PLATE 17.
Vol. 11.
DROPFRONT ROCKAWAY. in. scale.
Designed expressly for the New York Coachmaker's Magazine.
Explained on page 73.
PLATE 18.
Vol. 11.
PLATE 19.
Vol. 11.
TROTTING COALBOX BUGGY.J in. scale.
Designed expressly for the New York Coachmakers Magazine.
Explained on page 73.
COALBOX, WITH T 0 P . — \ in. scale.
Designed expressly for the New York Coachmaker's Magazine.
Explained on page *74.
PLATE 20.
Vol. 11.
ORIGINAL MONOGRAM. — M. B. & CO
Explained on page 75.
CANOE COALBOX, WITH TOP. — \ in. scale
Designed expressly for the New York Coachmaker's Magazine
Explained on page '74.
DEVOTED TO THE LITERARY, SOCIAL, AND MECHANICAL INTERESTS OF THE CRAFT.
Vol. XI.
1NTEW YOEK, OCTOBER, 1869.
No. 5.
^iterator*.
THE ADVENTURES OF THREE JOURS.
BY H. S. WILLIAMS.
Chapter V.
The good steamer St. Nicholas was advertised to leave
for Montgomery and all intermediate landings on Satur
day, the 5th day of May, and our friends decided, as they
had finished off all of Mr. Hardy's work, to take passage
thereon. Perhaps a hint thrown out by Miss Linden a
few evenings before had something to do with that deci
sion, on the part of Gloner, at least; but of that here
after.
" Business of all kinds will be dull now until fall trade
begins, which will be about the first of September, when
the new cotton crop commences coming in," said Mr.
Hardy, when he settled up with them. " If you come
back this way at that time—and I think you will, for I
don't see how a person of intelligence, who has lived in
Mobile once, can go away for good—and if you do return,
give me a call, and if you want for anything to do, I'll see
if I can't accommodate you. I am well pleased with your
work, and the same jobs, if sent to one of the repairing
shops here, would have cost me twentyfive per cent,
more, and not been half done at that. When you come
round to bid us goodby, I'll give you a letter to a Mont
gomery friend of mine—it might do you some good—at
all events it will do no harm."
On the 1st day of May our friends attended a May
day festival, when, in the expressive language of Loring,
" they had a high old time." And then the intervening
time was passed in calling on their lady friends, and in
wandering about the city, which now, off of the business
streets and outside of the quarter devoted to cotton ware
houses, was one dense wilderness of roses. And then one
day was passed across the bay, on the eastern shore, where
they found the most delightful bathing, the finest fishing
and hunting, as well as the best tables they had ever seen.
But, alas! all pleasures have an end, and the 5th of May
arrived.
Mr. Hardy was called on, the letter of introduction
was received, and then they went aboard the St. Nicholas,
Vol. xi.—9
and, lighting their cigars, they took seats on the deck
where they could have a free view of the busy scene be
fore them. In the year 1857, nearly all the planters in
the interior of Alabama, and a good part of Mississippi,
too, obtained their supplies from Mobile, consequently
the scene was a busy one. Great hogsheads of bacon,
barrels of mess pork and flour, tierces of rice, and all
kinds of groceries were hauled on the wharf by the dray
load, and then rolled on the steamer by a score or two of
stalwart deck hands. Then, as the hour for departure
drew near, coach after coach drove up and deposited loads
of passengers. One in particular attracted Loring's at
tention, and when the occupants alighted, he slapped his
companion, and exclaimed, " Ah, ha! my boy, Miss Lin
den and her father ; I see now why you were so anxious to
come on this boat. You knew Miss Lucy was to be one
of the passengers."
*A smile played on the face of Gloner as he replied,
" I certainly did, and of course when one can have pleasant
company, one is unwise not to profit by it."
A nod and sweet smile of recognition was bestowed on
both as she passed by and disappeared in the lady's cabin,
after which they saw her no more until next day; then
they met and passed several hours together, viewing the
evervarying scenery along the romantic banks of the Ala
bama, and when night came, through her our friends be
came acquainted with nearly all the lady passengers on
board.
Now, we know that the professed novel reader will
censure us for our lack of skill in depicting and introduc
ing startling adventures, for we well know that we ought
to have the steamer blown up, or get snagged, just for the
express purpose of having Gloner rescue Miss Linden and
her sire from a "watery grave," while Loring swims
ashore with all the rest of the lady passengers, but we
plead guilty to a most deplorable aversion to " hairbreath
escapes," as well as to a sacred regard for truth, and as
the wreck of the St. Nicholas is to this day visible in the
Bigbee River, where she sunk in 1867, surely the lovers of
the marvelous will see the utter impossibility of causing
her to " go up " ten years prior on the Alabama. There
fore, we only have to record the fact, that our friends,
after a most agreeable and pleasant trip of three days and
some odd hours, landed safely at Montgomery, and put up
at the Exchange Hotel.
The next morning, as Mr. Linden's carriage had ar
66
THE NEW YORK COACHMAKER'S MAGAZINE.
October,
rived, he and his daughter left for their plantation some
ten miles distant.
" If you remain in the city, I should be pleased to have
you both call out and see us," said Mr. Linden, as he
shook them warmly by the hand at parting; "I will try
and make your visit agreeable and pleasant, in which I
know I will be assisted by Lucy."
" Thank you for your kindness," said Gloner, " and if
we do remain here, we shall certainly profit by it, and
more particularly," he added in an under tone, " if it
would be agreeable to Miss Linden."
A smile from her answered him most fully.
Now for work, said Gloner, as the carriage disap
peared at the next corner; " we must make hay while the
sun shines, so let us look up the carriage factories here,
and see what can be done. Let me see, where is Hardy's
letter. Ah, yes, here it is ! By Jove! ' Lamer & Foun
tain, proprietors of Exchange Stables and Montgomery
Carriage Factory.' So they build carriages and wear
them out too, hey ? Come on, and let's see what they
can do for us."
They soon found the Exchange Stables, and inquiring
for Mr. Lamer, they found that worthy seated in the office
with his boots elevated on a table, while he smoked a
cigar and read the morning's paper.
" You will find Fountain in the shop," he said, as he
glanced over the letter; " take this to him. Shop fronts
the next street, and you will reach it by passing through
the stable," and he resumed his cigar and paper.
On reaching the shop, all hands apparently were
gathered at the front door, where quite a crowd of persons
had collected. A single glance told our friends that there
had been a runaway, and the crowd were examining the
wreck and listening to the driver, who was a little hurt
and a good deal scared, tell about "how de t'ing haD
pened." b r
"A bad smash up," said a gentleman in his shirt
sleeves, as he reentered the shop; " a bad smash up__
would not have had it happen for one hundred dollars__
the only fine Clarence coach we've got, and no one that
can repair it the same as it was."
"Is this Mr. Fountain?" asked Gloner, as he ad
vanced towards him.
"Yes, sir ; that's my name, sir."
" I have just arrived from Mobile, and have a letter
from a friend of yours there, Mr. Hardy."
"Ah, indeed, from Hardy, eh? Well, what does he
have to say?" and taking the letter, he read it eagerly.
" Well, Hardy says here that one of you is a first5 rate
bodymaker, and the other a very fine painter. Are you
the bodymaker?"
"Yes, sir, and my friend here, Mr. Loring, is the
painter."
" Well, I do not know but what you are lucky in ar
riving here just now," said Mr. Fountain; " go out and
look at that coach, and tell me what you'll do the repairs
on it for."
It did not take Gloner long to decide, for the carriage,
as is generally the case with a runaway, looked a good
deal more damaged than it really was. Two of the lower
quarter panels were split, the glass door frames were both
broken, one wheel injured, and all the carving on one side
more or less defaced.
" Well," said Gloner, when he returned," I will do all
the woodwork for twentyfive dollars, and make it look as
good as new."
" Well, but how about the carving ? Did you notice
that some of that was broken ? "
" Yes, I noticed it all, and will carve it just the same
as it was before the accident occurred."
" Well, if you can do that, I'll give you twentyfive
dollars willingly. And can your friend there paint it so
as to correspond with the balance ?"
" Certainly," said Loring ; " I can paint it for, let me
see, say ten dollars, and not one in a hundred would ever
know it had been damaged."
" Well, you can go right to work on it then, Mr.
Gloner. And as for your friend here, I'll give him some
thing to do in the paint shop until you are ready for
him."
" Very well, sir. Have your smith take off the body
and bring it before the bench I am to occupy, and after
dinner we'll be on hand."
On leaving the shop they happened to pass the post
office, when Gloner proposed stopping, as a letter might
be there from Margrave. And, sure enough, he did re
ceive one, wherein that worthy stated that he had written
to Mobile, and receiving no answer, had concluded to write
one to Montgomery. It was dated the last of April, and
further informed them that he expected to leave the
place he was then stopping at, and try to get to a civil
ized county, when they might expect to hear from him
again.
" Poor Margrave," said Gloner; " I fear he has not
had as easy, nor as pleasant times as we have. And I
presume he is about broke, too. Wish I knew where some
money wouldreach him, for a ten dollar gold piece would
be very acceptable just now, I warrant you. Well, I
hope he'll write soon, at all events."
After selecting a pleasantlooking boardinghouse in
that most beautiful part of the town known as Capitol
Hill, and moving their trunks thereto, they partook of a
good dinner,—although rather late, as it was two o'clock
when the bell rang,—and then proceeded to the shop and
commenced operations. During the afternoon Gloner
managed to get out all his stuff, and two more days of
rather hard work saw the job finished.
" Very well, very well, indeed," said Mr. Fountain, as
he looked at it most critically. " I don't see but what
that's just as good a job as they could do up North, or
anywhere else, for that matter. Now we'll have the
smithwork done, and then Lorir.g here can try his hand.
In the meantime, I want a neat express wagon to carry
baggage to the river, and you might as well make the
body, I guess."
" Very well, sir; what's the size, and how do you
want it made ?" asked Gloner.
"Oh, as for that, just suit yourself," returned Mr.
fountain. « You know what I want it for, and you know
how it ought to be made as well as I do, so just go
ahead." ' J b
" Pretty rapid progress already," thought Gloner, as
he proceeded with his job.
When Loring applied the last coat of varnish, and
pronounced the coach done, the delight of Mr. Fountain
knew no bounds, and he was not satisfied until he had
his partner in the paintshop looking at it.
" Isn't it a first rate job," he said. " Now, who would
have thought such a thing possible. Why I couldn't tell
1869.
THE NEW YORK COACHMAKER'S MAGAZINE.
67
that it had been repaired myself, if I didn't know it. It
looks just as good as it did before the runaway, and I
don't know but what better. We must have all our car
riages repaired and painted up now, while we've got the
opportunity," which assertion convinced Loring that they
both had a good summer's job.
Montgomery did not prove as social a place as Mobile,
yet our friends managed to get along very well. They
were fortunate in having a good boardinghouse and a very
pleasant room, where Gloner passed most of his leisure
hours. At the shop they each had. a little darkey to wait
on them—to tote water, heat the glue, grind paint, wash
off old carriage parts, take work to pieces, and, in fact, all
the drudgery; for your jour in the South in those days
would soon lose caste, and be considered nobody, if he
stooped to such menial work. Then the money was
always ready, and our friends were never questioned
about their prices. " What is such a job worth ?" Mr.
Fountain would ask. " So much," would be the reply.
" All right, sir," and the amount was put down without
another word.
And so a month passed away right pleasantly, and
quickly, too; and then the hot weather came on. But
as work was not pushing, they consulted their own inclin
ations, and thus managed to put in the time rather
easily.
About this time Gloner received a letter from Mar
grave, written &t Columbus, Miss. " I have finally
reached this place," he wrote, " a rather pleasant inland
town, and have a job at a very good carriage factory, but
only to trim two buggies. Had a terrible time in getting
here. Walked all the way from Yazoo City—but I'll tell
you all about that when we meet. If you get this, do
write to me, and get a job for me near you, for I'm tired
of this kind of living."
As Mr. Fountain said he could give him something to
do, Gloner wrote to him the same day, and each one en
closed a ten dollar bill therein, with instructions to come
on direct to Montgomery as soon as he had finished his
buggies.
" Suppose we should go out and test the sincerity of
Mr. Linden's invitation," said Loring one evening, as they
were returning to their boardinghouse. " The boss is in
no particular hurry for our work, and I think a few days
recreation out in the country would do us good."
" No doubt of it," returned Gloner ; " and nothing
would please me better, for I have a great desire to see
how the planter lives, as well as to have a look at the
country itself, and learn how they make cotton."
" Then let's speak to Mr. Fountain for a team, and
we'll start, say next Saturday, and remain over Sunday,
at all events, and as much longer as we may decide upon
at that time. What say you V
" Very good ; I will speak to Mr. Fountain tomorrow
about it."
The next day he did so, and Mr. Fountain declared
that he would fit them out with the best the stable af
forded. " You will have a fine time out there," he added.
" Mr. Linden lives in style, and being one of the old
school Virginia gentlemen, he will leave nothing undone
for your pleasure and comfort. And then his daughter,
Miss Lucy, is one of the sweetest and most charming
creatures you ever saw,—but then you know that already,
as you are acquainted with her."
And so everything was arranged, and, with one at
least, Saturday morning was looked forward to with a
good deal of interest. A note was duly despatched an
nouncing their contemplated visit, and then they could
only await with patience for the auspicious morning to
arrive. •
{To be continued.)
TREATISE ON THE WOODWORK OF CAR
RIAGES.
Continued from page 53.
The size of an angle does not depend upon the length
of its sides, but upon the space between them.
There are three kinds of angles : the right angle, the
acute angle, and the obtuse angle.
XII. When an upright, A D, meets another, B C, (fig.
3), in such a manner
they form two
equal angles, BAD,
CAD, these angles
are right angles, and the
upright, A D, is said to
be perpendicular, or
square to the line, B C.
In order to raise a
perpendicular on the
JL.
line, B C, from the point, A, two equal distances are taken,
A B, and A C, respectively, on each side; then, with
a pair of compasses extended farther apart than A B or
A C, two segments of circles are drawn from points B
and C, the point of junction, D, determines one of the
points of the perpendicular. By drawing a line between
A and D the perpendicular is obtained. In the art of
drawing, this operation is effected by means of a rule or
a square.
XIII. All angles, for instance E A C, being less than
a right angle, are acute angles, and all angles, such as
E A B, being larger than right angles are obtuse angles.
The line, A E, in common with those two angles, is ob
lique to the line B C.
XIV. Two angles, C A E, E A D, are called comple
mentary to each other when their united sums are equal
to a right angle. Two angles, C A E, E A D, are sup
plementary to each other when their sums are equal to
two right angles.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the sum of all
the angles formed around one point, A, of a line, B C,
and on the same side of the line, is equal to that of two
right angles.
XV. When two straight lines, A B, C D (fig. 4), cross
p. each other, at point O, in
any manner whatever,
they form four angles
around that point, the
sum of which is equal to
that of four right angles.
Angles such as A O C,
DOB, opposite angles at the point of crossing of the
two lines, are equal angles. Therefore, these two angles
are supplementary either to the angle A O D or C O B.
By the same fact it is proved that the angles A O D,
COB are equal *
XVL Parallel Lines.—When two straight lines,
68
THE NEW YORK COACHMAKER'S MAGAZINE
October,
such as A B and C D (fig. 5), have the same direction, in
p. g such a manner that, if
&' they are infinitely pro
A " ~ B longed, they will not
meet, they are named
parallel lines. The prop
C " ~ D erty of such lines is, that
they preserve an equal
distance between each other over their entire length.
XVII. Triangles.—A triangle is the space between
the lines that cross each other, respectively ; here in this
description we shall only consider those triangles formed
by straight lines. There are two facts to be noticed in
all triangles—the lines by which the surface is bounded,
and which are designated the sides of the triangle, and the
angle formed by the junction of those lines. Thus the
o _ . lines A B, B C, C A, are
'> * the sides of the triangle,
ABC (fig. 6); and each
of the points A, B and C,
are at one of the angles
i of the triangle.
Where either side of
the triangle is taken as the base, the opposite angle, as
here the angle B, is called the top angle.
The height of a tri
,B angle is determined by
a plumb line starting
from the point B, and
prolonged through the
base line, as line B D,
in fig. 7.
XVIII. When two
sides, A B, A C, of a triangle, ABC (fig. 8), include a
right angle, a, the trian
gle is styled a rectangu
lar triangle. The two
sides, A B, A C, are the
sides of the right angle.
The side, B C, opposite
.r/ the right angle, is the
hypothenuse.
XIX. To con
struct a triangle,
from three given
sides. Suppose
JEig,8
Fig. 9.
M
N
0
M N O (fig". 9),
are the three
given sides. One
of the sides is
placed on a
straight line x y,
say m, the ex
tr em i ti es of
which are A B,
then take each
of the other sides
W respectively, be
tween the compasses, and describe the arc of a circle from
each of those points. From the point of junction, C,
draw two lines respectively to points A and B, which will
give lines A C and B C, which in their turn are respect
ively equal to n and o, and will produce the required tri
angle, ABC.
XX. To construct a rectangular triangle, the two sides
Ou
of the right angle being given.
DSC
Suppose A C and B to
be the two sides of
the right angle (fig.
10), then, by means
of a rule or a square,
erect a perpendicular
(A B) on the extrem
ity of one of the sides,
for instance, A C, on
which place the side,
n. from A to B.
joining
the
tremities, B and C,
the required triangle, ABC, will be the result.
Fig. 11.
XXI. Quadrilater
als.—By quadrilaterals
it is meant to indicate
figures enclosed within
four lines. Those that
we shall employ are—
the rectangular (fig. 11),
having four right angles,
the four sides of which
are consequently equal
and parallel.
The parallelogram
(fig. 12), the opposite
sides of which are equal
and parallel, without
having any right angles.
The rectangular tra
pezium (fig. 13), two
sides of which, A B, C
D, are parallel with the
angles, B and D, right
angles.
XXII. Circles. —
The circle (fig. 14) is a
plane surface, S, bound
ed by a curved line,
A B C D, called the cir
cumference, all the
points of which are at
an equal distance from
the center point O.
The radius is a straight
line that joins the center
to the circumference,
such as A O.
The chord is a straight
line, A B, drawn within
the circle, and commu
nicating to two parts of
the circumference.
The diameter is a
chord, A C, passing
through the center.
Ihe segment of a circle is a portion of the circumfer
ence cut off by a chord, or included between two radii
suck as A B.
A tangent is a straight line, such as E F, that touches
at any point, A for instance, which is styled the point of
contact.
J)
I)
1869.
THE NEW YORK COACHMAKER'S MAGAZINE.
69
The normal or perpendicular, is a straight line, A O,
bearing on a point, A, of a curved line, and perpendicular
to the tangent at that point. In general, a normal is a
perpendicular to a curved line or to a curved surface; and
in a circle the direction of that line passes through the
center and becomes confused with the radii and the diam
eters.
THE RELATIONS BETWEEN LINES AND SURFACES IMAGINED
IN SPACE.
XXIII. The elements that we have just had under
our consideration, are supposed to be on the same plane.
When lines and surfaces, and surfaces with each other
respectively, are not in one and the same plane, they are
said to be in space. It is in this light that we shall con
sider them in the following.
In order to figure a plane
B it is generally represented by
a quadrilateral, A B C I)
(fig. 15), traced on its sur
face, but as the plane is an
unlimited surface, it must al
ways be considered to be ex
tended beyond the lines that
appear to form its bounda
Fig. 15.
A plane is generally designated by a letter ; excepting
in the case when the lines by which it is determined are
mixed with others. Then a sufficient number of letters
are employed in order to distinctly determine it.
XXIV. Relative positions of a straight line in re
spect to a plane.—A straight line can occupy four different
positions in respect to a plane, which are:
1st. It can be entirely within the plane.
2d. It can be perpendicular to the plane.
3d. It can be oblique to th ane.
4th. It can be parallel to the plane.
When a straight line, A B,
has two points, A and C,
within a plane, P (fig. 16), it
is entirely within: this is a
consequence of the definition
of the plane (art. 9).
XXV. When a straight
line, A B, traverses a plane
P (fig. 17), the intersection
of the plane and of the straight
line takes place in a single
point, C. The line thus be
comes divided into two parts
by the plane, one of which,
A C, is above and visible, and
is represented by a full line;
the other part, C B, is below,
and wholly or partially hid
den by the plane; the hidden
part is represented by the
punctured line.
XXVI. A straight line, A B, is perpendicular to a
A
Xig.IQ
/ c
x B
plane, P (fig. 18), when it
forms right angles with all
the. lines, B C, B D, B E,
bearing on the base of the
plane. The line, A B,
would be oblique to the
plane if it did not fulfill this
condition.
Reciprocally, all lines,
B C, B D, BE, brought
from a point, B, of a line,
A B, perpendicular to that line, determine a plane, P,
perpendicular to the line A B.
Two perpendiculars, B C, B D, not straight lines, bear
ing on the point B of the line A B, are sufficient to deter
mine a plane perpendicular to that line.
XXVII. A line,
A B, and a plane, P
(fig. 19), are parallel
' when they cannot
possibly meet, even,
i f infinitely p r o 
longed.
All perpendicu
lars, CD, E F, of
the plane, P, start
ins from the differ
'jo
1
0
g
ent points, C and E, of a line, A B, parallel to that plane,
are equal and parallel, and measure the distance from the
line A B to the plane P.
XXVIII. The position of a plane in the space is
determined by those of three
points not in a straight line.
Suppose A and B (fig. 20) to
be two of those points; a plane
merely compelled to pass by A
and B could occupy an infinite
number of positions, P, Q, R, S,
in space, by revolving round the
line, A B, that joins the two
points, A, B ; but if the plane is
forced to pass by a third point,
C, placed outside of the line A
B, its position becomes definitely
determined, and the plane P is
the only one that can be formed by the three points, A, B, C.
The position of a plane is determined by that of two
straight lines that intersect each other; for three points
not in a straight line can be taken as extremities and the
points of intersection of those two lines. Consequently :
The position of an angle formed by two straight
lines determines the position of a plane, which is the
plane of that angle.
The position of a rectangular triangle determines the
position of a plane, which is the plane of that triangle.
Two parallel lines determine a plane, without which
they cannot be parallel.
XXIX. Relative position of planes to each other.—.
Two planes can occupy four different positions in re
spect to each other.
1st. They can coincide.
2d. They can be perpendicular one to the other.
3d. They can be oblique to each other.
4th. They can be parallel to each other.
70
THE NEW YORK COACHMAKER'S MAGAZINE.
October,
When two planes coincide, they then form one and
the same plane.
XXX. Any plane, P, passing through a line, A B, per
. , pendicular to a plane, Q,
(fig. 21), is perpendicular to
that plane. The line X Y,
on which line two planes
intersect each other, is their
common line of intersec
tion. In general, when two
planes, P and Q, are per
pendicular to each other,
it is necessary that any
line, A B or B C, drawn
upon one plane, and per
pendicular to their com
mon line of intersection,
must be perpendicular to the other plane. Two planes
that intersect each other without fulfilling this condition
are oblique to each other.
Two planes, P and Q, perpendicular one to the other,
are said to be coordinate planes.
XXXI. The intersection line, X Y, of two planes
is a straight line. In fact, if three points could be
found on this line of intersection that were not in a
straight line, the two planes would be coincident, and
would therefore not intersect each other.
XXXII. When a plane is made to revolve around a
p_j cyfy fixed axis within that plane, all the
