pontocyprididae Chiefly from the Indian Ocean
Rosalie F. Maddocks
56 pages, 35 figures, 5 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1969)
Number 7, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.7
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Abstract

Recent ostracodes of the marine family Pontocyprididae may be identified as easily by the carapace as by appendage characteristics, especially by the five discrete central muscle scars. The five genera and three subgenera are each distinguished by a diagnostic arrangement of the muscle scars, as well as by carapace shape and characters of the appendages and genitalia.

From collections of the International Indian Ocean Expedition, from other collections at the Smithsonian Institution, and from the type “Challenger” material of Brady (1880), 48 species and 2 subspecies (12 new, 8 pre-existing, 30 in open nomenclature) are described here and assigned to four genera. Two new subgenera, Ekpontocypris and Schedopontocypris, are established within the genus Propontocypris.

The following species and subspecies are new: Propontocypris (Propontocypris) crocata, P. (P.) quasicrocata, P. (P.) paradispar, P. (P.?) lobodonta, Propontocypris (Ekpontocypris) litoricola, P. (E.) l. litoricola, P. (E.) l. admirantensis, P. (E.) mcmurdoensis, P. (E.?) epicyrta, Propontocypris (Schedopontocypris) bengalensis, Australoecia mckenziei, A. abyssophilia.


Morphology, Ontogeny, and Intraspecific Variation of Spinacopia, a New Genus of Myodocopid Ostracod (Sarsiellidae)
Louis S. Kornicker
50 pages, 26 figures, 6 plates, 7 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 22 August 1969)
Number 8, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.8
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Abstract

Morphology, biology, and variability of a new genus with four new species are described from collections of deep-sea ostracods obtained by the Lamont Geological Observatory and Woods Hole Biological Laboratory in the Atlantic, Antarctic, and Indian Oceans. Adult females far outnumber males in collections, but juvenile males and females are present in equal numbers indicating that adult males are short lived. Microtome sections of male and female genitalia document that the male transfers sperm to the female in ovoid spermatophores which are attached externally. Examination of stomachs shows that members of the new genus are carnivores—feeding on copepods, ostracods, and nematodes. Apparently adult males do not eat. A key is presented for identification of early instar stages by means of examination of sixth and seventh limbs.


An Analysis of Nesting Mortality in Birds
Robert E. Ricklefs
48 pages, 11 figures, 26 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 12 December 1969)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.9
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Abstract

This study was initiated to evaluate nesting mortality of birds as a feature of the environment and as a selective force in the evolution of reproductive strategies. Representative nesting-success data from the literature for most groups of birds were transformed into daily mortality rates to eliminate differences among species in the length of the nest cycle. These data are presented by taxonomic groupings and for passerines by geographical region and nest construction and placement.

The strength and pattern of various mortality factors are described in detail. Predation, starvation, desertion, hatching failure, and adverse weather are the most prevalent factors, but nestsite competition, brood parasitism, and arthropod infestation may be important in some species. It is demonstrated that the various mortality factors can be identified by characteristic patterns of nesting losses involving differences in mortality rates between the egg and nestling periods and the within-nest component of mortality rates.

Among Temperate Zone passerines, field-nesting and marsh-nesting species have the highest mortality rates while those species nesting in trees, especially in cavities, enjoy higher success. Starvation is prevalent in marsh and field species but desertion is more restricted to tree-nesting species. In general, arctic species have lower mortality rates and tropical species higher rates, although there is a similar gradient from arid to humid regions within the tropics. The relative abundance of a species is related directly to its mortality rate in arctic regions, but is not in temperate and tropical regions.

Birds of prey generally have low mortality rates although starvation is often a major factor. Nesting losses in seabirds are caused primarily by crowded conditions in colonies and loss of eggs due to inadequate nest construction. Chick deaths come about primarily through their wandering away from parental care which is most common in the semiprecocial Charadriiformes. Precocial shorebirds and water birds enjoy higher egg success than ground-nesting passerines but game birds exhibit similar mortality rates. Little is known of the survival of precocial chicks after hatching except that mortality rates may be initially quite high and decrease with age. The fate of altricial birds after fledging is also poorly documented.

It is postulated that interspecific differences in mortality rates are determined by evolutionarily acceptable levels of adult risk to lower mortality rates of offspring through parental care, adult adaptations of morphology and behavior for foraging which result in limitations on nesting adaptations, environmental unpredictability which reduces the effectiveness of adaptations, and—most import—the diversity of predators to which a species must adapt.


Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with Comments on Faunal Change and Sampling
Charles W. Myers and A. Stanley Rand
11 pages, 2 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.10
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Abstract

One hundred species of amphibians (32) and reptiles (68) are estimated to occur on Barro Colorado Island, on the basis of approximately 47 years of collecting. The island is a seasonally wet, tropical forest locality in man-made Gatun Lake, central Panama. The faunal composition has not been static since the island's formation in 1912-1914. Some species have disappeared from the island whereas some others seem to be recent arrivals. Faunal change is at least partly correlated with vegetational succession, as old clearings change toward mature forest. The extirpation of certain “edge” species and their failure to have recolonized the laboratory clearing indicates that it is easier for a resident population to become extinct than for new colonization to occur. The sampling of such a complex, tropical herpetofauna is shown to be not so difficult as might be expected. Man-hours of collecting are plotted against percent of the herpetofauna for several collections, indicating that nearly one-half of the species can be collected in a few weeks of intensive effort in the rainy season. Approximately 80 percent of the species recorded from the island had been collected by 1931, after only about a decade of sporadic, unsystematic collecting by various persons. The generalization that tropical species have lower population densities than temperate species may not be valid for such groups as frogs and lizards but does seem true of snake faunas in low, humid forest regions. Snakes also are more difficult to collect in the tropics because of shifts in habits. There is a great expansion of tropical snakes into arboreal situations and a general avoidance (by all vertebrates) of rock and log microhabitats, which are frequently occupied by large arachnids. Small terrestrial snakes of lowland tropical forests tend either to be fossorial or to inhabit the leaf litter, where they are difficult to detect. Seasonal aggregations of snakes are rare in the wet tropics.


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