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Journal of Stanley Hedberg

Edited and annotated by Paul Michael Taylor
Asian Cultural History Program
National Museum of Natural History
Smithsonian Institution

Saturday
May 22,
1926


{FRAGMENT 1: End of May 22, 1926 through June 29, 1926}

{F1.1} them the once over. Now they are building a huge bench along the same lines and idea. The Dyaks are quick to observe any good point and soon have it down pat. One of them is in love with the bit and brace and borrows it on every occasion. The others come to the workshop for one thing and another. They like to use modern tools. Dr. Van Leeuwen is all puffed up and struting [sic] around like the leader already, despite the fact that the reply from the Indian committee has not been received. It would be funny if they turned it down like Leroux thinks they might. That wouldn’t be so good though for it wouldn’t help us get into the interior of New Guinea and they will work and co-operate with him. With us it will be no help from the army[;] the little that is given will be because we will have to be after it all the time. Jodans [sic, = Jordans], Hoffman, and Korteman seem to be the only white men in this army outfit. Even the sergeants and the corporals are more courteous than the Captain. Two or [sic, = of] our boys layed [sic] down on the job this morning and were gone all morning long to get a handful of wood. Dick caught them loafing out in the woods. So this afternoon I had them bring up all of the heavy food stuff we had down in the warehouse and after that turned them over to Jordans and had him put them to work on helping unloading [sic] the ship. Our other boy and the one we have nicknamed Moon both are [sic, = are both] good workers. Will probably have to ditch the other two, for they are lazy and no good at all. The oil arrived on this second load of stuff and we have all of our material now on hand. Van Leeuwen has sixty thousand American papers to wrap up his specimens from the jungles. He puts paper around the leaves of the plants[,] puts them in a tin and then pours alcohol – good stuff too – all over them. There are many people in America who would think less of science if they knew about that. In America that would be sacreligious [sic] to wast[e] good alcohol in that manner. I have forgotten how many gallons of alcohol he has with him but it is a large amount. {F1.2}



Sunday
May 23rd
1926


Another Sunday I see by the day but it is just a plain ordinary day for us. As the Albatros was leaving early we were all up early and finished on some important letters we had to mail at the last minute. We are told now that the War Department wishes to see all movie and still film taken from the aid [sic, = air] in New Guinea. We have a letter which was just received before we left in Batavia but from our limited translation at the last minute we didn’t gather it to say that. Mr. Leroux informed us when we asked him about it that it was permission to take them. So we have written the American counsul [sic, = consul] where we left our valuable papers to furnish us with a literal translation of it. It is a funny thing that conditions imposed on us should be so strict especially when one of their own air men is at the present time in the U.S. learning everything he can about air service from our army. What good air pictures of Netherlands, New Guines [sic, = Guinea] would do our War Department is hard to see. They are a suspicious race on top of all the rest of their numerous faults. Dick took an early morning stroll and happened on Van Leeuwen and the army sergeatn [sic] looking at the radiator which the boys are repairing. They shook their heads sadly as though it was an awful mess this radiator which is off the ship and being fixed right this time by the boys themselves. I suppose they think that the ship will never fly again for they have no conception of things mechanical or air planes for that matter. They were highly worried when a twig went through the upper wing and made a small hole in it, which was easily repaired. The Dutch are weak sisters as a rule. Only one so far we have met has any guts at all and that is Leroux. He has a hard time however, for the others are trying to influence him that is [sic, = it] is risking death itself to ride in our plane. The old Ern if [sic, = is] far safer than the canoes in the rapids to anybody who has any sense of reasoning at all but they are so far behind the times [when] it comes {F1.3} to aviation here that they can’t see it. The army sure is jealous of the plane and will do everything in their power to hamper its activities. All of the army and navy men are drawing double pay for service in New Guinea so they naturally wouldn’t be in any hurry to get into the interior. They also get extra time for flying and the non-commissioned officers are anxious for some of that especially the radio men who want to go with the ship for radio purposes. The radio isn't worth a damn so it has been taken off so that the plane can carry a more useful load. It wouldn’t be of any use in case of a forced landing so what good it [sic, = is] it in the air when the plane is working all right. The answer is None – so it is off.

The Albatros left and with her departure goes communication with the outside world for eight weeks unless some[thing] miraculous happens to the wireless sets. We have food for six months so we are all right on that side. How far up into the interior we will be when it returns is problematical. They are working on the canoes and the first transport should start quickly now. Of course the decision of the Indian committee might hold things up but I don’t see how they can get any reply with no radio. It is true that they can receive but that is not much of an accomplishment for many a kid in the U.S. builds his own radio set that can receive for many miles also. Wish we had one here with a loud speaker. It would surprise them for they know nothing about the advancement of radio either in line with their general lack of knowledge on what is progressing in world affairs. Today has been the only day since we have arrived in New Guinea that has seemed like Sunday. There was a Sunday atmosphere throughout the camp[;] for the first time no axes were heard and all was still. It was a typical Sunday summer afternoon and because it was so much like a Sunday in the states we had to have pinapple [sic] for our Sunday dinner. After dinner we sat around and talked of Florida and many things in general so it was a typical way to spend a Sunday. Hans and Prince {F1.4} however, were hanging around the motor work shop and the Dyaks came in fives to have their tins sodered [sic, = soldered]. When Matt and I went down there there were about six of them around and they were busy watching Prince and Hans doing the work. They are to keep their food and stuff in when they are on the transport. Anji was there too and got confidential as could be. We learned that Posthumus (the military captain) had tried to scare him also on the safety of the aeroplane. Anji knew my limitations in Malay so he illustrated with a chip from a log. He picked it up and imitated the plane taking off. Then he circled once and dropped the chip to the ground saying Captain Posthumus had told him that it would happen to him if he rode in the plane. Anji was not worried, however, for he asked if it would be possible for him to ride in the ship when it goes up again. It takes more than intrigue and jealousy to scare Anji especially as he says “The Americans are always working and doing things” [sic] “They can fly. All the Dutchmen do is drink paits, and sleep” and he illustrated it by tilting his head and taking a drink, and then laying his head on his hand and closing his eyes. It was funny to watch him illustrate it as he did. Anji is not so dumb as I have remarked before. Then he wanted to know what the American word for “Hotforduma” was and we told him “God Damn”. So he repeated it and added “The Blonde” which is the monicker the Dutcher [sic] are known by. The Dyaks evidently don’t seem to think much of them either. I can't say that I blame them much for that. Anji also illustrated to the boys earlier in the day the difference between the Dutchmen and the Americans and the Dyaks. the “Dutch” he said drink half a day and sleep the other half. The Americans work hard all day and he pointed to the boy’s tools and benches. The Dyaks chop chop all day and he illustrated that. It was funny the boys said. Anji also confided in us that Captain Posthumus had told him not to visit us in the evening. They are evidently jealous of the way the Dyaks have taken to us and are trying {F1.5} to discourage it. The boys have been fixing and loaning them tools and doing things for them and they appreciate it. They showed their appreciation by making our house fancier than any house in camp. They like to do work for us. We have also visited their house and they like that. We give them tobacco and empty tins also and that is appreciated. That latest underhand trick of Posthumus to discourage Anji and the Dyaks from riding in the plane and keeping him from visiting us is the smallest and most kid-like stunt of all they have pulled. It is unbelievable that a civilized race [such] as the Dutch proclaim to be could be so small. Of course, it is just a part of the army’s tricks to hinder the plane all they can. If we can get the Dyaks to ride in the plane with us – and they are all anxious to do that – we could go up to Splitsings Camp and bring ten Dyaks and get far into the interior before they get to Batavia Camp. We are certainly going to give Anji a ride at all costs one of these days and then there will be plenty of fun. They will try their best to prevent that if possible.

Hans has just informed me of some more of the Dutchman’s nature which he learned on the boat when he was cruising around on the Fomalhaut. They all knew that he was Danish but had lived in America for some years. Every once in a while he said, from the captain down to the third engineer, they asked him how he liked America and Americans. Hans said fine. He was going back there to stay as soon as he finished this assignment. They said to him that they didn’t think Americans were polished enough and that they had no foundation but were always doing something sensational and then forgetting to finish it. They evidently don’t seem to think much of Americans. From their treatment accorded us so far that could be taken as a fact. Matt and I have been remarking that Wollaston must have had the same trouble with them for our experience thus far has learned us many things that we couldn’t read in between the lines {F1.6} of his book. Now we can see many little digs that were not clear to us then.



Monday
May 24
1926


We learned from the Dutch today that is [sic, = it] was the second day of Penticost [sic, = Pentecost] so it was another holiday and no work was done. They are great for celebrating holidays in the Indies (east) but it seems funny that they should be so religiously observed on an expedition to New Guinea when most of the expedition doesn’t ever know what day or date it is. Yesterday was the first one as it was Sunday we thought it was just the Sunday atmosphere that we noticed. However, to them Sunday isn’t important as the many holidays that are on the calendar. They have weeks in the year that have only one or two of the seven days in them that are not holidays and everything closes up tight as a drum. So today outside of the weather which was cloudy and [sic, = it] was another Sunday for us. The soldiers went hunting, and so did the Dyaks. The Dyaks brought back a pigeon, while the soldiers came back with a kangeroo [sic] similar to those of Australia. It was about normal in size. Friday the first transport starts up the river. Matt and Leroux are going away on a ten or fourteen day trip to the native village of our friendly Papuans which they failed to reach on their other attempt because of the distance. This time they will be taken up with the motor boat and they will camp with them for that length of time and then return when we send for them. In the meantime the transport will be on its way up to Batavia Camp. It is possible that Dick and I will go up with the canoes to bring them back and thus get an opportunity to take some pictures. They will live with them and study them for that length of time. This will be a good opportunity of learning more about them. They will also see their women folks. They are very afraid of [sic, = for] their women and are afraid that the men of this expedition will {F1.7} come there. They would never bring back [line missing] Matt both promised them that they would be the only two men who would visit them and they were satisfied. After they get accustomed to them they won’t mind if we come up. That ought to be an interesting trip. I forgot the [sic, = to] mention yesterday that I had my head closely clipped. It is much cooler although at first the flies bother one considerably. We all have our heads closely cropped now and present a funny appearance with our heavy beards. Matt took a picture of each of us and we will laugh at them many times when we get home I presume. Nearly everybody in camp is closely cropped except of course the Dutch members and the Captain. Lieuts. Jordans and Korteman, however, have adopted the New Guinea style of haircut. I presume it is too low brow for the others, just because the sergeants and corporals have also had the same thing done. It is the same thing as the corn question in Java. Just because the native eat corn (maize they call it) no self-respecting Dutchman will eat or serve corn in Java. They don’t know how good sugar corn is[,] I presume[,] or they wouldn’t give a damn who ate the corn. That’s one reason we couldn’t obtain any canned corn in Java. They don’t even serve it in the hotels there for the same reason.

A little after noon, eight or nine Papuans arrived in two canoes. They were different folks than those who had visited us before but were similar in dress and actions. I thought they were a little more colorful for they had more beads and ornaments on them. Then too, more of them had on the flash stuff. They left two men in their canoes and also came ashore without their bows and arrows. They came down the river. The Captain of the Albatros had said that on this last trip he saw more natives than on the two previous trips[,] the falling of the river having brought them back to their camp sites which had been flooded when we came up. They must be from that bunch. Of course they wanted tobacco and food-{F1.8} stuff. Leroux, Dick and I shot some pictures of them after which we gave them tobacco but more sparingly than we had done with our first visitors. They had bananas and cocoanuts for exchange. One or two of them had the same kind of skin disease that the others had. One also had a huge knee cap and Dr. Hoffman said it was water on the knee. They also had the two thin bones stuck up straight through their noses and a cassorary [sic, = cassowary] bone through their nose sideways. One was rather old and appeared to be ruptured. As was the case with the others they had one old man and a small boy with them. Leroux and Doc visited with them and obtained a list of words. They are practically the same as the words of the other tribe although they have some slight difference[s]. They too, [sic] did not enunciate as well as the others did and it was hard to understand the words that they were telling. They have just come by now and they are standing staring at me as I write this. The others were very much interested also. The small boy is curiously [sic, = curious] as can be and smiles with the rest of them as I watch them and continue writing the touch system. They all carry their belongings in a small bag stretched over their shoulders. They have collected an assortment of tins (empty) and are quite proud of their possessions. Leroux asked them if they would stay with us tonight and some of them assented. Five, however, couldn’t and they passed down the river a short while ago on their way home. They are probably married and have to be home in time for dinner. The others must be single to be able to stay away from home all night if matrimony is the same in New Guinea as it is in the United States. I presume that it is. It would be interesting to see the women folks. So far we haven’t seen one native woman in New Guinea with the exception of course of Mano Kwari [sic, = Manokwari]. They smile and gaze as I write. It seems strange to them for they know not what it is. Their Malay is not extensive as the others so it is difficult to talk with them. {F1.9} There is a roar of laughter from alongside of our house wherein lives [sic] Captain and the other army men. I hasten to learn what it is all about and Dr. Hoffman has turned out to be a good commedian [sic]. He had a false face on and a skull cap and was dancing and prancing around going through all sorts of capers. They were frightened at first and all laughed heartily when he took it off. They also seemed to rest easier when they learned it was the Dr. Dr. Hoffman always informs them that he is a doctor and tells them that if they have any sick folks in their village to bring them to him and he will give them medical assistance. I believe that they soon will be taking advantage of this. The one chap who had water on the knee was brought forth but it was such that he couldn’t do anything for him without a long treatment. Other expeditions have given much valuable assistance from a medical standpoint and they know of that fact.

It has started to rain again putting another R. in the daily weather report. It is full of R’s for no matter how nice the day is, it is very seldom that we don’t get some rain either late in the afternoon or during the evening. It was a beautiful evening last night and the coloring in the sky was really beautiful. The clouds were fluffy and white and the sun shone through them in spots with great affect [sic]. Later the red of the sunset was enough to give anybody a thrill. We have had but two such evenings and when one does come it is thoroughly enjoyed. The Papuans are having a good time visiting around the various parts of the camp. We gave two of them who stayed with us a while an empty sun[-]maid raisin box with a picture of a girl and grapes on it. It was brightly colored red and their eyes bulged out. The smaller boy liked it very much. Then Doc got out some hard candy. He took a piece himself and then told them that it was macon [sic, = makan (Malay)]. They took it rather scared but one of them {F1.10} tasted of it and sucked on it for all he was worth. They talked fast and the other one hastened to try it. Then they all came for a piece[,] for the news spread fast so there was nothing to do but give each one a piece. “Bagoose” [sic, = bagus (Malay)] which means good in Malay is what they said. Matches are in great demand. They even like matches more than tobacco. I gave one a few in an empty match box and he was pleased. I tried to ask them the name for my pipe but they had no such thing. I was blowing it out and it made a noise like it does when the empty tobacco grains stick and they all laughed. I then played it like a musical instrument and they got a kick out of that also. It doesn’t take much to amuse them. Matt then brought out some prints of the other Papuans which Dick had just finished printing. They recognized two of them – one was the old jew fellow who was so funny – and you should have heard them jabber. They mentioned the name but we couldn’t get it [–] it came so fast. They were much interested in the pictures and looked searchingly at those that they didn’t know. I thought that they were going to stay with us tonight but they just passed down stream in their canoe. I suppose that they are all married now. They probably have a long way to go and might get the dickens from their wives when they return late at that. Such is life even in New Guinea. The hunting must have been very good today for the army medical sergeant just came by the camp with another pigeon. The officers are having it for dinner for they commenced preparing it immediately. That is[,] their boys did. Don’t misunderstand me. They wouldn’t prepare anything or lift a hand to help themselves unless they were starving and I doubt it very much if they would do it then. Even our good friend Leroux who is very energenic [sic] and full of pep has to sit down on a chair and have two assistants hand him his photographic material when he takes pictures. I am glad I have the graflex and don’t need any assistance. It works {F1.11} much quicker also. The Papuans have left us. The sun is sinking in the west and is shining brilliantly on the tops of some extra large white storm clouds making it [sic, = them] fluffy and as creamy a lather as a Williams cream shaving [sic, = Williams’ Shaving Cream] advertisement. The convicts are busy cleaning up the front yard now that all the stumps are removed. The sizzling of grease in the frying pan from the cook shack of the Captains’ [sic] in front of our home and to the right makes a poor accompaniment to the Stars and Stripes forever which someone is playing on Mr. Leroux’s Edison gramophone. The sizzling of the grease reminds me that it is almost six and time to start with supper for Mr. Leroux is to dine with us tonight. Life in New Guinea is like life anyplace else – just one darn thing after another – but it is far more interesting and spectacular that’s certain.



Tuesday
May 25
1926


Breakfast is always ready when I get up now. That is[,] the boys have the oatmeal cooked and the tea boiled. I make the coffee in the percolator and get them to set the table. They have the breakfast duties down fine now but I think that it is because Moon[,] the convict Hans and Prince have working with them on the aeroplane[,] is present during the morning meal. He is a good boy. Things would be much easier in connection with the kitchen duties if I just had one more boy like Moon. It was a nice shunshiny [sic] day to begin with and Dick took some movies of Hans and Prince putting the radiator back on [See Film Selection #9]. It is sodered [sic, = soldered] all around now and they think that it would hold all right for they intend leaving off the cowling on the radiator and over the engine to do away with the vibration that always shakes it loose. The Dyaks were busy making a landing down to the river in front of the officers quarters and they decorated it all up with fancy do dads. It was colorful as could be and I shot some stills of it. It was supply day – it comes quickly although {F1.12} it is once in five days – so I had to sit down and see what I needed for the next five days in the line of food. The order was larger this time for Matt is leaving with Leroux tomorrow morning at seven and will visit the Papuans for about twelve or fourteen days. He needed some more supplies also for that trip. After dinner when the material arrived from the magazines Matt and I worked on packing it and just as we were finishing that it rained. And how it did rain. It was the heaviest one to date and it came down in torrents for about an hour. It is still raining as I write. We had our washing out on the line and it got a little damp before it all could be gathered in. We saw the storm coming down from over the mountains in the direction of the mountains for after lunch it started to cloud up a bit. We sure were pleased that we were in our comfortable quarters and not in the lean[-]to during that rain storm for it was a peach. Four of our visiting Papuans just came up. I don’t know how many came with them but they are the same folks that Matt and Leroux are going to visit tomorrow. The river is rising again, having gone up about a meter in two days. A meter is 36 inches [sic, = 39.37 inches]. It must have rained heavily up in the interior during the last few days to raise it that much. But we too have been having some rain almost every day. If it continues to rise it will make it rather difficult for the canoe transport through the rapids which starts Friday morning bright and early. The plane is way below the banks though as yet and it is difficult to get down to it for we have no landing down to it. No one has taken enough interest in it to even suggest that and we haven’t asked to have one built. It shows, however, their lack of interest in doing anything for us and for the plane. Everything for the plane had to be asked for and sometimes several times before it was forthcoming. That isn’t giving it a fair shake either. Yesterday while we were down to the motor shop hut we stopped a Dyak from cutting a tree down which would have fallen directly on it if {F1.13} he hadn’t been stopped. It sure would have wrecked matters entirely and brought the plane’s usefulness to a finish. I don’t know who instructed him to cut down that tree but they don’t do anything without being instructed. He had taken about three whacks at it with his axe and it wouldn’t have taken him long to had [sic, = have] it crashing down through the wings if we hadn’t stopped him. Just seems funny and strange, how that kind of thing happens. The pictures I got yesterday of the Papuans, Dick just informs me[,] turned out all right. I am glad of that. Hope those I took today will be likewise. The navy sergeant showed me the “dingus” (that is what a Dutchman calls a thing he doesn’t know the name of) that was putting the sending outfit on the bum. I think it was the condenser and it evidently had gotten wet and the plates of tinfoil[-]like substance were all coroated [sic].

There was more hunting done today by some soldiers and they brought back a crown pigeon. One of them also brought back a leach [sic] in one corner of his eye which was a nasty thing to bring back, I’ll say. Doc Hoffman succeeded in getting it out, however. The hospital is full now, Doc says and he is kept rather busy so we haven’t seen much of him the last few days. It is a good thing that they have been busy the last several days cutting deep trenches around the various houses and godowns for it helps carry the water away and helps to dry things up. It is a nasty place when it is wet. One good thing about the rain, however, is the fact that we secure a good supply of fresh rain water which helps a lot for the boys don’t have to carry it then. They don’t have to be told to put out the buckets either like they have to be told to do many other routine affairs which they should know by this time. Doc’s boy has improved since his punishment inflicted because of his loafing on the job and is doing real well as is also his companion who loafed with him. We put them to work unloading the ship most of the afternoon and it was hard work. {F1.14} It seems that none of them are enthusiastic over the cooking job so I have made my boy chief cook now for he has developed into rather a good boy on the stuff on the fire. We have been enjoying some good potatoes and friend [sic, = fried] onions the last several meals which we obtained from Korteman who received them from the ship. They sure go good and as they will not keep we are busy eating friend [sic] potatoes and onions every meal. If we had a nice slice of ham to go with them it would make an ideal breakfast. We did have bacon though that wasn’t so bad. We are living well through [sic, = though] for we have plenty to help out among the American canned foods that we brought along. The regular chow we receive from the magazines, however, is not a bit bad. We are getting to like the dry fish and the dry meat called "deng deng" [sic, = dendeng (Malay)] very well when it is fried in butter. I tried frying it in bacon drippings today for lunch and it was even better.

Last evening Leroux had the Papuans who stayed with us all evening sing into the gramaphone. They did and he made a record of it which pleased them very much. When they talk they sure talk fast and it sounded funny coming out of the phonograph. They slept on matting in from [sic, = front] of Leroux’s house. Dick and I went up to visit the army short wave station at ten o’clock to see what results they were getting for they got all fixed up with a new aerial house and everything. Army sparks was busy tuning in. He has two assistants and it is funny to watch them work. They are clumsy as can be and have all ot [sic, = of] the instruments scattered about with none of them fastened to anything. He stands up while he sends. Hans says they are used to that in the army for if the Papuans were to attack they could take their set and run. It sure appears that way for nothing is fastened down[,] not even the key which jumps all over the board when he sends. He called and listened for Ambon but when we left at midnight he hadn’t been able to send a thing. He did hear one station and we listened to some one sending but we didn’t know who it was or where {F1.15} it was. The short wave length set is the best set and if they had some real live wireless bird working it they could get some results. The sergeant, however, depends on both of his natives to do everything but send. Sometimes he has one of them call his station at that. My mustache and beard is [sic, = are] just a month old today. It soon will need trimming.



Wednesday
May 26
1926


Everybody was up rather early this morning for Doc and Leroux were to start on their trip. Van Leeuwen also was going away for ten days, to collect plants inland and over the ridge from the camp. The Papuans were around “mooching” early. They were going back with Doc and Leroux. Six conaoes [sic] and two motor boats were being used for Leroux and Matt’s trip and the canoes were manned by 22 Dyaks. They had many convict carriers and it was quite a sight to see them pull away from the dock. They had supplies for fourteen days. Five soldiers will be with them when they stay at the native village and the rest of the transport will return for tomorrow or [the] day after they start on the first canoe transport to Batavia camp. Twelve prows will make that trip carrying as much food as they can. They will make three trips. The motor boats will go on the first. They will be the hardest to get through the rapids. On the third or fourth trip which will probably consume a month’s time the rest of us will go up and then straight on through. Batavia camp is not a healthy place so we are going to remain here until they move all of the supplies up there. Then we will go right on through. The river is still rising which will make the progress [of] the canoes and motor boats through the rapids more difficult. Hans and Prince are putting the finishing touches to the plane and it will be in readiness for another flight soon. When it will be used or just how is uncertain at this writing. Navy Sparks who has been renamed “Static” instead of {F1.16} “Hardboiled” succeeded in sending a message to Manlkwari [sic, = Manokwari] this morning and he says that his set is all right now. I hope so for there will soon be much news to send. We haven’t received any answer to our message to the Indian Committee yet but it is expected today. When we get into the interior I believe it will be difficult to get Army Sparks to send anything for us expecially [sic] to Manila for I think he has been told not to. I feel sure that he can [sic, = could] send to Manila if he would try. He was certain of it but since he mentioned the fact that he was going to try in fron[t] of Van Leeuwen, he has changed his attitude and now don’t [sic, = doesn’t] think he can do it. They don’t want us to have communication direct with U.S. connections for some reason or other. Probably afraid that we will get too much honor or glory or publicity or something and that is what sticks in their craw. It is quiet in camp as I write this for most everybody is away and when the cat is away the rats are sure to play. Most of the Dyaks are in the canoes so that doesn’t leave anybody here to work. Had a visit with Anji at his house last night and it was an interesting session. I had a great deal of difficulty in getting his sending [sic] but it is good practice to learn Malay although I am informed he doesn’t speak the highest class of Malay. Lieutenant Korteman[,] the supply officer[,] is a good fellow and he is going to teach me Malay and Dutch if I will teach him English. He has studied it in school but hasn’t had much practice talking it. He is very anxious to learn to speak good English and I am going to help him all I can. He has just informed me that a bottle of wine can be obtained from the magazine for 72 guilder cents. One Guilder is forty cents American money so you can figure out how cheap that is. It is good French wine also for Mr. Leroux has opened and treated us to a bottle of it. Imagine buying a large bottle of French wine for 72 guilder cents. That would be hard to take in America. Of course the cheapness of it is because {F1.17} the army or navy doesn’t have to pay any of the heavy duty which is imposed on all things alcoholic. Of course I have mentioned before I believe that there is Prohibition in New Guinea as far as the natives are concerned. It is the only place in Netherlands East Indies, I believe[,] where they have prohibition. Like in the states the natives who wish ti [sic, = to] either make it or get it from the bird hunters or others who are engaged in the illicit sale of spirits. The first canoe transport, I learn, will start Friday – that is the day after tomorrow. They sure are encroaching on our space for today they (the officers next to us) have their washing spread in front of our house for have [sic, = half] the length of it. I don’t know where we can hang ours for our cook shack and the Dyak statute [sic, = statue] takes up the other half of our space in front of our house. The current in the river has increased with the high water for as I sit and write it flows by rapidly. There are also many trees which have been undermined, floating by. Some of them coming [sic, = come] floating past in the most curious shapes and sizes. Some float by standing almost straight up. Then others are half submerged and a stray branch sticking up gives it a submarine and periscope affect. That is the only thing that is dangerous to taking off and landing on this river. Of course metal pontoons or metal hul [sic] of a boat would eliminate that danger immediately. Dick had very good results with his color plates of the Papuans and believes that he has it down now where he knows just how to work them in this climate. Our bird which Anji made for us floats majestically over our heads in the center of our pront [sic, = front] porch and swings back and forth whenever there is a slight breeze. He is some looking animal. The Papuans got quite a laugh when they saw it.

Dick got the key of the radio from the set which was installed on the plane and obtained a wet battery from Sparks (navy) and rigged up a sending apparatus and he and I have been practicing all afternoon. It is loads of fun and it might come in handy in the interior. Ever[y]-{F1.18} body stopped and looked for they thought that we had rigged up a radio set of our own. Wish we had the material and we sure could do it and with a short wave set we could get Manila easy. Dick and I can both send and receive enough to get our message over. They copied Aneta press messages this morning and we had some of it translated this afternoon by Lieut. Korteman and Dr. Hoffman. There was an item in the news dispatches about Stirling and Hoyte’s flight into the interior. It was a long message for Aneta’s stuff to ships is rather short and I suppose that the cable to the A.P. New York on the flight was even longer. It was good stuff. We are anxious to learn how they played it up in America. It [sic, = I] hope big. We were glad to know that they got it anyway, for there was a long delay in communication from the time we arrived here May 1 to May 25. Dr. Hoffman visited with us for a couple of hours in the evening and we enjoyed it very much. It is rather lonesome with Matt away. It rained heavily in the afternoon and most of the evening.



Thursday
May 27
1926


The time and the days are going fast and it doens’t [sic] seem that we have been here almost a month now. I suppose that it is because we are all so busy doing things. It is hard to keep track of the days. If it wasn’t for the diary we wouldn’t know what day or date of the year it is. But it makes no difference what day or date it is here. What we are interested in is in getting into the interior and getting in contact with the pygmies. That will take a long long time by canoe for the river line is going to be the longest line they have ever had on any expedition. Both the wireless sets are working now for Army Sparks just came over and informed us that he got Java last night. The Navy set is working with Manokwari every morning. The noise of the motor generally wakes us up at six o’clock in the morning, now but that doesn’t make any difference to us for we are pleased that we have the radio communication. And besides it is time {F1.19} to get up then for the early morning hours are the best hours in the East Indies. It is the best working time. Lieutenant Korteman is busy getting the food and supplies ready for the transports which leave tomorrow. There is a good deal of work connected with that. When Leroux and Matt left yesterday it was necessary to have twenty or twenty[-]two convicts for carriers for just those two and the luggage they had selected for fourteen days. That is just an illustration of how many men are needed on an expedition of this kind when there is any overland carrying to be done. It is a difficult country to explore under the present system of exploration used by the Dutch and takes much time[,] money and men and effort. Aeroplanes would cut that down to half and make it easier and quicker. Hans was just remarking last night “If we only had another aeroplane. Oh Boy wouldn’t that be the berries.” It sure would. It will be the only way to explore this country the next time. Whether they will use aeroplanes on their next exploration trip is problematical. They surely should for it would save time and money. Perhaps they will when they see it demonstrated that it can be done. The Dyaks are busy putting the finishing touches on their canoes and they have been back and forth all morning borrowing the bit and brace to drill holes with and also the plane. It would facilitate matters considerably if those modern tools were part of the expedition’s equipment but the Dutch have evidently thought that the Dyaks were not capable of using modern tools. They surely are though and they have been using everything that we brought along. When they see it work just once they know how to use it and use it good. They sharpen the blade in the plane after using it also so that you could cut hair with it. They keep their own tools in tip top shape and when they use anything of ours they always sharpen it before returning it. The Dyaks are great people. I can’t help but remarking that time and time again. Sparks has been sending to me and at first it was difficult {F1.20} for me to get him for he makes his characters slow and holds on to them as they do in wireless in order to make them strong for distance. He can also send snappy but he says it is better to learn slow. I finally got so I could get some of it. A little practise [sic] every day and I hope to be able to get something if sent slowly. It is more fun to send than to receive for the other comes only after much work and practice going slow.

Anji visited us last night and we had an interesting chat whith [sic] him. He informed us in low voice that the Captain was angry with the Dyaks for putting sideboards in our house and also for giving it all of the fancy decorations. Anji was going to decorate the walls on his own time with some red paint which we secured for him but the Captain said “Hutfor dumah” [sic]. That, he said, is why he hadn’t done it as he promised. He sure was peeved last night and he had reason to be. For some unknown reason Anji’s Dyaks numbering 39 (the other leader has 30) did not receive a canteen today as did the other Dyaks. He was all “het” up over it and I don’t blame him. It was Anji and his men who built Albatros camp in addition to clearing it off for they were here first. Here is what they did. Cleared the land, aided by the convicts but the amount of work they do you could put in your eye and have plenty room left, built all of the houses with the exception of Van Leeuwen’s[,] the motor house, the officers house framework[,] our framework and one warehouse. Then to be overlooked in that manner is not pleasant for them. I don’t know what Posthumus[’] idea was. He was anxious to know when Stirling and Leroux will return. He is about on the point of going back. It is a dangerous situation for the Dyaks are indispensable. I am sure that Leroux and Stirling can pacify them, however. I am surprised that Posthumus would make such a mistake for he has had plenty of experience in handling Dyaks in Boreno [sic] and knows their disposition. Perhaps {F1.21} he did it intentionally. The news received by radio today contained nothing of interest.



Friday
May 28
1926


There was a great deal of activity going on when the sun broke through the low hanging clouds and flooded our bedrooms with its warmth. Sparks was sending to Manokwari and the canoes were being loaded and manned. We were up to see them off. The first transport consisted of eleven canoes with five Dyaks to a canoe (in a few cases 7). Six soldiers and one sergeant and twenty convicts accompanied them. Captain Posthumus and Lieutenant Jordans were the first and second officers of the outfit. Anji leading his Dyaks and Tomalinda leading his were the navigators, and upon whom rested the real responsibility of getting the transport through the rapids. As the water is high it will be a difficult task. The two motor boats, loaded to capacity with gasoline[,] will leave at 10:30. The transport got away at 7:30 although they were scheduled to start at 6:30 or 7:00. They were soon out of sight around the bend towards Havic [sic, = Havik] Island[,] the canoes slipping noiselessly through the water making good progress against the stream for they hugged the shore as close as possible. It was the beginning of the long communication line which will be necessary to keep us supplied with food at Head Camp. Dick shot a picture of the departure. The camp now is almost deserted and all is guiet [sic, = quiet]. Lieutenant Korteman is in charge of the military portion of the camp during Posthumus[’] absence. Three Dyaks were left behind. Two were sick and one not strong enough to make the trip. We had seventy Dyaks to start with but have just 69 because we lost one who died with pneumonia. We heard Army sparks sending on his short wave set last night. There have been many messages sent since radio communication has been established. Of course no one knows {F1.22} their contents. We haven’t received any reply to our telegram to the Indian Committee as yet so we don’t know what the situation is as yet. It is time one was received one way or the other. It may be that it has been received and they are holding it until Stirling returns. Navy sparks informed me that if he received one for Stirling he would give it to me. I don’t know if the other sparks would do that. I think not. Am going to ask him if he has received anything for us later in the day.

We had considerable fun just before dinner last night with the Army sparks. I have been sending on the set very studiously since Dick fixed it up and Sparks gave us the battery. As Army Sparks came by last evening I told him I was going to get San Francisco and Manilla [sic, = Manila] on this short wave set of mine. Navy sparks saw the joke and helped us out. While I was talking to Army and navy sparks, Dick slipped into the house and attached a wire from our bedroom window to the aerial and when he was finished I took Army sparks around and showed it to him. He believed I had a short wave set installed and you should have seen his eyes bulge out. Just then Posthumus and Jordans came by and saw the affair and heard me talking about sending to Manila and San Francisco and they passed on. Jordans was back in a minute asking Navy Sparks if it was true. He had evidently been sent down by Posthumus. Navy Sparks laughed and said “no”. We all got a good laugh out of it. They are worried about our desire to communicate with Manila. If we had a short wave set we sure could have some fun. If it were possible to obtain the parts we could set it up all right. The river appears to be rising. Many trees and logs are coming down with the stream. It is just twenty eight days since we arrived at Albatros Camp. Almost a month before the first transport started. They will make a night camp there and stop at the foot of the rapids today. The motor boats and canoes together {F1.23} will start through the rapids the first thing in the morning. From the looks of things early today it is going to be one of those warm days. It is ten o’clock and it hasn’t rained as yet. I have been keeping a weather report and out of the twenty[-]seven days it has rained all but one. The “candy” man was around with quinine last evening so we knew that it was Thursday again and another week had almost elapsed.

Secured a case of wine from the magazine and had some for dinner. It was good and helped “tone” up the system. Also very cheap. Seventy two guilder cents for one large bottle. Everybody enjoyed it and it helped cheer things up considerable [sic]. Received a wireless dispatch from the Postmaster at Ambon which said: “Your letter May 4th delayed on steamer reaches me today Stop General postoffice Bandoeng decided you can send your press telegrams without payment charges will be collected on delivery at Weltevreden. Stop Wirelessed the military leader so on May 20th Stop don’t use blue forms. Postmaster.” It was a reply to my letter to him asking him why it was I had been censored for filing a news dispatch to Aneta on the forms he had furnished me and because I put an “S” on it as he instructed me to do. “S” means government message. The military leader Posthumus did not inform me of any such message being received. Why I don’t know[.] I surmise, however, that he didn’t want me to know that I was permitted to send news stuff over the radio. They surely are doing everything they can to keep me from sending anything at all but so far I have succeeded in sending anything I want and the way I want it. This will give me the proper authority now so when Posthumus comes back I’ll show it to him. There is nothing of importance to us to send now though. There will be however, when Matt and Leroux return. It has been a fine day all day and one of the first since May 17th during which we have had no rain in the daylight hours. We thought that it would be another one to list in the column without an R but {F1.24} after we retired at 11 o’clock it came down heavy and lulled us to sleep as the drops beat a tatoo [sic] on the adapt [sic, = atap (Malay)] roof over our heads.



Sunday
May 29
1926


It seems that yesterday’s habitual rain which was absent all day fell all of last night and early this morning. It was rainy [sic, = raining] heavy when we awoke and continued steadily all morning until about 11:30. At that time, however, it stopped although it was still cloudy and old Sol has not yet made its appearance as I write. We sat around all morning and watched it rain. Having nothing else to do Hans, Prince and I made it “pipe cleaning day” and the old Dunhills are sure throwing up a smoke screen all around as I wrote. It seems that a pipe tasts [sic] better on a rainy day and gives more enjoyment or a feeling or [sic, = of] contentment than on any other day. Dick worked on his attachment which he made for taking pictures from the air and finished up on it today. The river is still rising, having come up considerably during the night. The transport which intended to start through the rapids at daylight this morning will have a hard time of it I believe. However, high water is better for the motor boats. We learned that they had carried approximately 3,000 kilos in the 11 canoes[,] about 1500 of that being food and the rest gasoline and motor boat parts in the two motor boats. We heard army sparks sending late last evening but I haven’t seen him as yet today so consequently am unable to say whether he succeeded in conversing with Java or not. They have heard him in Java but not strong enough to establish communication. A Chicago Tribune would be an interesting thing to have with us today and any date from November 20 to the present date would be as interesting as todays’ fresh off the press. The news from Aneta received every morning at about 11:30 is very meager[,] most of it being of Dutch interest. Of course when anything startling occurs in America it comes thru briefly. There has been {F1.25} no American news for several days.

Dr. Hoffman visited us last evening for a time just before supper. Some one of the convicts had stolen one of his surgical knives and he is having the entire camp searched for it. To no avail, however, for it has failed to appear. He said he would give twenty good wacks [sic] with the ratan himself if he caught the man who stole it for he needs it in his work. He is up at 6:30 every morning and is busy until nine with his patients. He has nine cases in the hospital at the present time and they all keep him plenty busy. Most of them are convicts. One Dyak cut himself with his knife, another has the fever and the other one is too old and weak to do much on the transport so he was left behind. It is a lazy cloudy day and not much to do so the time passes slowly. I have written an article for Popular Mechanics on the “Mechanical Woodsman of Boreno [sic]” which I am going to send Webber on the next steamer. Will have some good pictures to illustrate it and it should be interesting. Larry wanted feature stuff and the Dyaks are good feature material. About three o’clock in the afternoon, Hans, Prince and I with Moon, the convict, secured a Dyak canoe and started paddling up the swift stream just “for fun”. It wasn’t fun after a few minutes for it was work and hard work to propell [sic] that log through the water. We progressed all right up past the camp and then decided that we would go to the end of Havic [sic] Island and float down around it and back to camp [sic]. We were about an hour and a half going about a mile. In some places the current was so swift that paddling with all the strength we four had we lost ground. We stock [sic, = stuck] closer to shore and by exerting ourselves and pulling our way whenever we could get a hold of a branch or stump we finally succeeded in getting to the end of the island. We stopped three or four times on the way, however, to rest. Once we ran aground on a huge log and Moon {F1.26} had a hard time shoving her off. When Moon saw us starting out in the canoe he came running up and asked permission to accompany us. Before he was half way to the island he was talking to himself and I bet he won’t be so anxious to go canoeing again. Coming down stream it was the berries and it didn’t take us ten minutes at the most to negotiate that distance. Personally I was well tuckered out. Pushing a heavy canoe up stream is certainly not the best way to get into the interior of this country. The Dyaks of course are skilled in handling them but even they are forced to put their “all” into getting the canoes inside. It struck us more forcefully than ever before that the Dutch should use such obsolete methods in this day and age of flying machines and modern inventions. There is no doubt of the practicability and the efficiency of an aeroplane over canoe transport. It is not only the most practical but the safest as well. It would be as if we were using stage coaches and pack mules over the mountains in the United States. In this day and age it is a wonder to all of us that the Dutch have never used an aeroplane in exploration work in New Guinea. The two flights Hans and Matt have made have more than demonstrated that it can be dome [sic, = done] and done safely. Of course, one needs a good machine and a good pilot. We have both. What this expedition needs is more aeroplanes and it would be a matter of but a few weeks until the entire expedition, food and supplies, would be at Head Camp. It would be safer than the canoe transport, and quicker by months. Still when we arrived in Java we heard that we were crazy to even think of using an aeroplane in Dutch New Guinea. I hope that we have demonstrated to them that it is feasable [sic] and that they will try it on their next expedition. In that manner it wouldn’t take long to explore all of the remaining territory which is unknown in the interior[.] Under the present system, however, it will take many years and much men and money. Money spent as they have been spending it in the last {F1.27} several expeditions[,] if put into aeroplanes[,] would do it much more quickly and they would save money in the long run. However, we are the pioneers and the pioneers are always the ones to be critizied [sic] and to work hard for the benefit of the others who are to follow. It was ever thus in everything that has been done for the first time.

It cleared up slightly during the afternoon, but only slightly for the sun just barely peeped through the clouds and then for a moment or two. It rained again in the evening. We are wondering how Doc and Leroux are getting along with their visit to the Papuans with all this rain. They took their tents with them, but I am fearful that this heavy rain is not making their stay any too pleasant. It is also going to hamper the work of the transport up the rapids. We wondered how far they had got [sic]. After our experience in the canoe we wouldn’t wonder if they hadn’t got [sic] far.



Sunday
May 30
1926


“Come and get it while it is hot” the meal cry which we have taught to one of the convicts is what woke me up this morning. It was another Sunday but the last two days with little or no activity has [sic, = have] been like Sundays. However, this was a real Sunday so it had to be observed. There are no churches within canoe or walking distance so we had to pass up services as we have in the past. It was a nice sunny Sunday until about four o’clock when it started to rain and to rain heavily. It is still coming down as I write. Another R in the weather history column. It is nearly the end of the month.

Today was magazine day or shopping day despite the fact that it was Sunday so I ordered our five day supplies. Dick and Prince went hunting after dinner. They located a good hunting spot for they saw many cassoraries [sic], and pig tracks. Had two shots but they were too far away to get the birds. Dick was in listening to Australian {F1.28} music and news in the navy radio station last night. He said it was coming in rather well. We shall all attend tonight if the rain lets up. From the looks of things now though reception will not be the best. Being Sunday we later learned that there would be no music. Tomorrow night will be the night. As we were eating supper, Lieut. Kortman [sic, = Korteman], the supply officer, who is in charge of the camp military while Captain Posthumus is away, and Dr. Hoffman came in. They wanted to know if and when we had done any shooting and where for one of the soldiers who had departed for a hunting trip at eight o’clock in the morning had not returned and it was after seven and dark. It was also raining. Dick and Prince told them that they had shot twice about four o’clock and over towards the right. We, Hans and I[,] had heard both shots. The soldiers had gone off towards the left. A searching party was immediately sent out and Korteman and Hoffman joined them. It was raining heavily and of course the jungle was black. They searched all around the camp and fired many shots but no return shot was heard. They were still out when we retired. I fell asleep quickly and had been asleep some time when I heard a call. It came from the jungle searching party and it was a weird noise. The echo came back rather faintly and then a ghastly silence. No answer. They continued to call far into the night and I felt sorry for the poor soldier who had not returned. The jungle in the day time is bad enough to get lost in but at night with it raining heavily was no place for one to be alone. He had gone out with another soldier and had become separated from him early in the morning. The other soldier returned at 11:30. Dr. Hoffman says that the man had the reputation of being a little bit queer. I went to sleep after some time with that weird call and the resounding echo ringing in my ears and wondered how he would stand the night in the jungle if he had not met with an accident. If he had met with an accident – The Papuans are said to be not so friendly on the side of the river where our camp is located – {F1.29} it wouldn’t be so nice for it will be some time before he can be found in this thick jungle. And it is so large.



Monday
May 31
1926


We were up early this morning and eager to learn if the soldier had returned or had been found. He had not, although the searching parties hunted until long after midnight in the rain. Dr. Hoffman took Billy the camp mascot with him. The soldier who had accompanied the lost one led them to the spot where they had separated and they searched in the dark for tracks without results. Five brigades of four men each were sent out at daybreak and they scattered all through the jungle in an effort to locate him. They also fired many shots but still no response was heard. He evidently has been attacked by the Papuans when they found him alone or he has fallen over one of the ridges and lies dead at the bottom. He couldn’t have wandered so far away in a day that he couldn’t hear the shots. If he had been lost he would have started campward [sic] at the break of dawn and he surely could hear the shooting and the shouting of last night. He is a goner I am certain. On top of that we learned that two convicts had escaped last night and had evidently taken a canoe with them for the canoe was missing from its mooring place. The Dyaks who remain – three of them – said that the canoe was there last night at eleven o’clock. The convicts had received their five day food supply yesterday and it was a good day or evening I should say for a getaway as it was rainy [sic] heavy and everybody was interested in the search for the missing soldier. A guard is on duty every minute of the day and night down near the warehouse and the boat landing but they evidently had got [sic] by them. Things are developing rapidly after a few days of nothing of interest with Matt, Leroux and Van Leeuwen away in addition to Posthumus and Jordans with the transport. There are many clews [sic, = clues] that could be enlarged upon but {F1.30} one guess is about as good as another as to what happened to the soldier and the convict getaway. The convicts won’t be able to go far or get any place. Their five days[’] food with what ever they could steal or conserve will not last them long in this country and when they get down to the mouth of the river they are a long ways from civilization or villages or anything. In addition to this the Papuans will get them too if they are not careful. They had bitten off more than they could chew. Both of them were long term convicts. Dr. Hoffman was telling us that in Boreno [sic] some 20 years ago when a military expedition was exploring that country and using convicts for carriers abd [sic, = and] laborers two of them escaped into the jungles one night. The commanding officer informed the Dyaks about their escape and told them all he wanted back was their heads. The Dayks [sic] were anxious to grant such a request for head hunting used to be their favorite sport and still is to some extent in some sections of Boreno [sic]. In two days they returned with the heads of the escaped convicts which were exhibited to the others. No more tried to escape after that, the captain reported. I don’t know what they will do in this case. Things are rather upset with both Posthumus and Jordans away in addition to all of the Dyaks. If the Dyaks were here they would be better enabled to find the lost soldier I’m sure. Two of the Dyaks remaining are sick in the hospital and the other too old to do much jungle searching. We can easily spare the convicts and the canoe and the soldier for that matter for we have plenty of each. It is two o’clock as I write and no trace has been found of the soldier[,] an army sergeant who has just passed covered with mud informs me. They are searching far and wide but it is a big task. The river is falling rapidly and is almost back to the point where it was when it began to rise again. Korteman took our pictures today and Prince shaved for the occasion forgetting to take off the bottom part leaving him a good looking German affect beard. It is the end of {F1.31} the month today and it is a month for Prince and I in Albatros camp. It has past [sic] very rapidly for until the last two or three days there has been plenty to do all of the time. It is slowing down now and will be slow until we start upstairs when Doc and Leroux and Van Leeuwen and the transports return.

Navy Sparks[,] the chap we call Dot[,] has regular communication with Manokwari every day. His motor is humming away as I write. Army Sparks[,] the chap we call High Tension[,] is not getting good results with his short wave set and wants to use the navy set[-]up with his short wave. Dot[,] however[,] told him no in plain language for he doesn’t want to jim [sic, = jam] up his set when it is working so nicely now. I don’t blame him either. The Navy and the Army have no love for one another.



Tuesday
June 1
1926


The first of June. One month at Albatros camp has gone to the place where all time goes. It is interesting to look over the weather chart. During the thirty one days of our first month here it rained every day but three, – May 3rd, May 7th and May 17th –. That is a pretty steady average of rainfall. Of course most of the days checked with an R had an hour or two [of] rain and then it cleared. But the rain falls almost every day.

The Papuans from the village down the river visited us again today and this time they numbered four prows with five Papuans to a prow. There were many new members and of course some of the old timers came with them. They were eager for tobacco, matches and empty tins and pestered the life out of us until noon. They posed for some movies which Dick shot of them around the motor repair hut and we had them eating Pennzoil which we use in the Liberty [See Film Selection #13]. They said it was “bagoose[,]” which means good. One little fellow who looked like a Jew rubbed it between his fingers and ginned [sic, = grinned] all over. It should be a good picture. Dick also took some stills of them {F1.32} but the sun was not right to get either movies or stills of them around the camera. They left about noon and we couldn’t do anything to make them stay until the sun got around in a favorable position to shoot them around the plane or with the plane in the background. They will return again though for we have promised them tobacco and tins if they come back for more “portraits”. They enjoyed seeing the pictures which Dick and Doc took of them the last time. He printed up a few to show them and they get quite a kick out of seeing some of the members of their party. They wanted the prints. Lieut. Korteman and Dr. Hoffman asked them if they had seen the two convicts in the canoe. They said “no”. They were told that if they brought them back they would be given much tobacco but they didn’t seem interested in exerting any effort along that line for they got tobacco now for a few cocoanuts. The soldier is still among the missing. Korteman thinks it is possible that he was captured by the Papuans in the district in which we are located. They are presumed to be bad. The fact that they haven’t visited us as yet would indicate that they are not over friendly. All of the Papuans who have been here tell us that they are “not good people.” A sergeant with ten soldiers is on his way to this village now to see if they can find any traces of the lost soldier. If they do there will be trouble. One of the convicts who escaped is said not to have taken any food with him but it is possible that they have stolen some from the others. Korteman searched the shore and trees on the other bank with Dick’s glasses today. He thinks that they might be near camp. I doubt it. They are on their way to the sea I believe for it wouldn’t do them any good to hang around here. It would mean capture and punishment of twenty lashes with the ratan. One of the convicts was helping Korteman. He brought him water every day. The soldier is a goner I believe. He has either been killed by the Papuans or he fell down {F1.33} a cliff and lies dead at the bottom of it. If that is so we will probably find his body when the Dyaks return. It will be a week tomorrow since Matt and Leroux left camp to go and live with the Papuans. It has been lonesome around here with him away. The transport has been gone five days. They should be back in three more at the most. The river is continuing to drop. Some of the trees stiking [sic] out in the river which were under water when she started to rise again are sticking out afain [sic, = again] as before. It is back to the point where it left off when it started to rise. Korteman is of the opinion that the convicts might try and come back to steal the money which he has on hand to pay the soldiers every month. He has a considerable amount with him to last six months or more. Why[,] I don’t know[,] for they can’t spend any money here in New Guinea except of course they can buy gin from the magazine. So he has had a guard placed around his house and ours which is alongside of it and the guard walks back and forth all night long. These escaped convicts and the missing soldier are making things interesting at least. Otherwise there wouldn’t be much to write about for there is no activity of any kind and every day is as dull as the other. It will probably be so until Matt and Leroux and Van Leeuwen return and we start up the river. Since the soldier failed to return from his hunting trip there has been no hunting done by anybody. It has evidently scared everybody off of hunting for the time being anyway. It must not be a pleasant feeling to get lost in the jungle or even be captured by the Papuans, who have the reputation of being fond of human flesh. Dr. Van Leeuwen returned from his trip at three o’clock in the afternoon. He had made the last march which he had figured would take him two days in one day. He had made about fifteen miles inland and returned with many specimens of new plants and flowers. He reported seeing no native villages but did see {F1.34} several abandoned Papuans [sic] huts. They also ran across some remains of old pig carcasses and cassories [sic, = cassowaries]. It was hard going all of the time up hill and down. The convict carriers stood up well under their loads. It developed with Van Leeuwen’s return that one of his convict carriers was in on the plot to escape with the three convicts. There are three of them now for that number have failed to answer the roll call in the morning. This convict didn’t want to go on the trip but was compelled to. As he started down the first hill he complained to the sergeant in charge of the squad that he was weak and unable to go on. The sergeant whipped him with a ratan so that when he returned it was frayed at the edges from the lashes and the convict had no more difficulty from weakness. He continued on with the rest of the party and had no difficulty keeping up with them. He evidently was in the conspirators[’] plot to get away. If they succeed in getting to the mouth of the river and keep well on their month’s trip or to the English Border of New Guinea they will be free in that country. That is some distance, however, past Hollandia. It is the refugee’s harbor from both sides and as a result the section up there is filled with bad men of all kinds.



Wednesday
June 2
1926


It was another rainy misty morning when we awoke with the cry of “Come and get it while its hot”. The boys enjoy crying that out now and laugh after every call. A new convict, a friend of our No. 1 boy[,] joined our forces this monring [sic] in place of one of those who loafed in the woods. He wanted to change positions for he couldn’t understand us so we had another selected. This one seems to be a good boy and as he is a native friend of the good boy the two of them should get along fine together. If that is so our troubles will be over for the No. 1 boy is a good boy.

We learned from Korteman this morning that the Papuans who were {F1.35} here yesterday had told a soldier that they had seen four men in a prow going down the river. That would be the three convicts [who] escaped and the soldier with them. The theory is getting stronger every day that the soldier joined forces with them for some unknown reason. They continue the search in the jungles every day despite this, however for it might be that he fell down a ravine and was killed. How long they will continue searching for him is not known. They are doing everything possible, however, to find him and if he had an accident of that kind it will soon be known for when the Dyaks return they will be able to find him if it is possible for anybody to do so.

It rained pretty heavily and steadily during the monring [sic]. Dr. Van Leeuwen said that he had only one day of rain on his seven day trip. We have had much more than that. I believe it is because of the high hills all around us. Dick’s camera shutter went on the bum and he sent a wireless to Soerabaia asking for another. It is on his new camera that he purchased there. He fixed it the first time when it didn’t work as it should but a day later it developed the same symptoms again so he thought it best to wire for a new one.

Just after we had finished eating our luncheon, two Dyak canoes floated down stream. It was Posthumus and the transport returning. They made goot [sic] time to return so early. The trip took but six days, four through the rapids – which is excellent time for they had the motor boats with them – one to the beginning of the rapids and not quite an entire day – a half day – coming back from Batavia Camp. They left that point at eight o’clock this morning, Captain Posthumus reported and they arrived here a little after one. With such quick time being made through the rapids by the transports it won’t be long until we are located at Head Camp with what the {F1.36} aeroplane can do to help it along. They left Jordans and six canoes at the mouth of the river to pick up Leroux and Stirling the next day or so. The two canoes which arrived were filled with Dyaks and it was good to see them again. We have missed them during their absence. Anji did not return with them but waited for Stirling and Lroux [sic] with Jordans. Van Leeuwen has just sent a wireless message to the Indian committee telling of his trip and also saying that Leroux and Stirling are visiting a native village up the river. The last sentence of the message, which incidentally was signed Explexider, a code word for Expedition Leader used by Stirling, asked for an answer relative to the change in leadership. So evidently they have not decided anything as yet. The delayed answer would make it apparent that they are discussint [sic, = discussing] the advisability of changing. It may be that they can read between the lines and see what is up. Hope they decide soon for it is unpleasant to wait and wonder what is going to happen. Will be pleased with [sic, = when] Matt returns for it has been damn lonesome without him here in camp. For obvious reasons it is hard for one man to keep up the moral[e] of the rest especially when one of the others is doing all he can to break down their moral[e]. Dr. Hoffman is especially pleased with the lack of malaria we have had so far. Just two cases in the hospital now he says. That is a good record. He hopes to keep it down. I hope that he succeeds. The transport party reported many mosquitoes at Batavia camp which is true to former predictions. That is a bad place and we won’t want to stay there any longer than is necessary. I would, however, like to make one trip up and down the rapids with the transport just to see how it is. It would furnish much to write about I know. I am hopeful of being able to do that later when more food is cached up there. Prince and Hans are busy today fixing up the floor in the front cockpit. The other flooring hasn’t stood the climate and they are putting in a heavier one so that when the {F1.37} plane is loaded all of the material will not fall through. It is another hot day. The rain has stopped and it is sultry as can be as I write. It is cloudy and when the sun disappears behind one of them it is just as warm for the humidity is great. The new boy is a good one and he gets on well. As the other boy can talk to him he knows what to do and does it quickly. It will be a change for the better I am sure. When Doc’s boy comes back he will have to serve under our No. 1 boy for he is the best of the lot. He propbably [sic] will not like that. The Bakery which has been under construction for the last several days was completed and from the looks of things it is ready for its formal openeing [sic]. The Baker, who is a typical looking baker has his wheeled stoves and everything all set up. The boys, Hans, Prince and Dick have named it the Riverside Bakery and Hans says that it must be expecting to do considerable export business for it is located right in front of the dock. We are waiting for the formal announcement of its opening and are anxious to taste of the bread. It should be good bread. Our hard bread toast which comes in large gasoline tins has tasted better from the beginning and now it is a delicacy. The same is true with the DengDeng. Dick and Prince at first wouldn’t even taste of it but now they can eat it all right. It will taste better to them as the time progresses. The monotony of having the same kind of food meal after meal is tolling and I’ve done my darnest [sic] to change it as much as possible. I still enjoy the hash and the rice as well as the other. It is not bad eating, I don’t think. I’ve run in some good oil sardines the last several days for their benefit, however, and they were enjoyed. I also enjoyed them, but Prince and Hans got the biggest kick of all out of them. Dick doesn’t like sardines. It is hard to get one thing in general that everybody likes. That’s what makes cooking hard. I’ll try cornbeef [sic] tonight. But then again Dick doesn’t like that either. {F1.38}

The sergeant (navy wireless man) just past [sic, = passed] and said he had a nice trip with the transport but he added: “Jesus Christus” mosquitoes, and he shook his head and hands with disgust. Must be bad up there. They haven’t been bad here as yet but the last few nights we have noticed more of them. I had one in with me in bed last night and got him this morning after he had feasted to his heart’s content last night off my flesh and blood. I think if it continues, I’ll have to take a flash light to bed with me like Dick has been doing ever since he arrived and hunt them down every fifteen minutes during the night. That would interfere with my sleep, however, and I’d rather sleep and let them bite than keep awak [sic] worrying about them all night long. Richard is also suffering from rheumatism at night. It is from the dampness I believe. He says he wakes up with terrible pains and sometimes is unable to sleep. That’s too bad. The movies Dick shot of the Papuans were all right, a test development of the film showed. He knows his movie camera fine and dandy. With the motor boats both at Batavia Camp now it will be more difficult to take off and land with the plane but Hans and Prince say that it can be done all right. They will have to taxie [sic] right up to the boom or quite close to it and have a Dyak prow in readiness in case she should miss. A Dyak prow with many Dyaks and two soldiers has just pulled out into the river going down stream. Perhaps they are going over the convicts. Then again they might just be going to Pioneer camp where 9 cows are parked. They were paddling too swift for that, however, I believe. One cow is here and it is necessary to visit the old Pioneer Camp site to obtain food for her. Presume that they will soon be butchering the cows for meat, one by one. That will be a change in the menu which will be welcome to the boys, if I can cook it properly. Will have to tune in on the radio housewives hour and see if I can’t pick up a good recipe. {F1.39}



Thursday
June 3
1926


There was great excitement in camp for so early in the morning. We missed our convict boys but they had prepared breakfast before they disappeared. We learned that a general inspection was being held and the quarters of the convict prisoners were being searched. They were all lined up and had guards posted over them while a sergeant and an assistant went through their belongings. Food and things were missing from time to time and the escaped ones were thought to have taken food from the others. It was magazine day so it was easy to check up on those who had too much food in their bunks. The inspection lasted some hours and every boy[’]s box was gone through thoroughly. They found a good many things that they shouldn’t have and about two dozen were brought up before Captain Posthumus to explain matters. One had stolen the oil cloth covering that is a part of each soldier’s equipment. Others had various other articles. My boy was in the lot to my surprise. He had a European shirt which he had brought to me and said he had found on the river bank near where we hang our clothes to dry. I was busy at the time and as I didn’t know who it belonged to told him to keep it or do anything he wanted with it. I didn’t know then that it was against the regulations for them to have clothing of any kind. So it seemed as if he was going to get in bad. I waited close by and when his case came up he told Posthumus the facts and Posthumus brought the shirt to me and asked me about it. I explained the situation and explained that I had told him to keep it for himself for I didn’t want it and I didn’t think it belonged to any of us. He dismissed him immediately and my boy sure showed his satisfaction for he was plenty scared. It would have been unfortunate for him to get a beating over it for he has been our best worker. One by one they were judged and their stories were heard. It ended with two of them being sentenced to {F1.40} five licks each with the ratan at five o’clock that afternoon as punishment. You could notice the change in their work after that. They were all on their toes and anxious to please. They don’t like the ratan. This excitement had just subsided when a Dyak canoe pulled up with Lieutenant Jordans and Matt. It was just eleven o’clock. It sure looked good to see Matt again and he was welcomed back by all with open arms. Leroux and the baggage and the rest of the outfit were to arrive later. We had an interesting chat with Matt who had an excellent trip with Leroux visiting with the Papuans. He obtained a good collection and much scientific data of value for they were the first people who ever visited this village. They had been gone eight days living with them six days and spending a day going and coming. Matt has kept a day by day account of his trip so it will not be necessary for me to relate any of the happenings here. It will be forthcoming in his diary. We celebrated his return by opening a bottle of wine. Leroux with his convoy returned about two o’clock, and everybody was back to camp again except the lost soldier who is still being hunted for by Dyaks. They have found no trace of him, however, for all the searching parties gummed up the trail so that it is practically impossible for them to trail him now. They are doing their best, however. For five o’clock in the afternoon the whipping show was scheduled and as we have never seen anything like that we watched the operations with some interest for in this day and age of civilization whipping a man at the post is not in vogue. A huge cross was erected immediately in back of our shack and the air was surcharged with some sort of electricity. You could notice it on the convicts especially. They were going to be invited guests to this affair and a great deal of staged scenery was necessary for their benefit. For some reason or other, I too had a peculiar feeling inside of me. I can’t explain it but it was there {F1.41} nevertheless. The convicts were assembled and the sergeant gave them a lecture. It was a formal affair. Dr. Hoffman with his medical assistant was also in attendance. The ratan whips were choosen [sic] by him and scientifically sterilized. That is regulation. The assistant stood by with gauze and a container of alcohol to clens [sic] the wound I presume. The Dyaks gathered as did the rest of the expedition members. The convicts had front seats and the ceremony evidently made a deep impression on them for they sat on their haunches with a sullen expression mixed with fear, on their faces. The two convicts were brought out. The one who had stolen the oil cloth from the soldier was the first. His hands were securely bound at the wrists and lifted straight above[;] his head was secured tightly to the upper part of the cross. A cloth was tied around the upper part of his body just below the arm pits and that was wound around the upright potion [sic] of the cross. Then another cloth was wrapped around and between his thighs and that too, fastened to the cross upright. He was tied so that he couldn’t move if he was so inclined. Then the charge and the sentence passed upon him was read by the sergeant. Lieutenant Jordans, Dr. Hoffman and Captain Posthumus stood close by witnessing the affair. Captain Posthumus had his sidearm fastened to his belt. He has been wearing it around the camp the last few days. An intense silence reigned the camp as the sun sank below the jungle clad border of the camp. It was a dull sunset with the bright firey [sic] red of the sunset was missing. [sic] It was in keeping with the cold silent grey atmosphere that prevailed. The convicts sat like statues. They were motionless. The expression on their faces were frozen solid, the only movement [in the] entire camp was the twitch of a leaf or two in the tallest trees stirred by a little gust of wind now and then. After the sentence was read[,] a native soldier, tall, straight and alert selected a strip of ratan from the many Dr. Hoffman had sterilized. He felt of it with one hand on either {F1.42} end. It bent in a half circle. He was testing the whip. The ratan was a quarter of an inch in diameter. The malay soldier poised it above his head. His form was similar to a discus thrower at a field meet. In grace and in movement. Then[,] like the discus thrower or the shot putter[,] he went through his form before striking. The form consisted of swinging the ratan whip over his head twice in a circular movement of the body and arms. On the third swing he carried through and the lash descended with a snap on the buttocks of the convict. He was clothed in his regular convict uniform of brown short pants. The coat was removed. Once, twice, three, four and five times the last [sic, = lash] whipped across the convict. He was motionless. His face was sullen but no evidence of great pain was visible. No sound came from his lips. The whipping was done, completed and like the trained athletic at a track meet, the whipper stepped aside waiting for the next event. The convict mandoer unfastened the arms and untied the cloth bindings, and the whipped convict was seated in front of Captain Posthumus as the second offender was brought to the cross. He went through the same routine. Both men were small and not as physically developed as some of the others. The charge and sentence was repeated by the Dutch army sergeant. The whipper with the same grace and elegance took his station and the five lashes were administered. The last convict evidently didn’t feel it as much as the other one for he walked quickly and with a rather pleasant expression on his face to where his companion was seated. It may be that he expected more and was pleased that it was all over. The first one, however, had a bad look in his eye and sat with lowered head in front of Posthumus. A few words were spoken in Dutch and the affair was over. Prince and Dick were furious and Dick had to walk away after the first few lashes were administered. Personaly [sic] I didn’t think that either one suffered much punishment although the formality and the binding them to the cross brought back memories {F1.43} of what we have read of the old slave galley days of long ago. From a punishment standpoint it left an impression on all of the convicts. I think that they toned it down on our account. Dr. Hoffman has told me accounts of whipping in Boreno [sic] which in the telling were more gruesome than this affair. And five licks with the ratan is an easy sentence, the harder ones ranging from 20 to 40 licks. They are building a stockade around the convicts[’] quarters and they will have to pass through a gate and by a sentry at night. That will keep them from escaping. Posthumus knows how to handle them and is doing the right thing I believe. One must not forget that these men are all murderers and thieves and are recruited from the jails of Java. And so we witnessed our first thrashing scene. There will be many more of them no doubt and like everything else we will become accustomed to it. There was some discussion during the evening meal relative to the merits of such punishment. Of course everybody had different opinions.



Friday
June 4
1926


Just before the whipping scene of last evening Leroux called Matt over for a conference and this morning the details of it are available. Posthumus wants 60 more Dyaks to get the expedition to its objective, in the Nassau mountains. He has wired the war department that it is useless to try without them. Van Leeuwen wired the Indian Committee – which up to this time had not answered our leadership telegram – that the Dyaks were necessary and[,] if they were not forthcoming[,] suggested that the expedition be called home. They have evidently been worried over the delay of the committee in not answering the leadership question sooner. It has been some time since it was sent and the delay evidently appeared to them that they were deliberating in our favor. This proved not to be the case, however, for shortly afterwards Van Leeuwen appeared and said he {F1.44} had received a radio O King [sic, = okaying] the request. We don’t know whether it was received in time to ward off his other telegram or not but we are of the opinion that it came afterwards. It will be funny to see what happens now that he has the leadership and the Dyaks are not forthcoming. It was his request for withdrawal[,] it should be remembered[,] and so things stand. He did not show us the telegram he received for some reason or the other [sic], but just gave us that information. Inasmuch as we have consulted and showed him all of the telegrams that we sent and he even insisted on censoring the last one to the committee, it seems strange that he wouldn’t show us this one in which we are so vitally interested. The war department also has delayed answering all of Posthumus[’] telegrams. We sure would like to know what they sent but that is out of the realms of possibilities. If the committee had our side of it they might have decided differently. But we are interested in the success of the expedition and it is certain that under the old plan we wouldn’t get very far. Now we will have a chance of getting somewhere inside for it is their funeral is [sic, = if] they fail to do it. Before they were jealous of the credit and would do everything possible to hinder us. Now that it is up to them we should move faster and get under way, as soon as the Dyak question is settled. If they refuse additional Dyaks we will ask permission to do it ourselves and with the number of Dyaks that we are paying. We could do it in that manner easily, I believe.

We had fresh bread for breakfast this morning and it was good. They have slaughtered a steer so we will have fresh meat for lunch. That should help change the menu sufficient to make it taste good. The tinned stuff has been all right but one gets the feeling at times one would like to walk and walk with a can opener in one’s hand until some one asks what it is. The steer was delivered. Five huge slices were cut off and deposited in the sizzling frying pan. Oh! Boy! how good that meat smelt [sic] while it was cooking. It was a {F1.45} new smell. It has just been a month since we have had it wafted across our nostrils and the “sniffing” was good. I believe we all ate with more relish because of those beef steaks. Naturally they didn’t compare in jiucyness [sic] and tenderness with a good steak in the states but they tasted better in some respects for we hadn’t had the opportunity of putting our teeth in fresh meat for so long that that little pleasure was enjoyed. We had fresh bread with it. Such luxury is unheard of and I don’t know how we are going to be able to stand it. We have a good bit left, however, and barring the heat of the sun it should last for several meals.

Plans are being made for the plane to start work tomorrow morning. Hans and Prince are going to fly to Batavia Camp with a load of food. Hans says that with only the gas that is necessary to flay [sic, = fly] that short distance he can take off with Prince and 325 Kilos of food. He expects to make two trips in one day, and to have as much food up there as a transport can have up there in the same length of time. I think he will be able to do better than that. We are going to weigh everything that goes into the ship this time so that we will know just how much material is transported to Batavia Camp. If we can keep up with their transport in that manner we will be doing a good part of the transport work for over the rapids is the most difficult part of the entire long water line to Head Camp. It is the longest of any expedition, Leroux informs me. This evening Anji visited us for the first time in weeks. Matt and Prince entertained him most of the evening demonstrating some card tricks. He opened his eyes in amazement when Matt could tell him the card he selected when Matt didn’t have an opportunity of seeing it like he did. Matt then showed him the handkerchief trick with a match inside of it. He let Anji break the match into pieces and then unfolded the match and low [sic] and behold it was unbroken. Anji couldn’t {F1.46} understand it at all and it is not to be wondered at for many folks in the United States are dumbfounded when they observe the same trick. We had an enjoyable evening and Anji went away with the idea that Professor Stirling was an unusual man.



Saturday
June 5
1926


Everyone was up bright and early[,] for the plane was to commence its first flight today darrying [sic, = carrying] food and supplies to Batavia Camp. Breakfast over[,] Hans and Prince went to work servicing the ship. The food had been selected by Captain Posthumus and weighed 321¼ kilos. Prince was to accompany Hans on the first trip to assist in the landing at Batavia Camp. Seven soldiers, ten Dyaks and a few convicts are in charge of that camp. Soon the roar of the motor was heard throughout the camp. They were tuning her up to see how she ran. From the sound of the motor it was perfect. Everytime the aeroplane is scheduled for a flight everybody in camp drops whatever they are doing and gather[s] on the shore line to watch it take off. As both the motor boats are at Batavia Camp anchoring to the boom will be more difficult. Finally they shoved off and after taxing [sic] slowly up the stream he gave her the gun and they were off. It was a good take off and everyone was pleased. However, when he reached the turn in the river Hans turned around and came back. We looked over the mountains and it appeared that the clouds were too low for safe flying over the rapids. He landed and taxied up to the float. No assistance was necessary and the Ern was soon tied to shore alongside the float. It can be landed without the motor boats. That’s a good demonstration of handling the plane on the river. Hans knows his stuff. Something was not working quite right with the tail assembly and they had returned to see what it was all about. Flying an aeroplane over New Guinea jungles is not the easiest thing to do and one should be certain that the plane is working well in all {F1.47} respects. They were puzzled for they could find nothing wrong. Hans, however, said that everything was not right back there. We left them studying it over. In about an hour, however, while we were sitting talking things over[,] the motor hummed and again they were off without a word to anyone. They had evidently found the trouble and fixed it. They took off in the same manner and were soon in the air. They made another turn and circled the camp. Evidently they were testing it out for after they came back they continued straight up the river and turned to the left in the direction of Batavia Camp and were soon lost to our vision. It is plainly evident that outside of Leroux and possibly Hoffman and Jordans, the rest of the army outfit and the Dutch personnel are not willing to give the plane any chance at all. I honestly believe that they would chuckle with satisfaction if she cracked up. They didn’t want the plane to succeed in the first place and now that she is doing well under the most impossible conditions they are not so well pleased. If they were they would be anxious to co-operate with us. No one asks us if there is any help we need or takes an interest in the plane[’]s welfare. To get down to the plane we have to slide down the bank through the mud and everything. When we wanted coverings for the pontoons we had to ask for it [sic]. They sailed it around the Dutch Indies for more than a month on the back of the steamer before they brought it to the mouth of the river and everything looks as though they are trying to help the climate and the unfavorable conditions affect it all that they can. It can’t do this and it can’t do that is their attitude and they don’t even want to be shown. On our initiative we have done everything we could to make the place for the plane as good as possible. We got the canvas covering after asking for it. Posthumus has been an observer and like everyone else who has flown as a passenger a little he looks upon himself as an authority on aeroplanes. (We got our Dyaks to {F1.48} build the boom and the motor shop after we asked for it)[.] He can say it will do this or won’t do that, but if he were to be asked to fly it off the water without a load he couldn’t do it. Hans and Prince working against all odds are doing something with an aeroplane that has never been done before and won’t be done again for some time if it is up to the Dutch to do it. If we could get some real whole hearted co-operation[,] and with the boys[’] abilities[,] the plane would be a great help. They don’t want it to though. Of course, anything we do with it will be appreciated and recorded but they possible cannot [sic, = cannot possibly] be blamed for not getting as enthusiastic over its performance as we do. It would be a good thing if the Dutch also had a plane here. That comparison would be some comparison and it might give them a better idea what Hans is doing when he flies the Ern out of here. It is plainly evident that now is the time to do the flying before the climatic conditions beat us for the cards on that score are stacked for any length of time. I think that both Hans and Prince took a big chance on that last hop for they were determined to fly it regardless of cost to Batavia Camp after they had started. It is hard to have them cry “I told you so” when you have a little trouble. Trouble scares them easily[,] not only with a plane but with anything else. They are the greatest people in the world to tell you it can’t be done and can find more reasons why it can’t (and almost convince you) than any other people in the world. That’s why great portions of Netherlands New Guinea is [sic] unexplored and unknown. It isn’t easy to do it but it takes hardships and sacrifices in addition to just plain “guts” to get into this country. They returned from the second trip safe and sound and to save the motor as much as possible Hans landed up stream and came down with the current. Landing the other way uses the motor to taxie [sic] against the stream. Hans is not overlooking anything and is watching even the {F1.49} finest points. That will aid the life of the motor materially. In one day then we had transported 643 kilos of food to Batavia camp. That is[,] conservatively estimating, the load that three prows would take up there in five days. Five Dyaks are used to transport one prow. Two men and the plane therefore in one day did the work of fifteen Dyaks which takes them five days of hard work to accomplish. It would be possible to add 130 more kilos more to these two trips if Prince were to stay behind. However, he is necessary to assist Hans in landing and starting. It might also be possible to make three trips in one day.

Everyone was elated over the performance of the plane, with the possible exception of some of the Dutch army men. Leroux said [“]fine work[”] and he meant it. The others were rather silent. We sent a message to the committee (Van Leeuwen suggested it give him credit for that) telling of what had been done. That telegram had to have a sentence added to it, however, that it was impossible for the plane to do that work to Head Camp. Otherwise their telegrams of wanting and asking for more Dyaks (60) would look rather strange. However, the telegram should impress those in Java with the fact that the plane is not broken down and cannot do anything [sic] which we are certain have been sent. If it can continue its good work – and barring accidents it can – it will transport a good amount of food to Batavia Camp in short order and will facilitate our getting inside.

As I’ve said before it’s just one darn thing after another so on top of our joy over the plane’s work, we were informed that they haven’t enough gasoline and oil for the motor boats. It seems that there has been a mix up on this matter and our shirts are in the wash again. The first plan stated we would pay for the motor boat gasoline and oil[,] in addition to paying the two motor boat men. That was suggested by Leroux to make our part balance with the Dutch. {F1.50} We agreed. Then, however, after the second plan was enlarged upon and the third one greatly enlarged by the army before they would accept[,] we were given to understand that the navy would pay for it. The navy is furnishing the motor boats and oil. They brought 100 cases of gasoline with them and some oil. However, whoever had charge of looking after that detail fell down. If we were to do it it is strange that they would bring 100 cases of gasoline in the first place. Now there isn’t enough gasoline for the motor boats and oil to get the transports to Motor Camp before the Albatros can arrive. We are helping out with our oil and our gas for we have plenty of gas and believe we will have enough oil to spare them. Hans says that the motors in the boats (they are U.S. marine engines Kermath’s made in Detroit) are rigged up to burn kerosine. They have no kerosine. Our gas will burn in their motors but it won’t last long or go far. It is still in the air, but the good part of it is that we can furnish enough to get the transports there. It appears that we are not the only ones who have made mistakes. It is our first trip here. They have had motor boats here many times before and they don’t even know how much oil they burn. They also overestimated the load of the canoes and goodness knows they have been using canoe transports here for many many years. The last expedition over much of the same territory spent 2½ years getting into the Swartz Valley. With all that experience they surely aught to know what a canoe will carry.

I told Van Leeuwen about the telegram I had received from the Postmaster and showed it to both him and Posthumus. Posthumus said that he hadn’t received any notification that they had decided that I could send Press telegrams and have them paid for upon delivery at Weltevreden. It is strange that that one telegram should have been lost in transit especially as the operators get an O.K. from the receiver before they sign off. They don’t just shoot them out blindly in the air. They are numbered and if the number isn’t right {F1.51} the operator asks the sender about it. Van Leeuwen is agreeable to me sending press telegrams but as long as I can send the details to the Indian committee in English as I have been doing it goes that way without charge and is available to the press also. It is a difficult problem for if I send something it will be in the Java press before the committee gets it and that isn’t polite either, on ordinary routine I’ll do it that way. However, when something big develops, I’ll send it direct so I know for sure that the A.P. in New York gets it. So far everything has gone through the way I want it. It is just the plain details for in an official report one can’t put the color into it. However, that will be done, I am confident[,] when it gets in the newspaper man’s hands. Anji visited us again and talked about the aeroplane. All of the Dyaks are enthused over the two trips, and the big load that it carries. Tomalinda[,] the other Dyaks[’] chieftain, on the return of the plane the second time asked if he could fly sometime. Posthumus was sitting there. He asked me so I couldn’t understand him and asked Posthumus what he said. Posthumus said he wanted to know if he could fly with the plane. I told the Dyak chief he would have to ask permission of Posthumus and the Birdman which is Hans. He had probably been told in the past about the danger of the plane and the probability of its falling but the demonstration of today sold him on it and he wanted to try it too. The Captain didn’t look particularly pleased with his actions. Anji and his Dyaks are closer to us while the other Dyak leader has been lined up with Posthumus[,] having been with him in Boreno [sic]. He is always ready to help and I believe like all of the Dyaks he has horse sense enough to use his own judgment of the plane and not be influenced by those who try to influence him against it. They are thinkers, these Dyaks[,] and there is no getting away from that. While Anji was visiting us Tomalinda was seated with the Captain and was engaged in a long conversation. What was going on of course we {F1.52} could not even guess.

The discussion of the experiences and thrills on the trips was interesting in the evening. On the second trip, Hans and Prince had cleared over the large range beyond which lies Batavia Camp. As they did so, Hans cut the motor and glided down for he knew the layout and it wasn’t necessary to circle. Consequently they glided in noiselessly and came upon a Papuan canoe in the river. When they saw the plane heading for them the last man stood up and paddled for all he was worth and then quickly one by one the others followed suit. Prince and Hans had a large laugh for they paddled as they probably have never paddled before. They are lazy and do not exert themselves unless they have to. It must have been amusing. When they taxied up to the bank at the camp the sergeant and 12 men were there to help them unload the food. The first time he sent one man believing there couldn’t be over a couple of tins at the most. They gasped with surprise when they saw Hans pull out 24 tins and two packages which is the regular load. Most of it is rice. The second trip had a tin of fresh bread from the bakery and the men were pleased with it. They also brought back a note to Posthumus, which Prince delivered in military fashion.

Now that it is all over, it is will [sic, = well] to analize [sic] the performance. The Ern carried on one trip a useful load of 800 pounds of food, and counting Prince. In addition to this she had tacked on to her 800 pounds of pontoons, 450 pounds of gasoline (75 gallons enough for three hours) making a total load of 2,050 pounds exclusive of the Pilot. Exclusive of the gasoline[,] the total load carried was 1600 pounds. That is not a bad figure when one is looking over loads carried in the United States with wheels. It must not be overlooked that this is being done in New Guinea, off fresh water, light air conditions, with practically no lift and hills and jungles on all sides. In Java they discount a plane’s performance 15 per cent {F1.53} because of climatic conditions in the Indies.



Sunday
June 6th
1926


Jordans and the transport left early this morning. They had nine canoes loaded with food. Without the motor boats they will make faster time through the rapids. Hans and Prince were busy on the motor for they were to continue their work of transporting food even though it was Sunday. It was a nice day again for a change. After the ship had been serviced and gassed, she was loaded with the customary 321½ kilos of food. It gives one quite a kick to see them putting all that load into an aeroplane here on the Mamberamo. The space from the shore does not look large, and it is amusing to see the soldiers, convicts and the Dyaks stand and look in amazement (the Dutch staff also) as they start a fire line procession of tins full of rice down the bank[;] Hans loads while Prince hands it up to him. Finally it is all in and the work of starting the motor commences. That is a job at times for when the Liberty is hot[,] as it is out in the sun[,] it is hard to start. Prince takes a whack at it first and then comes Dick and then Doc when the occasion requires. If it fails to start then Hans takes a turn or two at it and it starts. It doesn’t always do that but the first trip today it did. The Ern must be getting tired of carrying all that load over the mountains. I don’t blame her in a way for she sure is loaded to the limits. The motor kicks over and she is off. Hans taxies downstream[,] warming her up in the meantime. He turns and is off against the current. The roar of the motor and the spray from the prop and the pontoons is old stuff to the inhabitants of the camp now but they all stand by to watch. She took off nicely and we watch[ed] her climb into the heavens. It is gained bit by bit and soon they are high enough to turn and are off on their long dangerous journey. We watch them until they are lost from sight. The plane surely looks {F1.54} well in the air. As I stand and watch it flying over these dense jungled [sic] clad mountains around us in all directions, I have a pecular [sic] feeling. It is a feeling of satisfaction for the Ern is doing wonders. It is flying with train[-]like or mail schedule regularity carrying food over a distance that takes days of many men’s effort against swift mountain stream which comes dashing over the rocks in the mountain gorge.

When the necessary time has elapsed – it is thirty five minutes up and approximately 35 minutes to return – we start watching for her in the skies. The skies are always full of low hanging white clouds. It is only occasionally that one can see a clear blue spot now and then. Finally it is the hum of the motor that attracts us and looking up we see her soaring through the air. Sometimes we can pick her out before we can hear the motor roar. She sails smoothly and swiftly. Hans “cuts the gun” and she floats gently down the river and is soon landed in the mud banks. Luncheon of rise [sic, = rice], Deng Deng (dried Meat) and perhaps hash and tea follows. They tell of what they saw. After lunch it is another trip and the plane is serviced and gassed and soon is on its way with another similar load. The Batavia Express is what we call her now. The sergeant sends back a message to the Captain or the Captain sends a message to the sergeant. This time he wanted two shovels and they [are] made a part of the load. A package of fresh baked break [sic, = bread] is also a part of the supplies and it is steaming hot for it has just been taken from the Army Bakery. They are off a second time and are soon lost to vision. I get a kick out of every flight. Hans and Prince and the Ern are performing wonders. They are flying here with all the odds against them and are putting it over big. We figure out the time they should return and when it comes our eyes are trained in that direction. Here she comes again. Her silver wings and the floats hanging on beneath make a striking contrast against the clouds[,]{F1.55} white or black. She floats gracefully to the water[,] skims along and then taxies for the shore. Another trip is completed. That was the fourth in two days. They saw the transports fighting their way up the rapids and Prince shot some good pictures of it. It must be a funny feeling to the Dyaks[,] who are working with all of the skill and muscles[,] to see this huge bird soar over their heads and quickly pass from sight. They have been paddling strong for two days and this aeroplane has gone over their heads with a roar four times. Prince and Hans waved to them from the air and they waved in return. The pile of food stuffs at Batavia camp which the Ern is depositing every trip is increasing. It is almost as large as that deposited by the first canoe transport. Sunday makes no difference to the boys. It is the same as the rest of the days here in New Guinea. Food and medicines are needed above before we can move up there safely and that is what they are doing two times a day. The Bakery man is a fine fellow. He is a jack of all trades and weighs in the load of food for the plane. He is a hard worker and willing. Been in the army 18 years and is to retire when he gets back to Java. Is the most energetic Dutchman we have seen in the army. If they were all as energetic as he this expedition would go fast and in short time.

Sunday evening was the clearest evening we have seen here. The night was black without a moon but the sky was full of stars. Not a cloud in the sky and it was delightful to sit in front of our house on the river bank and visit with the Papuans who came just before dusk. They were the friendly ones which Matt and Leroux visited and they were evidently returning their call for they brought many new folks along with them, including three small children. One of them was particularly attached to Matt and he greeted him with a flow of language that would have put Bryan to shame from an eloquence standpoint, if it could have been understood. One could see the friendly {F1.56} feeling they had for him [and] of course it was the result of their visit. Another one, we called him “Red” because of his red hair[,] was also profuse in his greeting. He was the champion talker[,] however. He seems to start off with twenty words all at once and then cuts them off as though some one had clapped a hand over his mouth before he had finished talking. It was amusing to listen to him although it was not pleasant to have him close to you, for his entire body, arms and legs and well as face and hands were covered with scabs. Like a good many of the others[,] he has scroufla [sic, = scrofula]. They visited all over the camp and naturally begged continuously for tobacco, rice and anything they could put in their net[-]like bags. We had to chase them away so we could eat supper. Afterwards, however, when we were comfortably seated in front of the house[,] smoking and enjoying the evening and stars[,] they returned and sat around on the ground in front of us. Of course, we had to produce tobacco so they could smoke also. The military guard which has been placed in front of the quarters stood close by and observed them. They didn’t like it and plainly showed their fear. One of them mentioned it several times. Later Posthumus told them they had put that soldier on duty to guard them against attack from their hated enemies, the Boramese. Still they were uneasy. They didn’t like the business[-]like appearance of the gun he had strapped over his shoulder. They soon yawned and departed for their beds on the ground in front of Leroux’[s] house. It was too nice an evening to go to bed so we sat out and studied the stars shining all above us. It was the first time we had an opportunity of studying them since we arrived. The southern cross was plainly visible in the south and the big dipper lined up with it just above the jungle on the north. We observed many falling stars – five or six all told – as they shot through the atmosphere. Some were quite distinct. {F1.57}



Monday
June 7
1926


The Batavia Express was scheduled for its regular morning flight to Batavia Camp and the program called for me to accompany it as a passenger. It will be my first aeroplane flight in Dutch New Guinea and I was anxious to see how this country looked from the air. I had a fair idea from the map and from what I could see from the boat on the river and from our selected camp spot here in the hills sixty some miles in land [sic]. My equipment consisted of my 45 side arm[,] the water bottle (two essential traveling companions in New Guinea) and Matt’s brown camera in case of emergency pictures. It was a nice day. We took off with the stream because there was a little wind blowing in that direction. It was the first wind, and the take off was splendid because of it. We were off with a roar and soon above the tree tops. It was well we had a wind for taking off in that direction is not so good because the runway is not as long in that direction. The river makes a bend just below Pioneer Camp and the trees and a large hill immediately back of the shore line make it dangerous should the motor quit at that point. As soon as we were high enough to make the turn Hans did so and we were over the jungles with the river on the left of us. The Ern climbed well because of the wind, and it didn’t take us long even with our heavy load to get a thousand feet or more before we were over Havic [sic] Island. It was a sensational view that spread out before us. In every direction one could see the jungle clad hills and mountains. The green folliage [sic] of the trees gives one a peculiar feeling. The mountains of course give you the impression of their massiveness but the jungle covering which spreads over them without exception gives one the impression of a soft velvet carpet. Albatros Camp sticks out like a sore thumb and looks very impressive. It is the only clear spot with the exception of old Pioneer Camp site across the river. That, too, sticks out {F1.58} prominently. The clouds were very low in all directions and hung just over the peaks and ridges. Here and there between the hills and mountains one could see patches of clouds in the tree tops. It appeared as though some one had thrown a good shaving lather from the brush touching those spots here and there. The Liberty hummed along nicely. That is wonderful music. In front of me I had rice tins and food of all kinds. The cockpit was loaded fully and there was not room for another can of milk. We had 321½ kilos and with my 82 or 83 kilos (a kilos ia [sic, = kilo is] 2.2 pounds) in addition to the gasoline, Hans, the floats and the ern, the Liberty was using all of her 400 horses. It was just a little bumpy. As we passed over that soft appearing jungle carpet of trees, large white cockadoos [sic], evidently freightened [sic] by the roar of the motor would fly from their perches in the trees. Sometimes there would be just three or four. Then again a dozen or more. They were very noticeable with their flowless [sic, = flawless] white colot [sic, = color] against the bright green of the trees. We were headed towards the rapids and Batavia Camp some fifty miles away. Stretched out before us was the winding Mamberno [sic, = Mamberamo] river and looking ahead I could see the river narrow as it came through the gorge in the Van reese [sic, = van Rees] mountains. An air view of New Guinea impresses you immediately of the vastness of the island, the impassability of the jungle and the large mountain barriers which, like a fortress wall[,] stretches [sic] in all directions. The peaks of the Van reese [sic] mountains are not so high (sone [sic] two thousand feet in places[)] but they stand up prominently. They seem to penetration and exploration.[sic] They even defy penetration of the interior by air for they have as their assistants the low hanging clouds which just graze their peaks and makes [sic] flying not only difficult but dangerous. I look down at the Mamberamo and it looks very small from our height of two thousand feet. It is our only place to land should the motor stop and as one gazes at it over the edge of the pontoon one is not impressed {F1.59} with the safety of such a forced landing. Somewhat larger than the average road in the states[,] it has the appearance of a ribbon and a small one at that with all the vastness of the mountains and the jungles about us. Up ahead it narrows until it is pencil[-]like in its dimensions as it winds and turns. The Van reese [sic, = van Rees] mountains are on all sides of us now and the low hanging clouds on the peaks does [sic] not look as pretty as it really appears to be from a picture standpoint. Above us the clouds are also close. If we were to climb a hundred feet we would be in them. Hans is flying just beneath a thick layer. We come to the rapids. The first is the Marine falls. The river is exceedingly narrow and glancing down one can plainly see the huge boulders and islands about which the water is whirling in good sized whirlpools. The motor hums nicely and we think of how it has hummed in that manner [at] other times when we were depending upon it. Here is a real test though for a forced landing would mean – perhaps not certain death – but the loss of the Ern. Here and there on the river are native villages. One in particular is right on a point of the river and stands out prominently. Hans taps me on the head and points it out. We are too high to see the Papuans but they are there. On the right and on a smaller river flowing into the Mamberno [sic, = Mamberamo] somewhat inland is another village. It is a larger one and the people there are reputed to be head hunters. We soon leave the Marine falls behind and are in the center of the mountain peaks. On all sides of us are ragged peaks and in many instances the cold looking bare rock glares down at us. There have been many land slides. We are right over the river. In front of us, in back of us, in fact all around us are the Van Reese mountains. We are skimming along just beneath the clouds. The view ahead is startling. It is raining heavily a little to the right and in just one spot. Now and then we pass through a cloud on one side and can’t see anything. {F1.60} We look out the other side and see the bare rock patches just above our wing tip. We look down to the river. We are over the Eddy falls. The water is churning with foam. We look for the canoe transport but can’t see them as yet. Ahead, it looks miles and miles ahead, we see six or seven more ranges and then the lake plain is visible in spots. It looks like a long way. We have been in the air fifteen minutes. Eddy falls are the worst of the tree rapids and from the air it appears to be so. It would not be comfortable to land the plane there. We pass over them slowly, it seems, every explosion of the motor sounds good. The shadow of the plane[,] large and black[,] forms a vivid contrast on the gright [sic, = bright] green of the jungle trees. It is thrilling to watch it move slowly over the tree tops. The pontoons look graceful, on that shadow. I look immediately down on the one pontoon showing on my side and it looks clumsy and heavy. It is. I look in the cockpit. It is full. I have helped load all those tins and I know how heavy they are. Still we are flying high and some ninety miles an hour through the air with all of that heavy load. When we took off from the river at Albatros camp the thermometer registered 92. It is now registering 70. That is some change in just a few minutes. It means contraction and expansion on all the motor parts and the plane itself. While I am musing to myself along that line, Hans taps me on the head again and points to the river. It is the canoe transport. They appear very small and are hugging the opposite bank of the river[,] fighting inch by inch for their progress against the swift current. You can see that it is swift even from this height. We wave our arms but are too high to see them return our greetings. I wonder what the Dyaks are thinking about as they paddle for all they are worth and see us riding along so smoothly and swiftly. They are soon lost from sight and we are over the third and last of the rapids, Batavia falls. The river is exceedingly narrow and stretched before us we can see the various falls. There are about {F1.61} six of them. A peculiar thing is that not [one] of them run[s] across the entire river. Even from this altitude they are a foot and a half or so in appearance. I wonder how they ever got the two motor boats over those steps. Of course it is impossible to left [sic, = lift] them over from the shore and the current in the center where there is no step is a mad rushing torrent of seething water. It is also not a nice place to have the motor stop. By this time a part of the vast Lake plain region is spread before us. It is a wonderful view and is flat as an Indiana or Kansas landscape. The Mamberamo spreads itself all over the landscape and twists and turns like the Mississippi. We are still in the mountains, tho, and over the rapids for Batavia Falls spread out in a series of falls, for some little distance. The Liberty is not missing a stroke. The mountain peaks appear to close in on us as we pass through the narrow gorge. The tops of the peaks soar above us and sometimes they are lost here and there in a cloud. We too are still skimming the bottom of the layer oo [sic, = of] clouds above us. The time passes rather slowly, I think, but looking ahead I can see that we are almost over the last range and the immense lake plain is spread out before us. Hans cuts the gun before we clear the last range and we start to glide quickly because of our heavy load to the earth again. It is a sensational feeling for we just clear the tops – it seems like inches but in reality it is a couple hundred feet – and lo and behold there under us is Batavia Camp. It is small in size compared with Albatros Camp. The plane settled down easily and quickly. We make the landing. The Mamberamo is very wide here and the stream not as swift. Is [sic, = It] is a beautiful sight after all those ragged jungle clad peaks. We come closer and closer to the river[,] the motor just turning over. Now and then he guns her and finally we land gracefully. The feeling is similar to landing on the water on a “shoot the Shoots” [sic, = chutes] in an amusement park in America. It is an enjoyable feeling. Hans taxies her to shore {F1.62} and runs her up to the mud bank under her own power. The pontoons hit in the soft[,] rich[-]looking mud and we are safe and sound together with our cargo of food. The sergeant and two or three soldiers tie her to shore when the gasoline runs out of the carberators [sic] and the propellor stops. Hans is on the pontoon and I hand out the tins. One, two, three, four, five, six etc. up to twenty-four. They are all heavy. One realizes how heavy they are when he hands them out over the cockpit to Hans. Five tins were extra large and contained Van Leeuwen’s old American newspapers in which he wraps his botanical specimens. They also contain alcohol which he uses to preserve the plants until they reach Java. He has many thousands of kilos of such material which has to be transported into the big mountains. It takes many men and canoes. Hans and I go ashore and he shows me around Batavia Camp. It doesn’t take long for it is just a small temporary camp. The sergeant has two lean[-]to’s similar to the one we slept in when we first set foot on Albatros camp. .[sic] The mosquitos are very bad at night. The “go-down” (warehouse) for the supplies is not yet finished. It has no top over it. The food is stacked in two piles. Our pile (five trips then) is almost as large as the pile deposited by the first transport. When we compare it we are almost certain ours is as large. I take several pictures of our stack. Batavia Camp is on the highest spot around there. It is slightly beyond the last range of mountains, the sides of which are very steep from the Lake Plain side. Immediately across the river from the camp is a Papuan camp. They are not in sight and I ask the sergeant about them. He informs me that theyvisit [sic] the camp daily in large numbers. As many as three hundred have been in the camp, he says. I ask him what they think of the aeroplane. With the little English he can speak and my limited knowledge of Malay[,] I learn that they think the plane a huge bird and some of them wanted to shoot it with their arrows from the jungle. They demonstrated how {F1.63} they could do it the other day by pulling their bows taunt [sic]. It was after Prince and Hans had surprised them on the river and in camp. They floated over the mountain with the motor cut as we had just done and glided down on top of them before they could hear or see them coming. It scared the daylights out of them. The Sergeant told them that if they shot that bird he would shoot them with the rifle. He said he demonstrated that thought with the rifle as they did with their bows and arrows. They are afraid of rifles so I don’t think there will be any difficulty. It gave one a creepy feeling nevertheless for it would be an easy matter for them to hide in the jungle and let fly a barrage of arrows as the plane taxied to shore. We smoke our pipes and rest for a few moments and are off once more. The old Liberty is like a livery stable horse for when his nose is pointed back to Albatros Camp and he is unloaded[,] she starts immediately. As Hans cranks the motor I glance at the dense jungle on my right, and think how easy it would be gor [sic, = for] the natives to carry out their threat. It would be in the range of a bow and arrow but I don’t think they would have enough nerve to do it for the plane must mystify them to a certain extent. The motor starts. We wave goodbye to the soldiers and the sergeant and are soon out in the river. It is like old times taking off with the Ern without a load. She skims the water for a short distance after the start and is soon in the air[,] climbing rapidly. I am alone in the front cockpit and the space appears as large a s [sic] a ball room. It is fun taking off like that for your neck rests against the back of the seat in the climb. Hans took off against the stream and soon turns around and we are headed back to Albatros camp. I take a last hurried look at the Lake Plane [sic, = plain] section. Prince was right when he said it looked like the state of Iowa if a few section lines could be seen. I strain my eyes looking for the Nassau Mountains. The low clouds make it impossible to see them with the exception of {F1.64} the lower part. That is not too plain either. We pass the camp and have nearly two thousand feet under us. That is more than enough to clear the tops of the trees and in a few minutes we are in the gorge and over Batavia Falls once more. The clouds are lower it seems and we fly through several of them. Once they were on both sides of us and we couldn’t see a thing on either side. We are soon out in the open again and I feel better. On the return I have a better opportunity of studying the falls. They are peculiar. We are riding along nicely although with the ship empty it seems a little rougher, not much but just a little. I watch anxiously for the transport up ahead. About half way between Batavia Falls and the Eddie falls[,] Hans calls my attention and there they are below us. They are resting for lunch, the prows being beached on a mud bank. We wave frantically to them and I look back at Hans. He is using both hands to wave. The clouds are thick all about us and our wings on both sides brush through them from time to time. It looks rather black ahead but there is always a hole there and here for Hans flys [sic] through that. We are flying at about 2,000 feet, so we are unable to see them wave in return. They are soon lost around the bend of the river. Without a load on the return Hans cuts the corners and flies over the jungle every time the river bends. It is getting blacker and blacker on the left side. There is rain coming down in two or three places over there. A tap on the head again and I look down over the jungle to where Hans is pointing. To my amazement I see a beautiful rainbow on the tree tops. It is a half circle and flat on the ground. It is a startling view and I look on the other side but it is not there. The rainbow follows the ship. The various colors are bright and vivid. Then Hans calls my attention again to the other side and lo and behold it is all around us in a complete circle with the ship in the center. Ti [sic, = It] is the first time {F1.65} I’ve ever seen a rainbow on the ground in that manner. I lean over the edge and watch it creep along over the tree tops. The various colors of the rainbow with all of their brilliance act like a search light as it follows us edging slowly over the trees. It is so brilliant that we can pick out the individual leaves on the top branches. It is raining all around us but not in our small flying section over the rivers. We both look at this phenomenon for several minutes and enjoy the sight. I shall never forget it. Finally it is gone and I wonder how it was possible. Hans will know. I doubt whether even he with all his hours in the air has ever seen anything like it before. I know I never had and it was impressive as well as beautiful.

We soon pass the Eddy falls and I lean over again to watch the water hurling itself through these interesting rapids. It is seething[,] whirling, dashing on its mad rush to the ocean. The river is very narrow and a large volume of water passes thru at this point. To return with a canoe through the rapids will be a thrilling ride. I will have to do that. The return trip doesn’t seem as long altho there is probably no difference in the time. From our height we can see Albatros camp after we pass the Marine Falls and it gets closer and closer all the time. The visibility is not exceptionally good either for everywhere there are clouds. All of them are just skirting the tops of the mountains and hills. The last trip of the day is usually better for last evening Hans saw the sea on his return and also the lake just off the Mamberamo near the coast. The White cockadoos [sic] also appear here and there flying below us. There are dozens of them at times. I also observed some other birds which might have been birds of paradise but I was too far off to determine that. Now Albatros camp is very plain and we are closely [sic] in on it rapidly. Hans cuts off the last big bend in the river and flied [sic] over the jungle {F1.66} for some distance. Soon he cuts the motor and we are gliding down for the landing with the stream. We are back. The first trip of the Batavia express at [sic] June 7th is completed. We taxie [sic] to shore and it is but a moment until we are safely tied to shore with the pontoons resting in the soft mud bank. It was a great ride and a great trip. It was Hans’ fifth trip since the transportation of food commenced to Batavia Camp and I had a better idea of what he and Prince fly over and experience every time they take off. They are performing wonders with sensational flying, as has ever been done before any place in the world. [sic] It is wonderful work and their names should go down in the annals of aviation history throughout the world in capital letters.

It was a sensational flight. Hans has made five similar ones since the transportation of food started to Batavia Camp. I had a better idea of what he and Prince experience every time they take off with a load of food stuffs [sic]. They are doing something that has never been done before anyplace. It is remarkable work and their names should and will go down in the annals of aviation history in large black letters. It is just in the day’s work with them though and they think nothing of it. Hans knows the route perfectly now and could probably fly it with his eyes closed. He is a splendid pilot. Prince is keeping the motor humming nicely. Both should receive large credit and renumeration [sic] for their work already. If the plane should fail tomorrow it will have performed its duty, for it has demonstrated that exploration by aeroplane is feasible and practical. Up until now it was not thought possible by the Dutch and no one else has attempted it. We have demonstrated that it is the quickest and best way to explore this country.

After lunch Dick and his camera formed part of the luggage. As a result the load had to be cut down considerably. Dick was preparing to stay at Batavia Camp all night and go back with the canoe transport {F1.67} to shoot pictures of the rapids. They should be interesting pictures. I packed a tin of food for him and after waiting for a rain squall to pass over they were off. It rained at Pioneer Camp but it didn’t rain here. This is a good camp site and is much better than the old camp. We have missed many rains here when we could see that it was raining heavily over in Pioneer Camp.

I forgot to mention that Sunday[,] two Chinese and three native bird hunters arrived at the camp in a canoe. It had taken them nine days to traverse the distance from the mouth of the river. They were surprised to come across this camp which must appear like a good sized city in this jungle region. The bird hunters obtain a license to hunt birds of paradise in New Guinea from the government. They pay fifty dollars a piece for a muzzle loader gun of 1880 vintage from the government and receive their permit to hunt birds. They load as much trade goods and food as they can in a dug out canoe and paddle up the rivers. They stop at the Papuan camps[,] give the Papuans [sic, = a Papuan] a gun and he goes out in the jungle and get[s] the birds. He also uses it to shoot pigs and other birds for food. The bird hunters live in the villages and when the natives tire of the sport and get enough meat they take the guns and the birds[,] give them a couple packages of tobacco and a few trinkets and move on to the next village. The season opens in April and lasts until _____. They soon run out of their food and live on sago and the fresh port [sic, = pork] that the natives kill. It must be a “romantic” life. They return to Manokwari, Serie [sic, = Seroei, now spelled "Serui"] or other small coast ports and get from 25 to 50 guilders a piece for the Bird of Paradise feathers which are shipped to France and other parts of the world where they are used for decorating women[’]s hats. Right now the women do not care for that particular style of headdress and the market is glutted and as a result the price is low. In times past, however, the bird hunters have made large sums of money. This industry is chiefly in the hands of the chinese. {F1.68} The Chinese are money makers and are scattered all over the East Indies. A trip with a bird hunter in New Guinea would be a thrilling trip and should prove interesting for it is a very dangerous occupation. They are sometimes killed and eaten by the natives for the natives in some instances like the guns immensely after using them for a short period. The Papuans who stayed all night with us watched the departure of the aeroplane in the morning, when I hopped off with Hans. Dick got some movies of them. They have a favorite way os [sic, = of] expressing surprise. They make a noise similar to smaking [sic] one[’]s lips three or four times and then follow it with a long whistle. This is what they did when the Ern took off the water and rose gracefully in the air. They left with the Bird Hunters who furnished them with guns to hunt Birds of Paradise, and were gone when I returned.



Tuesday
May [sic, = June] 8th
1926


We hadn’t had any rain for three days so we were surprised to find it not raining this morning when we awoke. There was a regular dense San Francisco Fog hanging over the Mamberamo, however, and it was impossible to see the other side of the river. Ithung [sic] over the river during our breakfast and lifted a short time afterwards. That was an indication of a good hot day and sure enough as soon as the sun could break through the clouds it was sultry and hot. Leroux prepared to go with Hans on his first trip this morning. He wants to see the country and to correct the map between here and Batavia camp. He will get a good idea of how things look in New Guinea from the air. We rigged him up with goggles and helmet and he climbed in. Captain Posthumus, Van Leeuwen and Lieut. Kortman [sic] were on hand to see him off. The motor started fairly easily and they were off. Due to the heat[,] the air had no lift to it and it took a longer run than usual to get off. They got off all right and were on their way. Leroux was all enthused over the trip and I hoped he would have a good one. It was also his birthday. He is 41 years {F1.69} old today. For that age he is a youngster for he is full of pep and energy. We are to help him drink a bottle of wine tonight when he returns. It was his first aeroplane ride and he will have the honor of being the first Dutchman to fly in Netherlands New Guinea as a passenger. That honor is coming to him for he has been our friend in need from the very start. We like him immensely. In about two hours, the plane appeared in its usual place and appeared its usual beauty. Five minutes or so later Leroux was on shore. Enthusiasm? You never saw such enthusiasm. He had had the greatest experience of his lifetime he said. He has been in the jungles, Boreno [sic], Sumatra, etc. for 18 years and has had come [sic, = some] experience. He could not praise Hans and the plane enough. It was fine riding in the aeroplane and he had seen many things from the air which the map of this part of New Guinea (supposed to be explored and known) did not show. He was greatly enthused over the plateau which did not show on the map and which the boys have been telling about in addition to several lakes. He has sketched all these things on the map he carried with him. He will be able to sell the others now on the aeroplane and he is the boy that can do it. It is badly needed for they know nothing of planes, their performances, etc., and are ignorant of what the boys are doing every time they take off here. Hans showed him the pile of food[,] two thousand and one hundred and ninety kilos which the plane had brought up there in four days. He looked at it and compared it with the food brought by hard labor over the rapids b[y] the Dyaks in their canoes. He glanced at it and said to Hoyte[,] “Now I know why you Americans feel as you do. It is great work.” He was speaking I believe, of the part we are playing in this expedition, which some of the Dutch Army men seem to think is not up to what they are doing or the government is furnishing. I have been arguing with him that it is worth something for strangers to {F1.70} come over to another man’s country and attempt to fly a plane over this unknown and unexplored region for the first time. I have asserted all along that the ability and the courage it takes to do that for the first time should be recognized and recognized in a big way. Pioneers are always given the worst of it when they should be given a large edge. I think he realizes it now especially when the plane is putting more food up there than the prows are in less time and with only two men. It was a good trip all around.

It rained in the afternoon and it continued up until four o’clock [–] too late to make another trip. This is the first time since the plane started transporting food to Batavia Camp that only one trip could be made. Two trips a day was the schedule since the start [on] Saturday. It was too bad for it would have been a fine record to keep up. They [sic, = The] boys have flown in the past when it was rather cloudy but they always got through. It was raining rather heavily when Hans landed with Leroux but there was no difficulty. It also rained on the trip several times. At five o’clock the first of the canoe transport returned. Dick was with them. They too, have made a sensational record in going to Batavia Camp and back in three days. It was faster, of course without the motor boats but three days is the record time and will stand for a long time to come, I believe. They worked the Dyaks to the limit and it is doubtful if human energy can make it any faster. The aeroplane is certainly making them step. Previous expedition[s] have taken from a month and a half to [sic, = at] the longest to six to eight days [at] the shortest. Posthumus made it up and back in six days with the motor boats, four days through the rapids, and now Jordans without the motor boats makes it through the rapids in two and a half days and the round trip in three days. That’s fast work. Dick had had some experiences coming back through the rapids. He obtained some good pictures, two hundred feet of moving pictures of the canoes coming down thirty miles or so over {F1.71} the rocks and everything in Eddy falls. It should be good screen stuff. He also proved himself to be the best trader of the lot by returning with a bow which he obtained from a Papuan for an empty tin in which he had some film. He also obtained some arrows later on. The Papuans, he said, hide in the jungles close to camp until long after the aeroplane has disappeared over the mountains and then come out very timid. He had a hard time to get in contact with them but finally did when he got his bow and arrows. The mosquitoes were very bad last night and he didn’t sleep a wink he said. One by one the Dyaks and their canoes pulled up to the landing. Anji[,] who was supposed to ride back in the aeroplane but didn’t because Jordans had no order on it, had Dick’s goggles on his head. He looked funny but proud as could be. The Dyaks appeared tired and they had every right to be. It was five thirty before all of the prows arrived and the camp was in a merry mood. The Dyaks add loads of color to camp life. When they are away things are not as interesting as they are when they are present.

Leroux was busy working on his new map and he is going to show it to us tomorrow when it is finished. He is a tireless worker and conscientious as can be. If the rest of the Dutch were like him everything would be find [sic, = fine] and dandy and this expedition would get far with its present personell [sic]. If Leroux was the leader of this expedition the fur would fly and we would be far inland for he is a man of action. It was too bad that we couldn’t ask that he be given the leadership instead of suggesting that Van Leeuwen take it when we were forced to take that stand, in order to get some co-operation. He would make a much better leader than Van Leeuwen and would be more fair. After dinner we adjourned to Leroux’[s] house to help him celebrate his birthday. He had a case of wine, some chocolate and cookies. The entire staff of the expedition, Captain Posthumus, {F1.72} Lieutenants Korteman, and Jordan [sic, = Jordans], Van Leeuwen, Leroux and we five Americans were present making eleven all told. It was one of the most enjoyable evenings we have spent in New Guinea. It was a unique experience and we will always remember it as long as we live. As is usual with the interesting evenings now and then it would have made a splendid picture. The wine flowed and everybody was in good spirits. Leroux played the Edison gramophone selecting our favorite pieces. We felt in the dancing mood. Someone had the idea it would be splendid to have the native soldiers play a tune on their native instruments and the Captain sent for them. They came all dressed up and sat outside the tent and started to play their favorite tunes. They were melodious and we enjoyed every piece. In order to give them a little more enthusiasm the Captain ordered the sergeant to bring out a bottle of Dutch Gin and give the boys a little oil to smooth out the rough spots. They did and the music improved tremendously. It is funny how the cup that cheers affects musicians and others. It wasn’t long until they were dancing and improvising songs to their tunes. They sang about the expedition[,] the Mamberamo, the return, their sweethearts and all of that. It would be interesting to understand everything they said. They also sang about the Captain. We had pieces of it translated to us by Leroux and Posthumus. Dr. Van Leeuwen’s mantrie [sic, = mantri (Malay)] danced and he was really funny. One piece impressed Matt very much. It was an original Porteguese [sic] tune that they have kept[,] for the Porteguese [sic] in the early days had most of the Dutch East Indies. The soldiers were Ambonese and we recognized the same tune that was played in the native village we visited out of Ambon that day we were the guest of the Governor of Ambon. It starts out Hurrah Hurrah, Chin Chin and would make a hit (the music) if written around an American song. It is similar to it “Aint gonna Rain no more” for many verses can be {F1.73} improvised to the music. Everybody had a good time. The sergeant who was in charge of the distribution of the gin passed it around from time to time and one could notice the affect [sic] immediately. Some of the players opened their mouths while he poured the gin down their throats as they played. Leroux is certainly a fine fellow and an excellent host. When we left it was with the feeling that if all of the members of the Dutch expedition were like Leroux we would be having a splendid time and no trouble at all. An exception must be made to this of course, Jordans, Hoffman and even Posthumus – if the army would let him – are all right. Korteman should be included in that also.

We got quite a bit of inside information today on the intrique [sic] that has been going on. It seems that the pet scheme of Van Leeuwen’s to get the leadership of the expedition in his hands is not making as big a hit in Java and with the Indian Committee as he thought it would. The telegram which he told Doc (he did not show it to him) said the committee agreed to his (Doc’s) request also contained a few other snappy comments. One was to the affect [sic] that there should be no trouble with the Americans. The Indiana [sic, = Indian] Committee evidently is on to him. It also said that the committee would agree to the leadership transfer but also said that the committee would put it up to the government to decide. So far the government has not decided and Matt is still the leader. Van Leeuwen’ [sic] didn’t mention anything about that. The telegram also asked if it wouldn’t be possible to continue the expedition six months longer and use the present Dyaks. Matt informed Van Leeuwen that he was anxious to return in December and offered the committee five thousand additional guilders to pay our share of the additional Dyaks. That was a good move. It will make a big impression on the committee and it is doubtful now if they will change the leadership. It might be that they {F1.74} took that stand from diplomatic reasons and it will never be known that Van Leeuwen is the leader for the government will not put its approval on it. That will be a good diplomatic thing to do and will save any international complications for the committee evidently are aware of the tricks Van Leeuwen is up to. He is turning out to be a fine bird. We also learned that he has sent a letter to the government and the Indian Committee criticizing Jordans and censoring them for sending “such a young inexperienced” officer on such an important expedition. The truth of the matter is that Jordans is a good officer and has been more than efficient. I can’t understand Van Leeuwen’s attitude. He is getting in bad all around and sooner or later will hang himself plenty. He is well twisted up with his own stuff now and it won’t be long, until the truth is known. It will serve him right. I even think that Posthumus is getting wise to him. Leroux told him what he thought of his actions in plain words and they had a little set[-]to. It[’]s a gay life. Matt gave Van Leeuwen the facts about 1 [sic] the plane and the other material to send. It was sent as far as we know. We have a copy.



Wednesday
June 9
1926


Today was a rather interesting day. To begin with[,] Anji Ipoei had his first ride in an aeroplane when he accompanied Hans on his first flight to Batavia Camp. Dick had the Dyaks get one of their head dresses[,] matt hats all decorated with feathers, and Hans put it on like a helmet. Anji was all dressed up for the occasion in his white uniform and when we put the goggles and helmet on we took several pictures of Hans and him together. They are good. One could get the impression that Anji was somewhat frightened over his coming aeroplane ride in the clouds as he climbed in. He sat very quiet in the front cockpit with the rice tins while the motor was being started. All of the Dyaks were present and they laughed at Hans when {F1.75} he taxied the Ern out in the stream with the Dyak hat on and the feathers blowing from the propellor breeze. In fact we all laughed. They were soon in the air for the load has been cut somewhat and it helps materially. We are still carrying over three hundred kilos tho in addition to the passenger. With the extra tin or so of rice dropped it helps materially in getting the plane up on “the step” and she takes off better. The Dyaks watched the take off and followed the plane with their eyes until it was lost in the clouds over in the direction of Batavia Camp. Anji, the Dyak Chieftain from Boreno [sic] was the first of his race to fly and he was proud of that honor. His men were proud also. They sat around in groups on the steps of their house and talked about it. They too were proud of the honor. The Dyaks have been watching with interest the performance of the plane day by day. When it appeared in the sky on the return trip they all ran to the landing place on shore and watched it glide gracefully to the water, skim the top and then rest easily and quickly. Anji was all smiles. “Bagoose” was his comment. The Dyaks surrounded him and you could hear yourself think. They talked Dyak. Anji didn’t have much to say. He was impressed there was no doubt. Mr. Leroux asked him how he liked it and he said it was great. He was surprised that it rode so easily and that he didn’t get seasick. Hans reported that he sat quite still all during the trip. Upon landing at Batavia Camp, however, he got down on the pontoons before the motor stopped and Hans had to shout to him to wait until the Prop stopped turning and the engine was out of gas. It was a close shave. Hans also said that he tried to reach him from the front by tapping him on the head to call his attention to the various sights about him, but that he still sat looking ahead. He didn’t look down once. It was a big thing for Anji to take a ride in the plane for primitive people are superstitous [sic] about many things. His ears were ringing from the noise of the motor but Mr. Leroux explained that his {F1.76} did also and that it would soon go away. Anji was so elated with his ride that he wanted to write a letter immediately to his Sultan in Borneo telling him all about it. Mr. Leroux explained that it was impossible to get his impressions until later. He is going to have his matrie [sic] write the letter for Anji in Malay and will translate it and give us a copy. Tomalinda, the other Dyak chieftain was jealous of Anji riding in the plane and in order to keep peace in the family we promised him a ride in the morning. However, after luncheon it was decided that it would be best to fly once or twice more this day if possible and lay the Ern up for a thorough inspection tomorrow. So as [sic, = at] Posthumus[’] request and permission, Tomalindo [sic, = Tomalinda] climbed into the ship on the second flight. He was more jaunty and confident than Anji was. Perhaps it was because Posthumus had talked to him and told him how it would be. Perhaps it was because Anji had returned safely. I know not what but he appeared to be more confident[,] that’s certain. This time, his men watched with interest. In about two hours they were back. Tomalinda, however, had had more thrills than Anji on his ride for he looked down and all around and seem to be promoting Hans to circle the camp on the return. They also flew through a rainstorm which was a big kick to the Dyak Chieftain. His men felt of his arms and legs when he put his feet on solid ground after his trip through the clouds in the heavens. There is great rivalry between the two chiefs and they are jealous as can be of one another. Anji didn’t like it that Tomalinda was given a ride but we had Mr. Leroux explain to him that the Americans were fair and were [sic, = where/that] it wouldn’t be nice to give Anji a ride without giving for other Dyak a ride also. [sic] We told him that all of the honor would be Anji’s for he would be the first Dyak in their history to ride in a plane. Leroux explained that he had the honor of being the first Dutchman to ride in an aeroplane in Netherlands New Guinea and that Anji had {F1.77} the same honor among the Dyaks. He looked thoughtful for a moment and agreed but you could tell that he wasn’t all enthused about it. It was a great day. The men whom Barnum had made famous throughout the civilized world as the “Wild men from Borneo” today are riding through the air over the same river seething with whirlpool rapids, that just a day or so they had been paddling hard to navigate their canoes on for three days. In the plane they made the trip in 35 minutes up and 35 minutes return. They sat and rode in comfort. All around them they could see the jungle-clad peaks of the mountains and below[,] the rocks and the rapids of the river. They were masters of the rapids in their canoes but it takes all their skill and human endurance to conguer [sic] them. The plane in which they rode conquered them both without any effort. Except of course the effort of the Pilot flying with the heavy load, easily and quickly. They had been on the river for three days with the canoe transport. Four times daily they had seen this same plane in which they were now riding pass over them as they sweated and paddled. One canoe load will not exceed the load of the plane for they run between 250 and 300 kilos. It doesn’t take the Dyaks long to see the advantage of the aeroplane and they are completely sold on it. It will be interesting to see what Anji writes to his Sultan. “Bagoose” was all we could hear after both the Dyaks had ridden. They both shook hands with Hoyte after their ride and thanked him profusely. They are proud that they have flown in the heavens. Anji says once is enough. He knows how it is now and what it is like. The other Dyak, Tomalinda, is anxious to fly more. Anji’s men (five or more of them) want to fly and Tomalinda says that most of his men are anxious to have a ride in the aeroplane. I sent 210 words to Aneta who sends to A.P. New York. It should be a good story for American papers. I just gave the facts – cold hard facts which any newspaper man would grab with itch-{F1.78} ing fingers.

It was four o’clock in the afternoon before the plane was ready for the third hop and Hans and Prince hopped off[,] making a record for the plane. It has made three trips now in one day. That’s flying in more ways than one. On those three trips Hans deposited 915 kilos of food at Batavia Camp and carried a passenger each trip which would have meant that there would be three men to guard the food over night if we were without canoe transport. One ton of food a day is going some. It was the fifth day of flying, and with the three flights today Hans and Prince have averaged two flights per day because on Tuesday June 8th, only one flight was made because of rain in the afternoon. As a result[,] three thousand one hundred and five kilos of food are resting in Batavia Camp. A canoe transport takes three or four days. With ten canoes in a transport and each of them carrying three hundred kilos it would take them three days to get that much food there and with five Dyaks to a canoe. That demonstration has more than proven the usefulness and the feasability [sic] of using an aeroplane in exploration work in New Guinea. When one stops to consider that all of the elements are against the plane including the logs in the river, the mountains, the heat, and even the army co-operation, it has been a remarkable performance. Tomorrow it goes on the float for a thorough inspection and then it will continue its sensational demonstration. Everybody was happy tonight. Leroux was the only Dutchman who had enough fairness in him to come over to our camp and congratulate Hoyte on his day’s work. The rest had long faces and said nothing. Their attitude is best illustrated by a remark of Dr. Hoffman’s (I am surprised at him for he has been a very friendly fellow and despite the fact that he is in the army he has been more than nice to us)[.] I was mentioning the fact that Hoyte (who was due back in five or ten minutes) had done a good day’s work and that he had made three trips today and gave him the {F1.79} amount of food. He said “yes, but he has not returned as yet.” Shortly afterwards the plane appeared in the heavens and Hans landed. They hate to give in even if it is up to the last inch. I played [it] safe and didn’t send my telegram until Hans had landed and the plane was safely anchored to the shore.



Thursday
June 10
1926


The weather didn’t look so good in the morning when we arose. It was cloudy most of the morning. Leroux had the entire outfit, soldiers, convicts, Dyaks and the staff lined up for a picture with his panorama camera. Dick got movies of it [See Film Selection #8]. It is an impressive bunch for in numbers it runs considerably over three hundred people. That is many mouths to feed in this country when everything has to be carried here. I also shot a close up of the staff with the graflex. The Dutch army men were all dolled up in their Khakai [sic] uniforms and were spick and span. We with our beards and ordinary clothes looked more like jungle explorers than they did but they will probably say we are slovenly. We sure look the part. However, one doesn’t come to New Guinea to dress up. We came here to explore. When we are in Java and America it is time to dress up. After the picture taking was over we adjourned to the plane for she was to be put on the float for a time. That was not an easy task for the river has fallen considerably since she was on the float the last time and it would not be possible to use the boom and the chain hoist. Hans and Prince worked it out however, and with the aid of four or five Dyaks and Moon[,] the convict[,] it was accomplished. It took until long after lunch time and much hard work on the part of Hans. Hans is a good worker and senses the importance of doing things well. He isn’t afraid to get into the water and get his feet wet. Putting the fourteen drums under the float with the river low is a hard task. When it was possible to use the chain hoist it could be lifted slightly in order to get some of {F1.80} the weight off the float. Now, however, the drums had to be put under by strength and that is man power. It was finally accomplished and we adjourned to eat. We have opened some of the green peas and they have tasted darn good. The weather was threatening all morning and shortly after luncheon we had a regular New Guinea rainfall. It rained heavily all of the afternoon and as the wind was in the right direction it came right into our front porch. Matt was sorting out some negatives and putting them away in his files when it struck. I was working at the typewriter. At first we thought it wouldn’t come in for it never has before but the wind carried it in upon us and for several minutes we were busy putting things away and out of the reach of the water.

It stopped work on the plane of course. We have been fortunate in selecting the right days for flying and for laying the plane up. It would have been bad had Hans been caught in that heavy rain storm. He has flown through many, however, for he is not staying on the ground because of a few clouds. Hans is doing splendid work on this expedition and deserves much credit. It stopped just before five and it was possible to cook dinner. The evening was clear and Jordans, Korteman and Hoffman visited us for the first time. Leroux’[s] pictures turned out well. That camera is an excellent one for that kind of work. Leroux is getting some splendid pictures. We too, have a wonderful collection up to date. Have about all we need for around here. Van Leeuwen informed us that Posthumus and Tomalinds’ [sic, = Tomalinda’s] Dyaks were leaving in the morning in a transport, with twenty soldiers. He will pick up some prows and food at Batavia Camp and go through to establish Motor and Head Camp if possible. On June 17, Jordans and Van Leeuwen will leave. Of course, Van Leeuwen will go straight through to Head then for it will be ready by that time. Stirling and Leroux are to follow when the transports come back which will be the end of June of course at the earliest. That is not so nice and shows how liberal the new so-called leader is and how courteous he is in his {F1.81} leadership. He and his many tons of tins, newspapers and alcohol go first and then the rest can follow. He is very selfish[,] that is certain. However, we listened and said [“]yes yes.[”] It is his intention to keep everybody but himself back. When we get up stairs it will be a hard thing to do and if we wish it we can fly up there long before he will ever arrive. Probably he is figuring that we will do that. There are many things in the air, besides the aeroplane these days. The pictures of Anji, Hans and the aeroplane and Tomalinda turned out fine. We have a good selection of Dyak pictures now to illustrate storied [sic, = stories] for Popular Mechanics and news stuff.



Friday
June 11
1926


The river is falling rapidly. It is the lowest since we have been in New Guinea. That was easy to see when we awoke this morning. The men were busy building additional steps to the Bath House and the W.C. One had to be an acrobat to get to either for the river had dropped half a meter during the night. The plane rested on the float and the first two drums were resting on the soft slimy mud. The falling of the water brings to light additional stumps of trees which stick out here and there like cannons. Hans has been flying the plane over some of them for they are submerged during high water. It would be disastrous to hit them even the slightest touch with the pontoons. He will have to be extremely careful on the next take off if the water continues to fall. Taking off and landing amid this [sic, = these] stationary tree stumps is not what one would call excellent flying conditions. Then, too, one must not forget the floating logs [that] are submerged [and] which pass by rapidly now and then. Hans has done extremely well to date and we have been lucky in that respect. Hope the breaks keep breaking our way. At about eight o’clock Posthumus departed with four canoes for the trip to Head Camp if possible. He had all of Tomalinda’s Dyaks. Anji with his men and five canoes were to follow at 11:30. Anji did not like to go with the others because it would {F1.82} mean faster work for both so Posthumus[,] who has already set two records for transport work between here and Batavia Camp[,] agreed to have him follow later. They are taking some of our gasoline which he [sic, = we?] have donated to help run the motor boats. They have 31 tins to date, Lieutenant Korteman informed me. I don’t know whether they took all of that in the canoes or not. Probably did. We were present when they left and wished them good luck. I forgot to mention in yesterday’s record that Korteman had learned that we had heard rumors from the Dyaks that they were not getting enough food and he felt as though we thought it was his fault. Consequently he invited me to the godown when the Dyaks were given their food so that I could see for myself just how much they received for five days. It was the right thing to do and I explained to him that we didn’t feel that he was slighting the Dyaks but that they should be well fed because they worked harder than anybody in the camp. And they do. They get what appears to be enough food but I can’t tell whether one kilo a day of rice is enough for them or not. They get one and sixth tenths kilos of rice a day and also get meat and sugar and other things. As I explained it to him I thought that inasmuch as the Dyaks worked harder than anybody else and that they were the only ones who handled a canoe in the rapids and they worked hard at that for eight hours a day they aught to get as much to eat as they wanted. He agreed but said that the Dyaks are always complaining about not having enough to eat. If they work hard – and they do – they should be given ten kilos of rice[,] if they could eat it[,] for without them the Dutch couldn’t get up the Mamberamo or anyplace else for that matter. Van Leeuwen is always talking about how much a Dyak eats. He eats plenty himself and does no manual work. If he were to work as hard as a Dyak he would eat ten times as much from what I’ve seen of his eating. The Liberty motor burns twenty five gallons of gasoline an hour but look {F1.83} what it does. The Dyaks are used to more tobacco and have a hard time getting along with the one package they receive and which has to last them for five days. However, as they are getting paid for their work here each day, they could buy additional tobacco from the magazine if they cared to. The other is furnished with their food.

The boys busied themselves all day working on the plane. They are going over it thoroughly for it needs to be looked after well in this climate especially when it is carrying capacity loads and clying [sic, = flying] over the territory which is bad at the best. If we can only bring back to the United States an air picture which would give the audience just a simple idea of what this country is like it will be worth while. It con’t [sic] be expressed in words. Dick went on a hunting trip this morning all by himself. He stayed close to the river, however, for the danger of getting lost in the jungle is a great one and one that should not be thought of lightly. He returned after luncheon but had failed to bag any game. He did say he saw a small kangeroo [sic]. The soldiers brought in a large lizard yesterday and one of the Dyaks who went out with a shot gun came back with a little pig. It was alive and they had caught it. The Dyak would have had the mother only the shell failed to explode and she got away. The little fellow was left behind in the rush and the Dyaks returned and captured it after a little difficulty. It is added to the camp list of mascots now and Billy the official mascot dog is jealous. Posthumus has named it “Pete” and it squells [sic] just like a little porker in the United States. Matt took a picture of it today showing the stripes and everything. We now have (that is they have) a dog, a kitten and a pig. As yet none of the hunters have returned with a large porker although there have been many pigeons and birds. We have received none and don’t want any. I also forgot to mention that they started building a bath house for us two days ago. Jordans was visiting me on his way by for a moment and suggested it to us. We said it would {F1.84} be nice to have one and after he left a sergeant and four or five convicts started work on it. This is the third day and it is almost finished. We have been using the general bath house with the soldiers, convicts and the Dyaks up until this time. The others have all had their bath houses from the very beginning. It is beginning to appear that they have been instructed perhaps to do something for us also. Or perhaps we have been getting too dirty and they don’t like the way we smell. There has been no official report given on the leadership question as yet. They have been told there was to be no trouble with the Americans and we also learned that they were asked if all of the Americans were satisfied. Van Leeuwen replied that we all were and that the co-operation now was great and everybody was in the best of spirits. Aneta news contained the item about the Dyaks flying today and they had it “Hedberg said, etc.” Looks like Wirtzenberg has gone to Holland. I hope not, but I suspect that he has.

Posthumus evidently saw that our lamp (storm king) was not burning as brightly as it should so we [sic, = he] came over with another one that was in good condition. That is the first time he has put himself out to see that we are getting along all right with the exception of the night when Leroux was visiting us when he came over and offered us an additional lamp. I thought then that he did it to stop any talking we might be doing or to scare Leroux. He can’t be scared, of any of them however, and still insists that right is right and fair is fair. He tells them so to their faces and that is what they don’t like. Leroux has always been fair with us and we like him for that.

I visited a short time with Anji and his men in his house before they left and had a good time with them. I was asking their various names and when they told me one was Papuee, I said[,] [“]Papuee eh? Teda [sic, = tidak (Malay)] (No) Papua[,] [”] and they all laughed. They thought it was a huge joke that I should think one of their members could possibly be a Papuan. Leroux also brought over the letter that his mantre [sic] Sally had written for {F1.85} Anji. It was to the Sultan of his particular territory and it was a knockout from all standpoints. Anji gave him all of his impressions of the plane and his descriptive part of the ride was good. He said it felt like he was shot from a bullet. He praised the aeroplane highly and compared it to his work on the river. It will make a good letter when it is translated literaly [sic]. Leroux is going to give us a copy of it in high Malay and also translate it to English for us as it is. It will be a scream. The flying conditions are not well today and it is a good thing that work is being done on the plane. We have been lucky in selecting our flying days so far. As I write [it] is cloudy all around and it appears as though we are in for a good rain. It might pass over however. Pioneer Camp was visited by Dr. Van Leeuwen today and he returned with a fine bunch of orchids. They are the first that he has found so far. They were really beautiful and[,] as he said[,] if he had them in New York City they would be worth a great deal of money. We will probably see many different kinds when we get up to Head Camp in addition to many kinds of different birds and animals. The Papuans who were here the other day departed after stating that they were going to build a Kampong on the other side of the river. They are not so dumb at that for it is a long trip from their place to here and they wish to be here as much as possible for they are always receiving something, in the way of food[,] empty tins[,] or tobacco. As it is a long time between expeditions they want to make hay while the sun shines and I don’t blame them for that. We are wondering if they will bring their women folks with them. I suppose not for they are afraid of the soldiers. There has been no mention of Leroux’[s] ride and mapping work in the aeroplane in the Aneta news but that could have been overlooked for they send nothing but the barest details in that radio news report. When Van Leeuwen sent in his telegrams that it was impossible for him to go upstairs {F1.86} in the plane because it wouldn’t carry all of his baggage[,] the committee came back with the query “why can’t Stirling and Leroux go. [sic]” That was a good question for they have no cumbersome baggage and the plane could have transported enough food and enough men to care for them in Splitzings Camp as has already been demonstrated. Van Leeuwen takes the standpoint through [sic, = though], [“]If I can’t go nobody else can go.[”] The sixty Dyaks are coming[,] Van Leeuwen brought that news over and now the expedition is assured of going into the Nassau mountains and of being able to spend at least three months there. We will now have a good expedition and should get some good results. They evidently thought well of Matt’s generous offer for it will cost considerably more money for all those Dyaks in addition to those he [sic, = we] have. We have 69 now (one died the first day here) and sixty more will make 129 Dyaks. When you watch one Dyak work and see what he can do you can realize what 129 of them can do for this expedition. It was not necessary to have so many if it wasn’t for Van Leeuwen and off [sic] the surplus soldiers and convicts they straddled on to us but the army must have a big expedition and we were caught in the middle so to speak because of the fact that the aeroplane couldn’t carry the 400 kilos to Splitzings camp that we had said it would in the plan. Everything is settled now and if Van Leeuwen will only be decent and fair we ought to have a good expedition and get some good results. He will continue to be small and petty in all his dealings though so it won’t be as rosy as it should be. We might still be able to take him down a step or two for the Indian Committee didn’t fall over themselves in acceding to his request and the government hasn’t O.K.’d the proposition as yet either. When that comes it will be official. Until then Matt is still the leader as far as official action is concerned.



Saturday
June 12
1926


It was guiet [sic] throughout the camp today because the Dyaks were {F1.87} away. It is always rather quiet when they are on the transport. There are one or two who are sick remaining and even they help a little for they walk around lending color to the camp. The boys continued their work on the plane. I worked on a message which I intend [on] sending to the Indian Committee giving our side of the story. I think it will be a good thing to do. I forgot to mention yesterday that we received a wireless message from the Davidson's [sic, = Davidsons] at Tosari. It came in the evening and said “Go to it boys. Good luck. Shall I join you queaite[.]” We could not understand the last word. It evidently had been gummed up on the many relays it had to pass through on its long journey here. Sparks, the navy sergeant who received it asked Manokwari to repeat it but that was the way he had it so he asked for a repeat all along the line. As yet we haven’t received it. We con’t [sic] seem to guess what he meant, either. The closest we can get it [sic, = is] “Shall I join you quietly or quickly[.]” He evidently had just seen the radio dispatch about Hans flying the Dyaks in New Guinea. They have a wireless station at Tosari and receive the same Radio news that we receive here. It evidently has steamed him up for he was anxious to come with us. Davidson would certainly be a fine addition to this party. He is a nice chap and so is his wife. It wouldn’t surprise us if they steamed up to Albatros camp one of these days from Manokwari. If they knew it could be done I am sure that they would pay us a visit. We think of them often for the candy they gave us before we left is certainly enjoyed by all concerned every now and then.

Leroux and Matt went hunting in the afternoon and Leroux came back with a pigeon. It was an old one, however, and from its looks would be tough. Sally accompanied them. They skirted around the hill behind Pioneer Camp and had one Papuan with them and a Dyak. When they suddenly came into the clearing at Pioneer Camp they ran into the cows who are parked there. The Papuan had never seen a cow before in his life and he was scared. He drew his bow and placed an arrow in {F1.88} it ready to shoot when they stopped him just in time. We came near to having fresh meat before our time. They also saw two kangeroos [sic] and one cassorary [sic] but they were not in shooting distance. The Papuans (Matt’s friends) are still with us. They are hanging around camp and I believe have a Kampong close by. The “candy man” with his quinine made the rounds and Prince obtained his at the Dyak house. A Papuan was there and seeing everybody putting their hands out for their medicine he got the impression that something good was being passed around. So he put out his hand and asked for some of the good looking white pills. The Doctor’s assistant gave him the customary allotment of four and Prince told him it was “Bagoose” and informed him he should chew them one by one. He did and from Prince’s account he made some terrible faces. They kept telling him that it was good so he tried the second with more bitter results. The third was hard chewing and after the fourth he wasn’t agreed that it was good eating. It reminded us of the Pennzoil we had them eating and thinking was good. The oil would have made a good wash down for the quinine. They are funny people and we all get quite a kick out of them.

The pig escaped yesterday from the large stockade they had erected for him. He had been getting away all day but the convicts after a hard chase always succeeded in captuing [sic] him and returning him to his pen. He didn’t like his confinement and squealed most of the day. Finally either Lieutenant Korteman or Jordans opened the door to see how he was getting along and the little pig had a call to go to the market and went. The Lieutenant shouted wildly for a boy but the boys were absent so the pig made his escape. All is quiet now that Pete is gone. He will probably die in the jungle for hs [sic] is too young to shift for himself as yet. It would have been against Dutch religion or regulation or standards or whatever you may call it {F1.89} for the Lieutenant to chase the pig and get him. They are helpless without their boys. We get a big laugh every time one of them wash[es]. They call a boy and sit out on the chair and have him pour the water over his head, and then his hands while he washes. If that isn’t lazyness [sic] I don’t know what it is. I often wonder if they are as lazy as that in Holland or whether they get into the habit when they have been in the Indies for a long time. They certainly get to depend upon the natives to do everything for them and when the natives can’t do it or do it well they just let it go for they never think of doing it themselves. That is one reason why this country is as primitive and unknown as it is. They have no initiative and no go-get it spirit which is necessary to penetrate into the interior. They have had many expeditions, it is true, but they carry so many of the personal luxuries they are used to in Java that it takes hundreds of men to carry their tents, chairs, tables, and goodness knows what.

Van Leeuwen came by rather excitedly in the evening with a telegram in his hand. He wanted to know if we knew what kind of oil the motor boats used. He had send [sic] a radio for more oil and they came back with the question “What kind of oil do you want”. [sic] We of course didn’t know what kind of oil they burned so he at our suggestion asked the navy men who are in charge of running the boats. That is a fair indication of how things are run on this expedition. They get better every day. The message from the Davidsons from Tosari[,] Sparks told us[,] was sent to Makassar to Ambon to Dobo to Manokwari and then to us here. When anything is sent from here it is sent to Manokwari to Dobo to Ambon to Java. The army short wave works direct with Java when it works. He handles only army messages, however, and if it wasn’t for the navy we wouldn’t have any means of communication at all. That is ourselves personally. The navy has been splendid to us though. If the army would only be as nice we would get far and have {F1.90} less trouble.



Sunday
June 13
1926


We celebrated Sunday morning by not arising until after eight. Dick as usual was up with the sun 6:00 or 6:30 as he is every morning but the rest of us stayed in. It was another one of those days that make it plain to one that it is a Sunday and a day of rest. So a Sunday atmosphere prevailed. Leroux had a cup of coffee with us for breakfast. The Papuans are still with us and we spent a good part of the morning trading with them. Prince obtained some arrows but they were wise and it took tobacco and matches to get anything. He gave one of them a short piece of puttee[,] he had cut off one of his puttees because it was too long. They have been so accustomed to getting rice and things for nothing that it is hard for them to have to part with some of their arrows for goods which they used to beg. Lieutenant Korteman just passed all dressed up in whites[,] starched, pressed and everything. We shouted at him and asked if he was going to church. He replied that they were pajamas. Even in the jungles they dress. We are going around with long beards and our jungle clothes and look like hobos most of the time. I don’t think that they approve of that. But in the jungles so far away from civilization it is useless to dress up in whites. We keep clean but we don’t shave or dress up. Navy sparks has had a touch of malaria which Dr. Hoffman says is increasing. He has 14 patients in the hospital who are in the various stages of the fever. Outside of that sickness is not great as yet.

It was a quiet Sunday and some of the boys spent the day trimming their beards and shaving. Hans has a new style on the order of President Van Buren. Dick looks like a moving picture actor who has taken the part of an elderly man and has false whiskers on for the part. {F1.91} He shaved today and the clean part gives that effect wonderfully. It rained hard in the afternoon. I did my first reading and finished "In White Rainment" [sic] a mystery story which was sure all mystery. I enjoyed it for it rained heavily all afternoon and it was warm and dry all about me as I laid on my cot and read.



Monday
June 14
1926


Work on inspecting the plane and servicing her continued to-day. Leroux and Dick and I with two Dyaks, a couple of soldiers, and two convicts went accorss [sic] the river and climbed a high cliff in search of a good place to take a motion picture and still picture of the camp from the opposite shore. It was hard going and we encountered some stiff climbing. We found a good place and it was cleared by the Dyaks and Dick assisting. We returned at 12:30 and because of the time it took us to get to the top did not have a chance to do much hunting which we started out to do. When I returned Matt and Van Leeuwen had been conversing. It seems that Van Leeuwen has noticed that we have been somewhat cool lately and it is the truth for it has been hard to conceal the fact when we know how underhanded he has been acting. Matt had told him just [what] our feelings were so after lunch I went up and talked things over with him telling him just how I felt and what I had sent inthe [sic] telegram to the Indian Committee. That kind of brought him to time. In fact he had changed even during the morning inconversation [sic] with Matt and had conceded many things. It appears now that Matt can go with him if he chooses and that if there is anything that we want all we have to do is to ask for it. I had him bring out the telegram he had received in answer to Matt’s telegram and he translated it for me. The last part about which said t [sic] that the committee agreed to Stirling[’]s request “unless the government decides otherwise” was the important part he had left out when he informed Stirling of what the telegram stated. {F1.92} It was nice of him to forget about that. He is very smooth, however, and has a plausible reason for everything. I didn’t get into any arguments with him but just had a friendly chat telling him how I felt about the whole affair. There were many things I would haveliked [sic] to put to him but it was impossible. That’s what makes it hard. I have, however, written a long telegram to the committee and after I send it will show it ot [sic, = to] him. Leroux is of the opinion that they have been small and he says he is[,] as a Dutchman[,] ashamed of their actions. Matt and Leroux went hunting in the afternoon but failed to get anything. They saw plenty of evidences of game however. The telegram I have written is as follows: [To] Hance I. C. “Stirling has received no official reply wireless regarding leadership except verbal information from Van Leeuwen committee agreed. Today I asked Van Leeuwen for translation of message he received and I learn from that committee is agreed unless government decides otherwise. Has government decided yet. Stirling made offer because he given impression American participation small and under his leadership full cooperation not possible. Americans highly appreciative of what committee and government done. Intention at beginning ethnological and anthropological expedition. Did not ask nor expect large expedition Americans honored have Dutch request participation. Our costs, however, increased and Stirling assumed heavy additional expenses arising thereform [sic]. Personally agreed contribute five thousand guilders more towards third group Dyak expenses. American members not being paid for work. All are contributing. Plane brought to Batavia Camp five days three thousand one hundred five kilos food. Each flight with one passenger total load fifteen kilow [sic] less than four hundred kilow [sic] carried test flight Soerabaia. We made mistake in plane figures for preliminary plan. We are sorry about that mistake which was recitified [sic] by exact figures what plane carried test flight. Everytime plane has flown {F1.93} here it has carried more load with heavy pontoons than American government mail planes with same motor carry with wheels in America. No friction Stirling’s offer transfer leadership indicates that. Sending this personally feeling spirit fairness committee and government know our side. When leadership decision given by government suggest it be sent to Stirling in English. Whatever it is rest assured of American appreciation for what committee and government done. All efforts be expended make results great as possible both nations.

Hedberg”

And so it goes tomorrow morning. What the answer will be I don’t know but wish it were possible to be in Java and give the committee all of the real dope. Van Leeuwen’s one big trump card which he used all during the conversation was “Mr. Peck”. He seems to dislike Peck as much as Peck dislikes him.



Tuesday
June 15
1926


The message was sent at 7 o’clock and after breakfast Matt and I went to Van Leeuwen to tell him all about it. He wondered why I hadn’t shown it to him before it was sent and I said that I didn’t think it was necessary for me to do that for he never showed Matt nor I any of the telegrams he had sent and told him we were doing this because we were treating the matter fairly and that there wasn’t anything in the telegram that was not true. He hemmed and hawed considerable [sic] all along but I told him frankly more things than I had told him yesterday and also added it was the feeling of everybody here. He said he had wired the committee five days ago that everything was all right with the Americans. I said that it was five days ago but that three days ago when he came and said he and Posthumus had agreed on the plan for him to follow Posthumus six days later with Jordans and that Matt and Leroux could follow when Posthumus had returned[,] which they figured would be the 26th[,] I didn’t {F1.94} like that at all after Stirling had been generous enough to do what he had done. It appeared to me, I said, and to the other members of the American party that now that the leadership was transferred we were just so much incidental baggage and could follow along whenever it pleased either Posthumus or Van Leeuwen to take us. That irritated me for I knew that Stirling was doing more than any of them and they were getting not only the credit but were hindering Matt in his real scientific work that he came down here to do. That is why I sent the telegram so the committee would understand our side. We argued back and forth a good deal and I pointed out the lack of cooperation and intimated that the start of the whole affair to wrest the leadership away from us was begun by him at Ambon when he suggested that Stirling let him handle all of the matters pertaining to the expedition. He didn’t like that at all. It was true nevertheless. I also said that when we returned to Java I would put all the telegrams I had sent before the committee and asked him to do the same with those he had sent, and let the committee decide who had been fair. This is the first time we have said a word. They have been filling the air with messages about us I am certain since we arrived. Some of them I don’t think were fair but I don’t know. He wanted to know how I knew he had sent telegrams and I said that Posthumus evidently had sent many and I presumed that he did too. Our side[,] until today[,] was not presented. I also asked him if he thought it was fair not to translate all of the Stirling telegram regarding the leadership and he admitted that was his fault. He can’t back down on that one item at all. And he doesn’t try to. He can’t for we have him there where the skin is short. The committee will take that point I believe. All we want is a communication from them that the leadership offer has been approved and Stirling should receive that in English. We are not backing down on the offer but we feel that it should be sent to {F1.95} Stirling. He has it coming. Matt talked and told him how he felt. He related all of the incidents which have been noted in the journal before. As the case was yesterday he had a smooth answer for all of them but fir [sic] failure to deliver and translate Matt’s telegram. He took all of that blame on himself and as well as the going ahead plan which he tried to sidetrack on. [sic] Matt doesn’t want to go with him of course, so it is agreeable as is. We finished good friends all around and said when the committee answered our telegram we would be satisfied. What their answer will be no one can foretell but it will give them the fact that all is not as rosy as he would have them believe it is. I wish we could tell him all but of course that is impossible. When we return to Batavia we will have a better opportunity if we can get the committee to show us the telegrams he sent them. We sent nothing so it was a one sided affair from the beginning for we hadn’t a chance in the world. It was cooked and dried but it was not quite sliced. We shall see what the days bring out of it. Van Leeuwen didn’t know whether to postpone his trip up or not. Leroux said it wasn’t necessary for he could answer the telegrams if they came and I believe he is going on up. I hope so. Everything is friendly on the surface but I know he is worried and don’t like it for he will have to account to the committee now for many things. He is a big man and it will be embarassing [sic]. However, I believe the committee can’t afford either to antagonize him but they will know that he has not been treating us fairly either. The only thing he could bring up against us in the smallest of things he could think of was that we didn’t go right up to the commander of the Java when we visited him on the ship that night. We had paid him an official call the day before and he wasn’t there and told the lieutenant we had called and to inform him of that fact. We were received on board by that Lieut. and it was a little time before we had an opportunity of going to him. We did, {F1.96} however, although not direct. That and Mr. Peck was all he had on us which was very little. But enough of all this. One could write for ever and not tell it all so we will let it rest for now. Suffice it to say, however, that we have a bath house now and this morning a ladder was built down to the river at the aeroplane anchorage so the boys will not have to slid[e] down through the mud when they load or unload or work around it. He said that the reason no one had asked anything about the place was that they didn’t want to hurt our feelings if we had to reply that there was something the matter with it. That was pretty lame but he got over it all right. [Not] Posthumus or anybody else for that matter has taken an interest in the plane from the beginning. There is no mistake about that. They didn’t even congratulate Hoyte on the work he has done. Leroux was the only one[.] He is fair and more than that.

The boys continued the servicing of the ship and as I write I can hear the hum of the liberty as they test her. She sounds all right from here. Dick went hunting and returned with a large white cockadoo [sic] which he had shot. He got three of them. Gave one to the Dyak[,] kept one himself and the other remained high in the tree and was left there. The river is falling rapidly and everywhere one can see threes [sic] sticking out. It is the lowest since we arrived. Leroux will get the figures on what it has fallen since we arrived. The Papuans are with us every day now for they have established their camp on the opposite side of the river and it is an easy matter for them to come over and get tobacco, empty tins, and food. They had a long trip previously and they established this camp to save themselves that long row and walk. They won’t do anything and are very lazy.

As I sit and write it is getting blacker and blacker out over the river and just above the jungle tree tops I can see a big storm {F1.97} coming. It has been very hot all morning and up to three o’clock. A wind has sprung up suddenly and all of a sudden the storm has broken all around us. It is blowing a gale and the atap covering on the cook shacks is blowing away in large pieces. I put the typewriter away and cleared things back. The wind increased in velocity and I thought that the roof was coming off our house. The wind gets under the atap and it appears as though it will be the end of everything. After getting things ship shape I hurried down to the plane. It was blowing harder and harder all of the time and no rain accompanied it for five or ten minutes. The plane was fastened securely but the wind had uprooted one huge tree and it almost tore the bakery down. It damaged but one corner of the bakery[;] however, the tree had fallen on our boom which we used for anchoring during the high water. It was a narrow escape but as the river was low it didn’t come near the wings. If the storm had come up during the high water it would have ruined the plane. Two other trees came down with a crash on the motor shop. They fell on each corner and stayed there as the Dyaks had built it very strong. Just one brace was broken from the falling trees which speaks well of the building qualifications of the Dyaks. I asked Hans if there was anything I could do to help. He shouted [“]yes[”–] to get out of the way of the trees which were swaying to and fro all about me. I didn’t notice that before but it didn’t take me long to get out of reach. Then came the rain. And how it rained. We were all parked in the warehouse and kept dry although it blew hard and the atap was lifted in all directions by the wind we remained dry. The storm was over as suddenly as it started and a look around camp found everything all right except what I have mentioned and the Doctor[’]s storehouse for his medicine. A big tree had fallen on one corner of it and wrecked it. The air was cool and nice and the coloring in the {F1.98} sky washed by the rain made a pretty affect [sic] as I finish this after the storm. It is just ten minutes past four and we are experiencing the coolest weather we have had so far in New Guinea. It would have been a bad one to have to fly through in an aeroplane and once more we say the Gods have been with us. The plane rode through it all and in ship shape. The boys have finished their work on it and it is ready for its run to Batavia camp[,] weather permitting. Dr. Van Leeuwen gave Matt a copy of the telegram he sent the committee in response to mine. It reads[:] “Hedberg showed me a copy of his letter whereover we talked a long time. Difficulties have come from the fact that Stirling did not receive an English answer and thought restriction in your telegram to me about asking if decision of government. Understanding notwithstanding very friendly. The way to clear the difficulties by sending an English answer Stirling who did not wish the telegram himself they declared have no objection against decision but they mean to have right to know themselves the decision of the committee and of the government. Although I have said them that you should have wired me a long time ago if the dicision [sic] of the government had been different. There is nothing else. It is this alone not getting an aswer [sic] and the feeling that we did not wholly appreciate doings and share of the Americans for Stirling is quite content with the progress and the farther plans of the expedition.

Expleider.[”]

That[’]s the telegram. Now the committee can see for themselves just what the whole affari [sic] is about. Anyway everything is friendly and that is a big point. It wouldn’t help any to have arguments for t [sic] they get no where [sic] and would hinder the progress of the exepdition [sic]. Matt just learned from Van Leeuwen that on the Walloston [sic, = Wollaston] expedition they had many fights and that they threw tin cans at one another. They (the English) had much trouble with Cramer the Dutch army man and from the accounts of it[,] it must have been the battle of tin cans. {F1.99} Van Leeuwen was very anxious to have the committee feel that we were not to that point. Everything is friendly but we had a perfect right to tell them what we didn’t like and that’s why we did, and in plain words.



Wednesday
June 16
1926


Today was loading day for the prows which are to start tomorrow under Jordans. Van Leeuwen has decided to go with them and Leroux is going to answer and look out for the telegrams while he is gone. The plane was almost high and dry again for the river had dropped considerable during the night. The boys discovered the landing place which is twenty feet or more lower than when we arrived is not getting down to a gravel bank and has many small stones and rocks about. If the water drops much more [and] it is likely that it will, the Ern instead of pushing her pontoons in the mud as it has been doing will be shoving them into rocks. That will not be so good. So after breakfast Matt, Prince and Hans with a few Dyaks in a canoe went out in search of a new landing place. They finally found one upstream and at the end of the camp. It is just above the garden which was planted several days ago. So Hans with the plane on the float taxies her up the river to her new anchorage. She is there now. It looked queer to see the Ern going upstream slowly on the float. There was much work to do and as the mud was soft they got dirty. Dick went hunting in the morning and also in the afternoon. The canoes were loaded and most of their cargo was gasoline and oil they are borrowing from us. I checked it off. They obtained 34 tins on the first batch they took with them on the last transport and today they took 76 tins (380 gallons) or 110 tins in all which makes 550 gallons of the 650 we said we could spare. They also received 32½ gallons of oil today of the 50 we said we could spare. It was a busy day and very hot. Up to five o’clock it hadn’t rained {F1.100} any. Van Leeuwen received a wireless from the committee and it showed that they had not received my wire or his at the time of sending this. It was regarding the oil and the gasoline, and said that they didn’t want to take too much gas and oil from the plane for they wanted the plane to perform all that was possible or words to that effect. It showed that they in Java were interested in what the plane is doing and have an idea that maybe the army is trying to get the gas and oil away from us because that will tie it up quickly [sic, = quicker] than anything[,] being without gas or oil. It gave us a good idea that the committee had evidently read between the lines of all the telegrams that had been sent and were looking out after our interests. I am glad of that. Leroux went hunting in the afternoon with Sally his mantre [sic]. In the morning the convicts and Dyaks worked clearing the damage done by the storm of yesterday. It will be necessary to build a new workshop at our new anchorage and it is going to cause some delay in the loading of the plane for the warehouse where our food and gasoline is stored is at the other end of camp. The camp is a long one also so it will possibly be better to haul the gas and oil up there by canoe. That will not be a big difficulty, however[.] Just a little more work for the convicts and they need work badly now to keep them from getting any lazier than they are.

I noticed that Jordans was not as friendly today as he has been in the past and when the opportunity arises I am going to ask him what is on his chest. He evidently had been infromed [sic] by Van Leeuwen of what I had said about the army cooperation and took it that I was criticizing him. I wasn’t though for I like Jordans very much. I know he is under orders just as Posthumus is and don’t blame either one for what they have to do. Posthumus, however, could have done a little more for us than he has but is afraid to I believe. I hope that I can clear up the difficulty with Jordans for as I told Van {F1.101} Leeuwen I like him (Jordans) very much. We are invited to Van Leeuwen’s house tonight to drink a bottle of wine before he departs for upstairs. Posthumus is supposed to have left Batavia Camp today for Motor Camp. Jordans is going with Van Leeuwen directly to that spot.

Army sparks “short circuit” is repairing his motor in our shop. I don’t know what is the matter but they have the two assistants working hard on it. He is a funny chap. I learned from him last evening that he had sent a telegram to the commander in chief of the army for Posthumus saying not to pay any attention to the newspaper story I sent out that had details of the plane’s load in it. I don’t know whether I understood him correctly or not but that is what I gathered. I sure would like to see and have translated to me all the telegrams that Posthumus has sent on his special radio. No one else on the expedition can use it either. It if [sic] wasn’t for the navy set we would be out of luch [sic] when we wanted to send a message of any kind. The Papuans failed to put in an appearance today for some unknown reason. Possibly they are on their way back to their village but I rather think they are out hunting something to eat. I have been trying to get an arm ornament made of shell from one of them but it is to no avail. I even offered him my Dunhill pipe (not seriously however) and he refused to trade. He prizes it highly for some unknown reason. Matt also tried to obtain one when he visited their village but he failed to make the trade also. I offered a can of Prince Albert which they prize highly, matches, rice and almost everything I had available but they wouldn’t listen. I had him smell of it but when he felt himself weakening he ran away. They are funny people. There is only one or two in the entire outfit so they must be something special. One or two others have a small shell ring which they wear in front of them on their small dirty sarong but these to[o] are unobtainable. Van Leeuwen has been {F1.102} very friendly and it seems that he has taken our talk all right. I am glad of that. I can be more firnedly [sic, = friendly] with him now also for I have eased my feelings by telling him what I did. I think that they are very angry at Leroux however and believe that if he hadn’t been here we wouldn’t have suspected anything. We sure would have suspected something at that.

Korteman[,] who has always been nice [t]o us gave us a can of currents [sic, = currants] last night and I have given it to the baker with a package of raisins and he is going to mix them in the next batch of raisin bread he makes for us. We also received some liver and had it for luncheon today. I fried it in butter and it went very well. Dick was the only one who ate the cockadoo [sic] which he shot yesterday. Everybody else turned it down. Dick says it wasn’t bad. I don’t know whether or not I mentioned that the [sic] fixed a landing for the plane and it is easy to get down the bank now. It has been a long time coming and for a month and a half we have slid down the mud bank to get to the plane. The steps will have to be moved to the new place but that will be an easy job for it can be moved. Matt has been helping the boys with the new plane landing place all day. It is a big job and the boys need help. They had a half dozen or more Dyaks helping also. We will have to make a good path now to the new place but that too will be a simple matter.

We also received more fresh meat today for yesterday they slaughtered a cow. It will be a treat for dinner tonight althrough [sic] the last was rather tough. Anything to get away from the canned food however, is a treat. The raisin bread has been the best treat of all. Next to that is the jam that we can get from the magazine for it goes well with the fresh bread that we receive every day, from the bakery. Dick just returned from his hunting trip and reports that he got one cockadoo [sic]. He was up around Havic [sic] Island way and says that {F1.103} on the left side of the island the water is all gone and it is just a sand bank and mud bank on that side. If the river falls much more we won’t have much water left. It is likely to do that very thing for during the dry season which is on now, it can get as low as it can get high. The extremes are very large. They just carried the youngest of Anji’s Dyaks by. He had been cooking and scalded himself from his chest down to his feet. They are taking him to the hospital. It is too bad for he is a nice little fellow, and we all like him immensely. The Dyaks have not rested much on their day of rest and like the previous ones they have gone hunting[,] fishing or spent the day working on their tins and equipment. They can’t rest. Anji visited us last night for a time and we told him that as he was the first Dyak to fly[;] we (Prof) stirling was [sic] going to present him with a nice pair of wings in honor of that occasion. He will treasure it highly and will bring it back to Borneo with him.

At eight o’clock we all proceeded to visit Van Leeuwen. They were gathered on Leroux’[s] front porch for he has the best front porch of the expedition staff and it is a pleasant place to sit in the evening. We brought a jar of candy and a package of raisins to help out on the refreshments. Everybody was present when we arrived and Van Leeuwen proceeded to open the wine. We drank to his trip up the river and the good success of the expedition. It was a friendly atmosphere and the evening passed quickly. Korteman brought a box of cigars and we smoked, drank and ate raisins and hard candy. The later [sic] was given us by the Davidsons and it surely has been appreciated. The conversation took many turns and as is the usual case when a few men get together (even in the jungles) it turned to women. We adjourned at about eleven o’clock. It rained most of the evening.



Thursday
June 17
1926


It was nearly eight o’clock when we bid goodbye to Dr. Van Leeuwen[,] {F1.104} Lieutenant Jordans and the seven canoes loaded heavily with gasoline and oil and Dr. Van Leeuwen’s botanical material slipped noiselessly around the bend of the river. One of the Doctor’s assistants was also a member of the transport. Van Leeuwen had his mantre [sic] and his boy. Thirty Eight Dyaks [sic] manned the seven canoes. Anji Ipoei was in charge of the canoe in which Van Leeuwen was seated. They will return as soon as they get the transport to Batavia Camp. There were also a few soldiers who will be used at the various camps to be established at Motor Camp and Head Camp.

The convicts were busy during the morning building the steps and a landing at the plane’s new anchorage. It is a good place. The work done by the convicts and that done by the Dyaks is very noticealbe [sic]. After the transport left it was quiet throughout the camp as it has been in the past. There is getting no getting [sic] away from it[,] the Dyaks lend much color and activity to this camp. I visited with Leroux in the morning and the Papuans came over. He traded with them for several things and it was interesting to watch how he went about it. He sure knows how to handle primitive people. He finally succeeded in obtaining the shell bracelet which I had endeavored to get[,] for three packages of tobacco and two packages of papers. It was a good trade. He also obtained some good arrows. I tried remembering some of the Papuans names and succeeded in getting three of them, Canagua, Komah, [sic, = Komaha] and Yakop. They had a difficult time remembering mine and kept asking me repeatedly. It is certainly interesting to talk with them even through [sic] their malay is somewhat limited. Leroux gets along with them very nicely however. Later they were at our house and I tried to obtain another shell bracelet (Leroux got the other for Matt) and a shell ornament one of them wore around his waist. They prize them highly for I offered amny [sic] things including my Dunhill Pipe again but with no success. Komaha {F1.105} however, was anxious to get a tin of meat and said that tomorrow he would bring a bow and some arrows if I would give him either the pipe or the meat. I wouldn’t part with the pipe of course but I wanted to see how much he valued his shell ornaments. Leroux also obtained some of the small bags that they carry over their arms and in which they carry their worldly possessions. Red was among those present but he has toned down considerable [sic] and doesn’t talk as much as he did in the beginning. The red tobacco tin I presented him with yesterday was missing. I presume that one of the older men took it away from him. The small boys have practically nothing and to illustrate their fondness for decorating themselves one of the little chaps had a bandage which the doctor put on his leg wrapped around his forehead. They are very dirty and in the warm weather (it is getting warmer every day) they have a very unpleasant odor.

Korteman visited with us this afternoon for some time. He is a nice chap. When the transport pulled away this morning he remarked: “There they go up the river in canoes just like they did three hundred years ago”. It was a significant remark.

It was magazine day so I ordered the five days supply. We received a good batch of fresh meat (it was from the tenderloin) yesterday and today it was spoiled so we had to throw it away. The ice machine was apart so it was impossible to keep it in there. It will be in order for the next batch of fresh meat in about ten days or os [sic]. Fresh foodstuffs certainly do not last long in this climate. Even the bread molds quickly. The fresh bread we receive each day is very good and we enjoy it. The river is falling rapidly and if it continues we will have a large gravel bank in our front yards. It was a beautiful day all day although somewhat hot. And then it rained a little after four and is still raining as I write. The sky was clearer than usual today and it would have been a good flying day. The work on {F1.106} the ship is finished and tomorrow Hans and Prince are going to start the regular schedule of the Batavia Express. I presume that the soldiers and Dyaks at Batavia Camp will be pleased for it will mean fresh bread for them again. The plane is standing up rather well under the conditions which prevail in the tropics. It certainly is a good test for a plane’s endurance. We were talking it over today and decided that when we finish this expedition the facts and figures we will have will be of extreme importance not only in Java but for planes to be flown anywhere in the tropics. Hans says that if he has to do it again he will know just what to have put in or left off of a plane. He is greatly interested in the plane’s welfare and is watching it like a hawk.

I visited the Dyak boy who scalded himself late yesterday afternoon and found that he had quite a burn. He was lying quiet and evidently was suffering a great amount of pain. I felt sorry for him but could not say much “Teda Bagoose” [sic, = tidak bagus (Malay)] which means “No good” in Malay was the best I could do. There are about fourteen patients in the hospital and every morning at 6:3- Dr. Hoffman treats about forty. He is a busy individual. Prince is not feeling so well today. He has a headache and tried to sleep it off in the afternoon. He is feeling rather low as I write. I hope that he doesn’t become ill. Most of us have been rather well up to date and we are pleased. I hope that it continues. We recognized the fact that it was Thursday again for the “Candy Man” with his quinine was around. We are getting accustomed to it and now have no difficulty in taking the four pills all at once. At first I took them one at a time. As we have received no correction on the last sentence of the Davidson message we sent a reply. It was as follows: “Cheerio. All well. Last sentence message garbled.” I hope that they have not left Tosari and they will receive the message all right. They may even tell us {F1.107} what the last sentence of their former message was.

We also had a short session of revolver practice today. Dick fired his automatic, Doc his six shooter and I the [.]38 colt. I am a poor shot. Mr. Leroux visited us for a short time during the evening and He, [sic] Hans and Matt and I looked over the map. There is much unexplored land in New Guinea especially in this section. It is a large country and there is much exploring to be done. Aeroplanes we decided would be and probably will be in the future, the only feasible way to explore it.



Friday
June 18
1926


We were up bright and early and had breakfast over with a little after seven. Prince was feeling much better. He retired early last night and obtained a good night[’]s rest. He said he was just a little stiff all over but outside of that was all fit. I am glad of that. Immediately after breakfast the Ern was loaded and at 8:35 started on her flight for Batavia Camp carrying 310½ kilos of food. The new landing place appears to be all right although there is a rather bad back wash of current at that particular spot. They taxied up the stream and around Havic [sic] Island and took off around the bend in the river. They have a good long stretch in that direction and Hans believes it will be much better. The water has disappeared on one side of the island and if anything was to happen to the motor while he was taking off as before he would have to land on the sand bank. It took him approximately fifteen minutes to taxie [sic] to the end of the island and he disappeared around the bend. Finally, however, we heard the roar of the motor and when he came in sight after passing the island he was in the air and had about 150 feet of altitude. Evidently that is the best way to take off for he got up quickly it seemed. The convicts were busy clearing away the trees from the shore of the new landing place and they have built a platform and steps {F1.108} down to the river which facilitates loading. They have also cleared a path to the spot which makes it more accessable [sic]. It looked good to see the Ern in the Air again. She was idle for seven days. They had cleared the motor and inspected her thoroughly. She started very quickly the first time, and chopped them off nicely as she idled just before the start. It was the earliest start the plane had ever made in New Guinea and the weather was perfect. No mist or low hanging clouds to speak of. Of course we do not know what lies over the mountains and in the plain sections. The river had risen considerably during the night. It appeared to be about two feet. The river will probably rise and fall from now on for it appears to be about normal. It is [sic] gets exceptionally dry it will fall many feet more. The logs which were visible yesterday were entirely covered with water again today. Rained heavily most of the night. That is the reason. As a result the camp was very muddy in all directions despite the log walks they have been busy laying out for the past week. The camp has the appearance now of a good sized village and is quite orderly and well kept. We have our alleys, avenues, and prominades [sic]. It is a big change in a month and a half since we landed and everything was jungle. There has been much work done on it and at the present time we have as nice a camp as one could ask for. Hans returned with his accustomed schedule like regularity and nosed the Pontoons of the Ern into the mud bank of her new anchorage. The back wash didn’t seem to make much difference except that Hans had to gun her a little more than usual to buck it just before he came into shore. The Ern was fastened securely and it was decided to have luncheon for it was then eleven o’clock. After lunch was over she was loaded again with 310½ kilos and they took off, after a good deal of difficulty due to the motor not starting. The sun was very warm and Matt, Hans and Prince all took turns at the crank. It was at the worst part of the day and it tuckered them out completely. There is some thing about {F1.109} that cranking that gets the wind and they all had to take a rest. Mr. Leroux helped Moon and I hold one wing so the ship wouldn’t be carried into the float alongside. After a rest they tried again and it finally started. They were off up stream and as they approached Havic [sic] Island we could see that the current was very strong for the Ern barely seemed to move. They were soon in the aid [sic, = air]. The Papuans were present during this take off and they got quite a kick out of it. We sat around and visited with Leroux. Afterwards I came back and wrote in the diary. It was about three o’clock when the ship returned and we were all present to greet her. She was doing well. The weather was not so good coming back the boys reported. They had flown for a considerable distance through the rain. It looked bad over in that direction. Hans was uncertain and it appeared that he didn’t relish another trip to Batavia Camp. He asked Prince about it and Prince looked and said “Oh we might as well. Let’s go eh?” and Hans agreed. They took off upstream for the third time today. The wind started blowing and it did not look so promising. She was soon in the air and had about two hundred feet when she came in sight between Havik Island and the mainland. It was rather bumpy, however, for we could see her jumping around somewhat even from this distance. I hurried to get back to our house for I wanted to see if we could see them for some time in the air as before when they took off from in front of camp. When I arrived, however, the plane was not in sight and it is possible that they are not high enough so we can see them. It has been Hans’ custom to circle around the island once for altitude before he starts out on his trip but today he had been taking off and heading straight for the mountains. We did hear the roar of the motor though for a short space of time. Matt and I returned to Leroux’[s] front porch and sat waiting for the time when it was in order to expect their return. The weather man was threatening all over and after {F1.110} a half hour or so we could see a large rainbow in the sky in that general direction. The boys reported that they had seen another one of those rainbows on the ground during their flight through the rain on the last trip. It was much larger than the one we had seen on my trip and Hans said that it was double in one place. Prince was quite enthused over it. They took off at 3:40 so we figured it out that they were due back about 5:15 or 5:30 if all went well. When that time came we sat watching for them. The sky had cleared considerably over the lake plain section but to the left of that it was very black and we could see we were in for rain and perhaps a storm. I did not like the looks of the weather and was rather uneasy. This grew upon me when they had failed to appear on the horrizon [sic] in their accustomed spot at 5:30 and we sat and watched anxiously for them as it gradually grew balcker [sic] and blacker. Finally the storm burst upon us and it rained heavily. In the meantime it looked bad in the Lake Plain section direction again and our uneasiness increased. When they had been gone for two hours and had not put in an appearance both Matt and I were very uneasy. Mr. Leroux got his glasses and trained them on the sky, but to no avail. As we sat straining our eyes it slowly became darker and darker. It was plainly evident that they were not going to return this evening. We hoped against hope, however, they might burst through the clouds and were in readiness to receive them. Even Moon the convict who has been appointed third assistand [sic] mechanic stood by with an anxious look on his face. Dick came up and inquired about them. He thought that they were staying at Batavia Camp for the night because it was too threatening. When it finally became so dark that it was useless to look for them any longer we returned to our camp and ate supper in silence. It is hard to tell tonight just what has happened. I am of the opinion that they (if they got through the storm on the up trip) {F1.111} stayed at Batavia Camp for the night for I believe it looked bad in this direction from there and they did not want to risk it back. Matt and Dick are of the opinion that it was not the weather but a forced landing and they they [sic] are on the river someplace tonight. It is raining heavily as I write. If they had to come down because of engine trouble they will be all right and will be back tomorrow or the next day for the transport will return tomorrow night and pick them up. If something happened to the plane they are in the jungle someplace and it will be hard to find them. We are hoping against hope that they are safe. The fact that Hans didn’t think it was a good thing to make the third trip today is a bad omen. I thought of it at the time when Prince said “Well we might as well go” in answer to his “What do you say kid”. [sic] I think if they were fortunate enough to have passed through the storm which hit us just about the time they were going through the rapid part of the route[,] they are safe and sound in Batavia Camp, and will be in in the morning. It was the thirteenth flight of the Ern in New Guinea and today is Friday at that. That’s a bad combination, for one who is superstitious. We did not eat very much supper and I suppose we will not spend a very restful night. I hope they wake us up in the morning but it won’t be possible to look for them before ten at least because the clouds are always bad until that time. Today was an exception for they got away to an early start. It was not yet nine when they were in the air and it was unusually clear. In the afternoon, however, it changed very suddenly. I hope we can tell better news in tomorrow[’]s record. Matt and I played bridge in the evening with Lieutenant Korteman and Leroux and Hoffman. We spent a very pleasant evening and Korteman proved to be a most excellent host. He served us with wine, cigars and cookies. Dick dropped in and watched the game for several minutes before retiring. The evening sped by rapidly and it {F1.112} helped take our minds off the boys who were missing. We couldn’t help but think of them and wonder just where they were as it rained heavily. If they were forced down on the river they will spend a very uncomfortable night. That’s certain. It was after eleven when we quit playing bridge and retired. It rained most of the evening. Not so good. Leroux and Hoffman are excellent bridge players. Korteman is about in my class.



Saturday
June 19
1926


Matt was the first one up and we had breakfast at seven. Dick slept later and better last night. It seems as though the Doctor’s medicine is helping him. He has not been feeling well of late and Dr. Hoffman examined him and gave him a stomach bandage and some pills to see if that wouldn’t fix him up.

We talked about the boys and the possibilities of just what could have happened. We figured that if they were at Batavia Camp it would be useless to look for them until about 10:15 or 10:30. However before that we couldn’t hlep [sic] but look over the jungle in the direction they have always come anxiously hoping that they would appear. The roar of the Liberty would be [a] welcome sound to our ears. It was very cloudy and misty early in the morning and it was doubtful that they could start from Batavia Camp before 9:00 or 9:30 at the earliest. There is nothing we can do for we have no Dyaks here who could propell [sic] the one prow left up stream far enough to pass the point we know they passed when they took off yesterday. There are so many things that could have happened and so many angles that it is i[m]possible as yet to tell anything about it. Ten o’clock came and ten thirty but still no sight or noise indicating they were coming. It appears now as I write that they will not come in today and we will be without news of them until the transport returns which {F1.113} should be some time tonight. Then we can learn just about where they came down for they will be able to tell us if they past [sic] over them on the third trip and just where they were when they past [sic]. It is likely that they did. That will make it much easier for they would be in the vicinity of the rapids and Batavia Camp. If they fail to come back on the transport it will mean that they will never be found unless we can get an aeroplane to help in the search. All is quiet in camp and everybody is anxiously awaiting the return of the Dyaks in their canoes. It will be around five o’clock if everything went well with them on the up trip. Jordans is continuing on to Motor Camp[,] so Anji and his Dyaks will return alone. Anji and his men are to maintain the transport between Albatroo [sic, = Albatross] Camp and Batavia Camp until the first of August when the additional Dyaks will arrive. Then he is to go into the mountains with Leroux and Matt. That is the present plan. There is still a slight chance that the boys are still being held at Batavia Camp because of weather. It has been cloudy there all morning and right now looks very bad also. Then too, it might be that in landing they hit a log and smashed a pontoon. I only hope that they succeeded in landing in the river safely for they will be surely picked up by the transport on their return. The plane was carrying a heavy load as it has been doing all along and it is possible it might have broken in the air. In that case it is all over with for they wouldn’t have a chance. We are all hoping against hope that that is not the case. Tonight we will probably know for sure.

I cahnged [sic] ribbons on the typewriter today. That is the first new ribbon since we left San Francisco on Nov. 20th and it has stood up very good for I used it considerably in Java and here. If they last as well as that I will have no difficulty in the matter of ribbons. I think that the damp climate helps materially in keeping them {F1.114} in shape and makes them last even longer than they do in the states. The ribbon is [a]bout the only thing I know of that stands up in this climate. Everything else deteriorates. I am pleased to find that one part of our equipment is not bothered by this climate. It is almost noon now and still no sign of the plane. There have been times when it looked clear of there [sic] but not too often. Still it is getting to be more certain that something has happened to the plane. If they are members of the transport which arrives tonight all will be well and we will be happy once more.

(I forgot to mention yesterday afternoon Matt received an official reply relative to the change in leadership. In effect it follows: Committee and government agree to his proposal and Van Leeuwen is the leader. They advised us to use the plane as well and as much as possible and added that they had succeeded in sending as much oil and gasoline as we wanted. We did not ask for any gas or oil and they evidently had made a mistake in the message. Either that or they thought that the gas and oil they ordered for the motor boats was for us. We are furnishing them with gas and oil. The message was garbled as all of them evidently are that are sent in English. I’m sure that mine which was over two hundred words must have been unintelligble [sic] to the committee)[.] Leroux was surprised at the message and said it must have been too late for them to do anything and that’s that.

We had a silent luncheon and made up our minds that we wouldn’t see the boys until the transport arrived from Batavia Camp. That would either bring them or news of their whereabouts. We anxiously awaited its arrival. I talked with Lieutenant Korteman and Leroux in the afternoon and we discussed the advisability of going out in a prow and up the river to above Havik Island where we saw them take off. So at two o’clock with three convicts we started out. The convicts proved to be better handling the canoe than I had expected {F1.115} and we made fairly good time against the currect [sic]. Both Korteman and myself had a paddle and did our share rowing. It was the first time I had been on the river since I returned from the trip to Marine falls and since then the river has fallen some twenty feet or more. On the left side of the island the water was very sluggish and a big rock and mud bank stretched almost across the channel (old one) on that side. It was this that made Hans take off from the other side of the island instead of in front of camp. When we reached the main channel of the river which was gained thru a very narrow passage near the mainland[,] the current was exceedingly swift and we had to have the convicts get out and drag the canoe over the rocks similar to the way the Dyaks do it in the rapids. Before us then was the long runway of the river for it is straight for a considerable distance. We paddled along but no trace of the plane could be seen. It started to sprinkle slightly but soon stopped. We paddled to the end of the straightway and made three of the bends of the river. It was useless to go farther for without a doubt the plane had passed that little distance in no time. Korteman shot his revolver and the echo died away a short time afterwards in the distant mountains [sic] ranges and left a toomb [sic] like silence in the jungle. We were anxiously searching both shore lines but no trace of the plane could be seen. The convicts were paddling very well and we covered a considerable distance. Suddenly the corporal in the rear spoke to Lieutenant Korteman and up around another bend in the river were two objects that appeared to be canoes. We gazed hard but couldn’t distinguish much. It might be a log. Then they thought it was the plane and we paddled hard. I looked long. It was wide enough to be the plane wing but the color was yellow instead of the silver surface of the Ern. All this time we were getting closer and finally decided it was the Dyak canoe. As it appeared closer we saw it was the Dyaks[.] {F1.116} They were paddling furiously down the river. Some were standing up. Then amid the jungle silence a shot rang out from the opposite jungle bank. We stopped and listened and Korteman fired another shot in answer. It night [sic] be that the plane was inside. No response to our shot[,] we paddled toward the Dyaks. There was just one canoe. Finally it approached and we saw Hans and Prince in the center seated rather comfortable and without bandages of any kind. We heaved a sigh of relief for no matter what had happened they were safe and sound and that was all that interested us. We got the story, however, in a few words. On landing the plane lost a large section of the pontoon and it was safely anchored at Batavia Camp. That was all so we started back to camp with them. The Dyaks however, soon left us trailing behind for they were better with the oar than we were despite the fact that they were heavily loaded and we were without any load. As we approached Albatros Camp[,] Korteman fired three times and the entire camp was down to the landing to greet the returned heroes. And heroes they were. All were glad to see them and showed it in their faces. It was during the time that we were getting dinner that we got their story.

After taking off Hans and Prince flew through a very bad storm for about fifteen or twenty minutes. Everything was lovely otherwise[,] Hans said. The motor never skipped a beat. At times though it was impossible to see ten feet ahead but the river was always under them and rather plain to see. They flew through the storm successfully and saw the transport on the river making camp for the night. Just this side of Batavia Rapids. They continued on and were making their usual landing at Batavia Camp. It was about 4:20 and the weather there was perfect. Hans cut the motor and was gliding down to the water. Just as the Ern hit the water with the pontoons Hans saw a large section of one of the pontoons fly past his vision. He could {F1.117} just see it out of the corner of his eye. The heavy load the Ern is carrying makes it necessary to land swiftly. However as soon as the floats were on the water she stopped suddenly and Hans had to gun her quickly to keep her from nosing over. He headed for the nearest shore which happened to be the Papuan village just opposite Batavia Camp. He made it all right. Just at that moment a motor boat appeared around the bend. It was coming from Motor Camp. The motor boat came up to help. They had slid the pontoons into the soft mud bank and the Papuans took to the woods in all directions. A canoe came across from Batavia Camp and the 311 kilos of food was [sic] loaded into that. The motor boat towed the Ern across to the spot [where] the plane has always unloaded. Here the boys examined the pontoons and found that one of them had the bottom ripped completely off of one section. There were no jagged edges but the thin veneer had evidently been sucked off leaving the screws and tacks intact. The opinion was that the weather has loosened the glue and that they had not hit anything. Of course, it was impossible for them to take off the water with that big hole in one pontoon so they had to remain in Batavia Camp. They knew that the transport would beup [sic] the next day and they could return. They had no clambo [sic, = kelambu (Malay)] to sleep under and as the mosquitoes are exceedingly bad they could see they were going to spend a very uncomfortable night. The motor boat was about the best place for them to sleep so they got in there and fought the pasts [sic] all night long. No sleep was possible. About four o’clock in the morning Hans saw a light out on the river. It was very dark and misty and he wondered what that light could be. Suddenly in the silence of the night he heard the chunk chunk of the paddles alongside the sideboards of a canoe and looking out he saw the outlines of a canoe load of Dyaks paddling in perfect unison. One Dyak stood in front and held a candle. They were paddling swiftly and soon reached the dock. Anji {F1.118} the Dyak chieftain stepped out and ran up the steps. He had a serious look on his face and Hans said he smiled as he saw the aeroplane anchored over to one side. He spoke to the soldier on guard and learned that the plane and the boys were safe. At daybreak they got the story. After the plane had passed over their heads while they were fixing camp for the night they waited for its return. They were probably as anxious as we were at this end when darkness set in and the plane had failed to return. At nine o’clock Liet. [sic] Jordans and Dr. Van Leeuwen thought it best to send a canoe ahead to give any assistance the plane might require if it had been forced to land in the rapids. They asked Anji if it was possible to make the trip in the darkness. Anji replied that if it was necessary and if they thought that the Americans were in danger he and a picked number of men would try to get through. If it was only [“]half necessary[”] is the way he expressed it in Malay[,] they wouldn’t do it, but if it was [“]whole necessary[”] they would be off. Jordans and Van Leeuwen informed him that it was absolutely necessary so Anji called for volunteers. They all volunteered so Anji picked eight of his best men and[,] unloading one of the prows[,] they started a little after nine. Before leaving Jordans had fixed up a gasoline can of medicine and bandages and instructed Anji in the art of fixing broken bones and how to wrap legs and arms in splinters. It was funny to hear Anji explain it but it was very thoughtful of Jordans. The night was black and it was impossible to see anything on the river Anji said. The storm king which they had for a light soon gave out and the only light they had was a candle. Going up the rapids (Batavia Rapids are like steps where the water falls down rapidly after leaving the plain section) is a dangerous job in the day time. At night it would be almost suicidal to attempt it but the nine Dyaks with their candle paddled on. It must have been a night of thrills for them. They said that {F1.119} every once in awhile they would see a huge boulder directly ahead of them and it would take all they had to alter the course and keep from crashing into it. They paddled all night long and the true story of their efforts will probably never be known for the Dyaks talk but little. They are adventurous people though and I believe that they enjoyed that night. It was the first time in history that Dyaks had paddled a canoe in a dangerous rapid at night. At four o’clock in the morning they arrived at Batavia Camp and all were pleased that nothing had happened to the plane. Leroux talked with them when they returned and gave me the above information. He also said that they called loudly all during the trip hoping that if the boys were on the bank they would hear them. They also searched the shore line for the plane or traces of it. When one considers that the Dayks [sic] had paddled a heavy canoe all that day and then paddled through the rapids all that night one can easily see and understand what a sturdy people they are. It was daylight soon after they arrived and they helped to beach the plane in a secluded spot selected by the boys. Afterwards they started on the return trip with Hans and Prince as passengers. They borrowed one of Tomalinda’s canoes and brought it to Jordans so he could load the material which they had been carrying. They arrived at the camp before they were ready to leave and the boys had an opportunity to thank Jordans and Van Leeuwen for their thoughtfulness in sending the canoe after them. The Dutch were pleased to learn that nothing serious had happened. Jordans was sorry that the plane would be laid up for a time for he realizes the work that the boys have been doing carrying food up to Batavia Camp. Jordans[’] transport continued to Batavia Camp and Anji and his Dyaks returned to Albatros Camp. They paddled hard all day. That made two days of hard paddling and one night without any sleep. Still they were rather fresh when we came across them and they paddled so that we had a hard time {F1.120} keeping up with them. They are certainly remarkable people. Hans and Prince had a few thrills coming down the rapids in the day time and both enjoyed the trip immensely. The Dyaks had a shot at a large crown pigeon just before we had sighted them and they offered it to the boys. Crown pigeons are good eating but Prince thought that the Dyaks deserved it more than we did and said no. It was just a short time and we could hear them busy doing things around their house. Hans remarked[,] “Listen to them resting now[.]” Anji appeared[,] as did the others[,] all cleaned up and sat and visited with us for a while. He was proud of what he and his men had done for the Americans. They like the boys very much. We told Korteman to give them a large bottle of gin and charge it to our account. The Dyaks like the Dutch gin but think it is rather weak. Dutch Gin is very strong to us. We drank a bottle of wine to the boys[’] return and smoked a good cigar. It was a different atmosphere that prevailed in the evening. Last evening was not so pleasant. The boys were tired and retired early for they too had had no sleep the night before. All is well that ends well and everybody is happier now. We are thankful for that.



Sunday
June 20
1926


Another Sunday, and like the previous Sundays the weather was Sunday weather. We slept later than usual. Everybody was happy. Cleaning of guns and pipes was the most important work of the day. Dick printed many pictures which he had taken previously and the prints are all good. We have some interesting pictures even from here. We should get many more inside. It rained heavily in the afternoon and as I write another big rain storm is coming up. And how it rained. We got a large quantity of rain water which was cool and made good drinking water. It was a change from the boiled water we have been having. We have many empty gasoline tins now and the convicts placed them around the house and caught fifteen tins full. {F1.121} It looked so inviting and cool – the other water from the river and the spring a short distance away is always warm – that I immediately had a bath with a tin of it. It was refreshing. The rain cooled the air materially and it was very comfortable during the Sunday evening meal. Wrote [about] the Dyaks night trip through the rapids so to have it ready for Aneta in the morning. Will make a good yarn in the states. After dinner we played bridge with Korteman and Leroux. Prince joined for Doc felt in the need of sleep. Korteman is very nice and always has something in the line of cookies, cigars or wine to offer us. The last few evenings have been spent very pleasantly. It breaks the monotony of the regular day and evening camp life to play bridge and we enjoy it.



Monday
June 21
1926


The noise of the radio motor woke me up and I hastened to get out of bed for I had not given him the press message to send. After breakfast Leroux came over and showed us a message Van Leeuwen had sent back to send to the committee regarding the aeroplane. He was in camp below Batavia Rapids when the plane landed and had its slight mishap but he evidently knew all about what happened. He had it that the wing was wrecked and that the motor boat crew had saved the plane from total destruction. Hans told Leroux just what happened. The boys had taxied to the opposite shore because it was the nearest and had summoned the canoe from Batavia Camp. The canoe came over and they unloaded all of the food from the plane into the prow before the motor boat arrived. They saw the motor boat coming in and beckoned him over because it was the easiest way. They did not want to start the motor again for such a short distance. Hans made it plain to Leroux that the plane could have taxied under her own power to the opposite shore. He pointed out the fact that the {F1.122} plane floated on the pontoon which was broken and could have done the same thing whether it was towed or whether it went under her own power. He explained further that the wing was not damaged during the landing but the next morning the river had risen and the pontoon had filled up leaving the trailing edge of the one wing in the water. Of course water had seeped in and Hans took a pen knife[,] cut the wing and let the water out. It was just a small cut and the wing can be fixed in five minutes. Hans said after he had fixed it he defied Van Leeuwen or anybody else to find the place where he had cut it. When Mr. Leroux heard that he said he would not send Van Leeuwen’s message but send another one to the committee and give them the facts as Hans had related. He said he would believe what Hans said in preference to what Van Leeuwen had evidently heard from the corporal in charge of the camp and the other soldiers. So the message was sent. We then took a trip down the river to a spot Dick had selected for a moving picture with Dyaks in their native costume. Dick went ahead and shot us as we came down the river and landed. Then we climbed a steep bank and he shot us as the Dyaks cut a way through the jungle for us. After this he made several shots of building a camp fire and making ready a bivauc. The Dyaks had a great deal of amusement with the various stunts and proved to be excellent actors. They got the idea almost instantly and improved materially on some of our suggestions. In the afternoon I made up a list of food which Prince and Hans will need for their two weeks stay at Batavia Camp. (Hans thinks it will take from two to three weeks to repair the floats depending on how much the river rises and falls to hinder their work). In the evening while we were eating dinner we heard several cries in the jungle and investigation disclosed they were searching for two soldiers who went hunting and failed to return. A systematic {F1.123} search was in progress. Shots rang out at regular intervals. The men had failed to ask permission to go hunting and had not obtained a gun from Lieut. Korteman. They had a gun, though, which they received from a Dyak who had received it earlier in the day and had failed to turn it in. Lieut. Korteman was plainly worried. If these two men failed to return it would be three soldiers who have been lost in the jungle since we arrived. It is a strange coincidence. Mr. Leroux thinks that they were captured by the Boremesa tribe and eaten. They are reputed to be canabalistic [sic] and we are on their land. Old Pioneer Camp is on the other side of the river and that territory belongs to the Takutamesa Branch of Papuans. The two are deadly enemies and kill one another every time they meet. The Takutamesa Papuans have been here many times and they are the ones Matt and Leroux visited. They now have a temporary kampong opposite Albatros Camp and have had their women down to Havik Island to watch the aeroplane take off and land. The others, the Boromesas, have not visited the camp. We are on their side of the river and on their land too. It seems strange that they have not been here. Mr. Leroux has thought it odd for they were constant visitors at the Old Pioneer camp when previous expeditions were camped there. One day the Takutamesas were visiting Pioneer camp during the last expedition and the Boromesas came to visit also. One of the Takutamesas, his name is Komaha and [he] is one of our constant visitors now, fitted an arrow in his bow and killed a Boromesa before anybody could stop him. A general fight ensued and three Boromesas were killed before the soldiers could put a stop to their fighting in Pioneer Camp. That is all a matter of record. Anji gave us a little interesting side light on that during the evening. He said that the Doctor, the Dr. Belmar we met in Batavia, buried them that evening. The next morning it was found that Tomalinda, the Dyak chieftain had dug one {F1.124} up and had taken his head. It was a bad slap at Tomalinda for it is against Dyak character to take a head which one has not won legally in a fair fight man against man pitting one another’s skill. Anji delighted in telling the tale. I played bridge with Leroux, Korteman and Matt. This time Leroux and I won all the beans. Korteman’s mind was not on the game for he was thinking of the soldiers. Leroux was firm in his opinion that the Papuans were picking them off when they ventured too far away from camp and in small numbers. He said it was foolish to give the soldiers permission to go hunting. Of course these men had gone off without permission and were subject to punishment. At ten thirty the top sergeant who was in charge of the searching patrols appeared and reported they had found no trace of the two men and had covered a good bit of territory surrounding the camp. Korteman gave him some instructions in Malay and also gave him a bottle of gin for the men who had been in the searching party. It is hard work looking for lost people in the jungle at night and the gin is a good reward. He then called Anji and asked him if he would send ten Dyaks out the first thing in the morning. He offered him fifty guilders if they found the soldiers. Anji retired but reappeared shortly and said they would start out immediately in a canoe hunting for them. They received a gun and several rounds of ammunition and were off. I wanted to join them but Matt thought I would be a drag on them for we thought then they were going in the jungle. They came back in an hour with the welcome news that they had found them down the river. Prince, Hans and Dick had accompanied them. It seems that Anji had thought the situation over and decided that they would be down stream because on the other side of the mountain or hill in back of us a stream flows back to the Mamberamo some distance below our camp. Anji[,] with his Dyak knowledge of woods[,] had gathered that this is what had {F1.125} happened and he figured it correctly. He knew that if they were lost they would follow this stream and come out on the Mamberamo. So Prince, Hans and Dick accompanied them and it was an adventurous trip. The night was faintly illuminated by a small moon which now and then broke through the, [sic] clouds and objects on the river were plainly visible. The Dyaks were out for that fifty guilders[,] for fifty guilders is a lot of money[,] and they paddled as only Dyaks can paddle. They were going down stream at that so they made good progress. They shot now and then and shouted. Prince started to sing. Just then they heard an answering shout. They looked in the direction from whence it came and paddled shoreward. Here were the two men. One was completely exhausted and had to be lifted into the canoe. The other was so badly frightened that he could not talk for some time. The fact that they were lost without permission to go hunting also affected them somewhat too, I believe. Prince got the story coming back. It seems as though they had crossed over the mountain and had lost their way as Anji had surmised. The one soldier became sick and he had to carry him all the way to the Mamberamo which is a considerable distance. Night fell just as they reached the Mamberamo and they were prepared to camp there for the night. They were overjoyed at being found before midnight. Anji reported to Korteman that they were found and that one man was sick. Korteman ordered the other to be sent to him. The native soldier appeared. He had a wild look in his eye and he was weak and physically exhausted as well as terrified. He saluted and Korteman asked him in Malay what had happened and why he had gone hunting without first asking permission. He answered something and then Korteman gave him his punishment. It consisted of eight days in the guardhouse and also included that each man pay half of the fifty guilders reward Korteman had offered the Dayks [sic] for finding them. {F1.126} That meant twenty five guilders each. Their pay in Java is sixty or seventy guilder cents a day and here they get more. It is not quite doubled. They had that punishment coming. The soldier, however, tried to argue back but Korteman would have none of it and ordered him off. He departed looking rather crestfallen. The sick man was brought to the Doctor who is not feeling very well. He has a bad attack of Malaria and is staying in bed most of the time to see if he can’t master it with quinine. Dr. Hoffman doesn’t look any too well. We continued our bridge game and Korteman felt better because the men had been found. Anji was pleased and so were his men. That was the second time they had appeared in the rescue role at night. The boys had had a good time on the river and everybody was happy. We retired a little later[,] happy that our theory of the Boremesas eating soldiers had been disproven [sic] somewhat. The mystery of what happened to the first lost soldier still remains a mystery. To date no signs of him have been found although the Dyaks searched when they returned from the first canoe transport. It was too late then for most of the tracks had been lost by the searching parties of the first night and the day after. The three convicts of course “broke jail” and decided their chances in a canoe on the coast were better than being convicts here in camp. They will probably turn up someplace before we return to Java. I doubt that the soldier went with them.



Tuesday
June 22
1926


Today was loading day[,] for the canoe transport is to leave for Batavia Camp tomorrow. Hans and Prince are to accompany them so they were busy getting their things ready. Dick took a few Dyaks and his Cameras (moving and still) across the river and shot pictures of the camp. Doc printed some pictures and I busied {F1.127} myself getting the food supplies for the boys together. Korteman has lent every aid and assistance and they have offered to do anything possible to help the boys get the aeroplane repaired as rapidly as possible. They have one canoe of the transport to carry their material and food. Moon[,] their boy[,] is also going with them. Moon is happy and has made three little stoves out of gasoline tin tops to be used for cooking at Batavia Camp. Life there is not going to be pleasant for nothing has been done there to speak of and the mosquitoes are very bad. It was unfortunate that the pontoon had to give way at Batavia Camp. Here it would have been much easier to repair and far more pleasant. Korteman gave us some more of that anti-berrie berri [sic, = beri-beri] food this morning and we will have it for luncheon. It is similar to a barley soup and while not uneatable it is nothing to write home about either. It is good for one and makes a change in the diet which is also beneficial. The afternoon was spent getting the boys[’] food packed and checking up everything to see that they would want for nothing during their two weeks stay there. Batavia Camp has none of the luxuries which we enjoy here at the main base camp. In addition to the discomforts the mosquitoes are a big problem. Everybody was in good spirits. Just before dusk, Korteman, Leroux and Hoffman visited us and we had a jolly time sitting in front of our house watching the brilliant sunset reflected on the trees across the river. I read the Summons and found it to be a rather enjoyable treat. It is the first bit of real reading I’ve done since I arrived in Camp. No bridge in the evening for Leroux wanted to write letters and Matt was to retire early. I finished the book at ten thirty just as the storm king was about to give up the ghost. Thought I would have to bring a candle into play but the light was kind enough to hold out dimly until the end. Hoffman is feeling much better and is looking like {F1.128} his real self once more. He has succeeded in getting rid of his fever.



Wednesday
June 23
1926


Hans and Prince were up at six packing their bedding and cooking utensils. We had breakfast at seven and a few minutes afterwards everything was prepared for the start of the transport. The canoes had been loaded as per usual the night before. It was seven thirty when the first canoe pulled out. Hans and Prince were in the second canoe which was in command of Anji and the Batavia local was on its way. The boys had their material, plywood, tools, food, etc. all in the one canoe. Each had a paddle and joined in the paddling stoke [sic] of the Dyaks. They were soon out of sight around the bend in the river this side of Havik Island. It will take them two days at least to reach Batavia Camp. It might take two and a half days or more because the river has risen considerably during the last few days. That is much slower than the boys have been accustomed to. They have made three trips up and back with the plane in one day. They enjoy the trip down the rapids but going up is not so good. It is tedious work and much slower.

After the departure of the transport the usual apathy was prevelant [sic] throughout the camp. Two Dyaks are left behind this time. One is the youngster who was burned and the other is the Dyak we call “Mooch”. He is sick but is able to be around. Leroux visited us immediately after the transport left and asked if we thought it best to take the plane off the cargo work and use it for reconnaisance [sic] work only above Batavia Camp and on the Rouffaer River. We of course agreed. In the first place the plane has demonstrated its possibilities as a transport medium already. It still has about 40 good hours {F1.129} left on the motor and if the pontoons hold out for that length of time much valuable work can be done upstairs. The sixty additional Dyaks are coming and will be able to handle the food transport when they arrive without any help from the plane. When we first arrived we talked it over and Hans, Prince and Matt and I decided that the best work it could do would be to transport 10,000 kilos of food to Batavia Camp. That would facilitate our getting inside. That is what we set out to do. If we had been able to do it everybody would have been to head camp faster. Hans was of the opinion that the plane should be used as quickly and as often as possible before the ever destructive climate would put an end to its work. The rise of the river will make the work of repairing the pontoons much harder and it will also endanger the wings. They shall see when they arrive at Batavia Camp. It is certain they will do all in their power to fix it up. They are doing fine work here in the jungles of New Guinea with the plane under impossible conditions and with no aid or assistance to mention. It is too bad that the pontoon had to give way. It had miraculously escaped hitting the many logs floating by on the river both in taking off and in landing and it seems hard to have one section drop off completely without it hitting anything. It is just the damp climate and the extraordinary heat of the sun which has loosened the glue. One of the gasoline drums floated by shortly after luncheon. It was the second one that had driffted [sic] from its moorings. The convicts and a couple of soldiers in a canoe retrieved it but not as quickly, however, as the Dyaks did the first one. At about three thirty[,] two Dyak prows returned. We thought at first that it was Posthumus returning but shortly after they had tied up we learned that they had brought Dr. Van Leeuwen back. He was suffering from malaria and thought it best to come back to the main camp for conditions {F1.130} were intolerable upstairs. The river has risen considerably and it is a long tedious journey from Batavia Camp to Motor Camp[,] his destination. He just got two days out of Batavia Camp by motor boat when he decided to return. Jordans of course continued on. Our “Fearless Leader” did not seem to be suffering greatly from the fever but rather seemed fatigued from the hardship of riding in a hot crampy motor boat for two days from 7 until 5. The mosquitoes were also bad he reported. Then too the emergency camps one has to make every night are not to be compared to the luxury one enjoys here. It is not so easy, he said. We did not expect it to be easy but riding in a motor boat is not a hard task at the worst even if the sun (it has a top) is warm and the mosquitoes are bad at night. Two days were enough to convince him that he would enjoy things better here than to say [sic] at Motor Camp all alone until the rest of the expedition joined him. Leroux could have told him that before he started and probably did. It took them two days to go just a short distance on the map because of the high water and the swift river. It must be remembered that Matt and Hans with 220 kilos of food on May 15 flew all the way to the foothills of the mountains in two hours and twenty minutes. There is no question that aeroplanes (four or five of them at least) are the most economically [sic] and quickest way to travel even in the jungle infested island that New Guinea is. With the river under one all the way it is also much safer than the canoes in the rapids. Despite this they will probably say that the plane has failed.

Van Leeuwen said that he had met the canoe transport with Hans and Prince on the river and that they were near Batavia Camp. They evidently had made rapid progress for they will be through the Eddy falls by night if they keep up that pace. Anji is evidently trying to get the boys up there as fast as it is humanly possible {F1.131} to do so.

(Insert following events June 20th)

The following telegram was received by Matt: “In answer your radio May twenty second stop government has no objection committee follows your proposition changing expedition to Dutch American Expedition stop Leadership transferred now to Dr. Van Leeuwen stop Committee thanks you for all things done in the difficult beginning time stop hope expedition will have full success stop use your plane as much and as well as possible committee is able to send as much petrol and oil as you wanted

Vicwo”



Thursday
June 24
1926


It is mighty lonesome around camp these days and we notice it more because the boys are away. There is not much doing and the time drags heavy on our hands. It is rather discouraging to sit here for two months and do nothing. Leroux is also chaffing [sic, = chafing] at the bit. He is as impatient as the rest of us to get to the mountains. Dr. Van Leeuwen was up bright and early and didn’t appear to be suffereing [sic] from any malaria. I think he and Jordans must have had some kine [sic] of a fuss and he came back because of the slow progress and the long time which will elaps [sic] before the rest of the expedition can arrive at Head Camp. He didn’t relish being up there along [sic, = alone] I believe. Not when all the comforts of home are here. Leroux and I went out on a hunting trip this morning at ten o’clock. We had three Dyaks and Sally (Saleh)[,] his mantre [sic]. Saleh is a good man in the jungles and is a likeable chap. We brought our food with us and started out to stay most of the day. It was the first real outing I’ve been on since we arrived and I looked forward to it with eagerness. We went upstream and a short way above Havik Island landed and cut across country. I had a shot gun and my revolver. We all separated. My {F1.132} Dyak and I took the middle course while Leroux and a Dyak struck off to the left and Saleh and another Dyak went to the right. We traveled about two miles. Birds were all around us but we couldn’t see any of them to shoot. We saw several cassorary [sic] tracks and the Dyak started to follow them. Suddenly he motioned to be still and just then we heard the animal – it was a big one and heavy – crashing through the jungle at top speed. We didn’t even get a glimpse of him. We then came to his nest. It was about four feet high and about eight feet in diameter. He sait [sic] it was a cassorary [sic, =cassowary] nest and that it was basat [sic, = besar (Malay)] which means big. He had evidently slept there for the Dyak said Tedor [sic, = tidur (Malay)] which means sleep. He searched in the nest with his hands for eggs but without results. We tracked through the jungle until about two thirty. At times we couldn’t hear anybody around us. Then suddenly we could hear the report of a gun. Leroux or the other Dyak evidently were getting some shooting. We continued on. It was very damp and wet in the jungle and the going under foot was not so good because of small rocks. We didn’t see a bird all of the time. The Dyak stopped to talk several times and pointed out wild pig tracks which he followed. I had no idea where he was leading me to but I followed. Just as we were creeping up on some birds which we heard close by we heard Leroux shout so we retraced our steps and joined him at the clearing he had told the Dyaks to go to. He had seen it from the aeroplane. Here we made a fire and had lunch. The leaches [sic] were very bad and one got in between the toes of my Dyak and drew considerable blood. He pried him out however very easily. On the way back we heard many birds. Leroux had one on the up trip. About half way back I caught sight of one and he flew just as I was about to shoot. I followed him several paces and saw that he rested on a limg [sic] high in a tree top. It was a good shot so I let fly {F1.133} and brought him down. He was rather large and very beautifully decorated with a pretty red, blue and black. He wasn’t dead so the Dyak finished him. Just before we reached the river we came across a Papuan house evidently deserted. It was standing all alone in somewhat of a clearing. The Dyaks cleared the way through a new undergrowth to it and we found that they had some of a former expedition’s knife cases, a large wooden tool box with Dutch writing on it and several other smaller things which they had evidently picked up when the expedition returned to Java. The house was deserted and had not been occupied recently for there was vegetation growing all around it. Stuck up in the ceiling were cassorary [sic] heads and jaws of porkers. It was about four o’clock when we returned to camp. The verdict was a day well spent. It is very interesting in the jungles when you have a Dyak with you for it is amazing to see how quickly they can cut their way through with their long sharp knives. They always cut one way so it is easy for them to find their way back. It wouldn’t be very comfortable to be lost in these jungles. Today’s trip demonstrated that to me very forcefully. Leroux is good in the jungle. He has been in them for many years and has had experience. I naturally lost all sense of direction and if left alone wouldn’t have known how to reach the river. He knew right where the canoe was left and led the way direct[ly] to the exact spot which is going some. The Dyaks got quite a kick out of that.

It had been a nice day without any rain now for two days. It rained slightly last evening after we had retired. Both days have been extremely warm. The river continues to rise. When I went with Korteman not quite a week ago in search of signs of the plane[,] the left channel of the river at Havik Island was a large mud bank. Now it is a big lake. If the river continues to rise it will hamper the work on the transports considerably. All indications are that it will {F1.134} rise for the water today was foaming[,] a good indication of higher water.



Friday
June 25
1926


Another day of waiting. Another day of nothing important to do or to interest one[’]s self. The last few days have been devoid of happenings or events even worthy of mentioning here in this journal. I could say that it rained and I could say that it was warm most of the day. The most important feature of the entire day was the fact that it was clear enough for flying at seven o’clock in the morning. This is the first time that there has been a clear sky so early in the morning. The sun came up over the river in all of his glory and not a bit of mist or cloud hampered it as it has always done in the past. Last night was the record rainfall for the camp since the rain guage [sic] has been put to work. It rained 42 milimeters [sic] which is about an inch and a half. We sat round the house all day and Dick livened things up by bringing out the Springfield and taking a few shots at a log across the river. That brought all of the Dyaks in camp to our house to see what all of the shooting was about. In the afternoon Matt had us guessing the most important town in various states and I found it a difficult task on a good many states. It is strange how quickly one forgets things that were matter of fact facts fixed supposedly for ever in one[’]s mind. It was good practice and I should indulge in something of that kind more frequently. While it is true that we have been away from the states since November – seven months by gosh – it seems much longer than that in many ways. Looking at it from another viewpoint it doesn’t seem so long. It is almost six in the evening as I write to the usual accompaniment of our evening shower and the transport has not returned as yet. I had expected they would return today but the high water {F1.135} must have delayed them. They will probably come tomorrow. It may be that Anji and his Dyaks stayed over this afternoon to help the boys bet [sic, = get] the plane into position so that they could work on it.



Saturday
June 26
1926


We played bridge last night until eleven so it was eight or better when we arose. That is[,] Matt and I arose then. Dick was up bright and early as usual. The first of the canoe transport to return showed up at about eleven. The others straggled in up to four. They brought word t[h]at the rising water did not prove harmful to the plane in any manner. That’s good. Most of the day was spent in writing. It was very quiet and peaceful through out the camp. Dick experimented with the small moving picture camera and panchromatic film. So far it hasn’t rained and it is almost six. It rained most of the evening yesterday. The river continues to rise. The last trip of the transport required four days to go and return. The others, with the exception of the motor boat trip were made in two and a half and three days. Anji returned with a Bird Of Paradise which he shot at Bandoeng Camp, this side of Batavia rapids. It was a beautiful specimen and Jordans asked for it. That wish was naturally granted by Anji. Today is the last of the quinine which means another week put behind us.



Sunday
June 27
1926


Another Sunday with typical Sunday weather. We enjoyed a late Sunday breakfast. It was eight thirty before we were up and stirring. There is nothing much to do so we are sleeping later. Matt and I busied ourselves getting out a general “Dear Folks” letter most of the day. I copied it from his diary. It should prove interesting reading to the folks back home for we selected the high spots or [sic, = of] our stay here so far. It made twenty one pages and runs considerably {F1.136} over 18,000 words. It is true that that is a rather long letter but we hope that it will be enjoyed. It will also make good news material for the folks to furnish the papers who have been clamoring for news of the expedition. It includes the flights of the plane to date in New Guinea as well as Matt’s trip to a neighboring Papuan village.

The Dyaks as usual on their day of rest went hunting. They had excellent results and as I sat and wrote in the afternoon they came back with three and four birds each. Anji succeeded in killing a splendid Bird of Paradise. He showed it to us. It was beautiful and many a woman in the states would give a great deal to have it perched on her hat if the law allowed it. It rained heavily again at four o’clock and it blew into our front porch with such violence that we had to retire inside and close the door. It continued for about an hour or more. Dick, who was hunting, returned wet to the skin. He hadn’t secured any game but did succeed in getting a leech in his eye which the Doctor took out quickly. The leeches are very bad in the woods and are not pleasant. To get one in ones eye is about the wrost [sic] thing that can happen. Just before dinner time the rain stopped and it was delightfully cool. As I write the moon is trying to break through the coulds [sic] across the river. It has not yet succeeded and the dim light which shines through the low hanging clouds brings out in fantastic styles the irregular tree tops of the jungle which are reflected dully in the murky water below. A huge log floats by and looks like a huge freighter heavily loaded. It is moving swiftly for the river continues to rise and the current has become swifter. We wonder how Hans and Prince are getting along at Batavia Camp. It is lonesome here without them. Last night we had an interesting session with Anji Ipoei. Matt gave him some important facts relative to the size of the earth and the sun. He was greatly surprised to learn that there was only one fifth earth compared to four fifths {F1.137} water on the globe. He has a keen mind and listens attentively to the knowledge which Matt imparts to him. It is good practice for us also for the only way to learn Malay is to speak it. It is startling how much one can say with a limited vocabulary when one has a good pair of arms and can demonstrate one’s meaning. Anji sides [sic, = sighs?] now and then and furnishes a word which has us stumped. He is anxious that we come to Borneo with the flying machine after we return to the United States. He said that he would see that we are well taken care of should we ever decide to come to Borneo. I am sure we would be treated royally. He likes America and Americans very much. He expressed the hope that Dyaks would be given an education such as Americans had from books. They are anxious to learn and with the opportunity would make excellent students. I think Holland is overlooking her best bet when she fails to realize the intelectual [sic] abilities of the Dyaks in Borneo. Anji is interesting. We enjoy every visit he pays us. They will load the canoes tomorrow and the next day depart up the river with another transport load of food.



Monday
June 28
1926


Yesterday Matt and I worked on his diary. We turned out about 18,000 words on the Corona. Today we continued the task and as a result now have over 20,000 words on interesting material to send home. It was a big task. Nothing much of importance doing now. Everything quiet.



Tuesday
June 29
1926


Another quiet day. We sat around and talked most of the day. Dick is busy working on a miniature aeroplane. Posthumus should be returning soon.



Sunday
July 18
1926


{FRAGMENT 2: July 18, 1926 through July 22, 1926}

{F2.1} It was a rainy morning but despite this we loaded the motor boat and canoes. It was too much load as usual and Leroux decided with his usual promptness that we would wait two hours while the Dyaks fixed the prow Basar [sic, = perahu besar (Malay, “large boat”)] so it could take care of the overflow. It rained heavily but the Dyaks doffed their civilized clothing and soon had the canoe somewhat water “tite”. They also placed braces in the bottom so the tins could rest higher in the canoe and be out of the water. With this finished we started once more. Of course we left the large supply of rice behind and this enabled us to take the five Dyaks and five soldiers whom we started with yesterday. It took considerable time to get started but finally [we] were on our way. The soldiers at B.C. [Batavia Camp] are certainly a worthless lot for they had to be made to help load the canoes and motor boat. Even their convicts could not be used for they were cooking for them. The Papuans from up the river sebit, five of them came for a visit [sic]. Prince certainly had gained their confidence and they liked him very much. Yes they had no bananas which was unfortunate for us. Matt and Prince worked with them for an hour or more while the Dyaks fixed the canoes and learned many words. They are practically the same type of people as visited A.C. [Albatross Camp] altho their tobacco boxes which they wear in their ears are more crudely designed. Fish hooks were their chief delite and Prince obtained for Matt a forehead ornament, a small net sack in which they keep their tobacco and things and a charm with a broken bit of glass attached to it. The boy who gave up the beaded head ornament and the bag and charm evidently had just reached the age when he is entitled to wear such things and it took considerable selling on the part of the others to get him to agree to part with his prizes. Later it came out that he evidently was the cause of a recent all nite celebration they had when they sang and carried on all nite according {F2.2} to Hans and Prince for he blushed to the ears when it was mentioned. They informed us that Prince and Hans were good but pointed to the soldiers – “Teda Bagoose [sic, = tidak bagus (Malay, “not good”)].” The soldiers not only do nothing but in addition antagonize the natives which makes the situation more difficult. Of course it is not their fault, for they have no interest in them and do not give them tobacco and rice. We are out now on the lake plain [–] the river is wide and low swampy land is on all sides. It is a gloomy Sunday for the weather is murky. We have the large prow alongside on the rite and are towing the two smaller canoes behind. As we passed the small hut of the Papuans[,] two boys came out and waved to us. B.C. was lost to site [sic] as we made the first bend and the sun made a feeble effort to come out thru the thick low hanging clouds. I am writing from the stern of the motor boat seated on a tin. Doc is on the other side. As we progress at the rate of about two miles an hour all one can see in all directions as we make the second large bend is jungle trees, here and there a swamp. The river twists and turns and almost meets itself at spots. The day is not warm for the sun is behind the clouds [–] that[’]s good for comfort. The engine noise hums a tune. Two Dyaks are busy making a fish line on the prow of the motor boat while the soldiers and a few convicts are seated comfortably in the large prow taking in the scenery. All the other Dyaks are in the smaller canoes behind. Leroux and Matt are looking at the map. It appears that this antiquated method of transportation is a poor example of Dutch efficiency in this day and age. The country and river from here on is excellent for flying and Leroux would be able to do more work on the card. Oh well, that[’]s that but it[’]s hard to forget that we are going along like this for seven or eight days when we could fly it in one hour and a quarter. A pair of pontoons, our kingdom for a pair of pontoons. About an hour out a Papuan prow with seven natives in it appeared in the middle of the stream. All were standing up. The {F2.3} soldiers reached for their guns to have them ready. They wanted to trade however, and we picked them up without stopping. They laughed over their ride and finally came up on the stern of the motor boat. They were eager to trade and Matt and Leroux obtained a good many bows[,] arrows, carved tobacco ear boxes, armlets, etc. We kept on going while the trading was being done[,] the three or four younger Papuans remaining in the prow and getting a thrill out of their “fast” ride of four miles an hour. One old chap who was profusely decorated sat in the bow and refused to come up and trade. Perhaps that[’]s why he has so much. Fish hooks, knives and old razor blades were most in demand. They were of the same tribe we visited with before leaving and were jolly folks. They have nothing except what they can make in their limited way and of course no metals. Of course they were willing to give anything to obtain them. They were about to depart when the ratan holding their prow came loose leaving three of them in the Dyak canoe. You should have heard the talk. The motor boat stopped and the look of their companions. [sic] We had a good laugh over the frightened look on their faces when it seemed as tho they were deserted. We chugged along slowly and at 3:30 arrived at a camp site used before so we decided to stop for the nite. Not much work as building a complete camp altho there was plenty at that. Camp established and that means beds and clambos up[;] we had a cup of coco[a] and as I sit and write waiting for dinner Dick shoots a bird from the bank. It was a peculiar sort of bird for it had webbed feet and was perched rather high in the tree. He also saw large pig tracks. It was to bed rite [sic] after eats for the mosquitoes were very, very bad. They buzzed all nite long. Slept well despite them and this morning only had one in the bed with me.



Monday
July 19
1926


We were out of Quaker Oats and had rice and hash with coffee for breakfast. Leroux loaned us a can so we will have some tomorrow. The {F2.4} coffee was good. At 6:45 we were off and everybody feeling good. The mechanic of the motor boat who had fever yesterday was better today, it being his well day. Tomorrow he will probably be sick again. We progressed a little more rapidly due to having used some gasoline the day before altho it was slow going. The sun stayed behind heavy low hanging clouds most of the early morning so it was not uncomfortably hot. The river bends and turns continually and we cover considerable distance without getting anywhere. On some of the bends we were headed back for we could see the tops of the Van Rees mountains we had left behind at B.C. During the morning the scenery was practically the same as the day before. In the afternoon however it changed from the swampy saw grass to larger and better trees. sazo [sic, = Sago] palm groves appeared now and then and the further we progressed the more numerous they became. We also saw large trees which looked like huge oaks. They had a large yellow fruit on a vine clinging to the trees and a close up view of this fruit disclosed the fact they were similar to grape fruit in appearance. Birds of all sizes and appearances were seen frequently. Dick shot a crockadile [sic] about five or six feet long but he shot him thru the intestine and lost him. They must be shot thru the head otherwise they get away, altho they die. We had seen three or four previously but were not close enough. This one was a good shot for he was sunning himself on a large tree trunk out of the water. He was “matie” [sic, = mati (Malay, “dead”)] dead however for when Dick reached the spot his insides were strewn all over the water. Dick and a Dyak searched the vicinity (jumped rite [sic] in without fear of them and was after him for he was anxious to get a crock.) but they could not find any trace of him. As we progressed farther up the river large mud flats appeared and we saw several more. Leroux took a turn steering. We got on several bars due to the low water but were off in no time. The lower water makes for faster progress. As we came around a big bend in the river we had our first view of the first and second range of the {F2.5} interior mountains. It was a beautiful sight. The cloud affects [sic] were particularly striking. The peaks, one in particular, it must of been Doorman top, stuck up thru a high layer of fluffy white clouds and below stretched the huge blackness of the lower parts and two ranges. Beneath this were lower clouds. The mountains were certainly massive. One peak was at least ten thousand feet or more. Dick shot a picture of it with the wide glassy river and jungle shore in the foreground and the clouds and mountains in the back ground. It was about four in the afternoon and was rather dark for the sun was behind the clouds but I hope it will be a good picture for the affect [sic] was very beautiful. Becker, the navy man in charge of the motor convoy said we were making good time. He was headed for a bivoc [sic] around the bend used before so we run [sic] until five to reach it. The water had dropped so much since then, however, that it was impossible to get to it with the motor boat, so we had to go [to] the opposite shore and make a new camp. It was almost dark so it was a hard and slow task to get things ship shape. To add to our discomfort it rained before we were all set and we got somewhat wet. Matt[’]s bedding was dropped in the water and he had a wet bed to sleep in. Then the canvas leaked and we had to fix that. Dick went into the woods on landing and in five minutes returned with two large crown pigeons. They were as big and as good eating as a turkey. They have a crown of beautiful blue feathers and are beautiful birds. We ate in the rain and had coco[a] and hot spaghetti. Mr. Heinz’[s] product tasted well. There were practically no mosquitoes, however, so that helped some. Everybody was happy, never the less, and we sang and talked from behind our netting while the rain pattered on the roofs. Dick and the johnies [sic] prepared the pigeons. We are smacking our lips in anticipation of our feast tomorrow. We fell asleep with more comfort than we had thought possible under the unpleasant conditions which existed. Everyone is a good fellow in the crew and helpful hands including Leroux[,]{F2.6} Becker, the Dyaks and soldiers make our trip most enjoyable. A helping hand here and there when conditions are tough makes life very pleasant and everyone in this transport are [sic] anxious to do more than their bit. That[’]s why we are having such a good time.



Tuesday
July 20
1926


Leroux and the others were astir early for he had decided it was best to make camp earlier instead of waiting until dark. The rain and the fact that we had to make anew [sic] camp coupled with our late arrival tended to make things a little rougher than necessary. We did not mind it tho as I said before. We surely had camped in a bird sanctuary or something for Dick had seen many birds. When he shot the crown pigeons there were at least thirty of them perched on the trees..[sic] In addition to this he saw large, extraordinarily large, cassowarie [sic] and pig tracks, so we were up with the moon and stars to break camp and get a good day[’]s start. The boy convicts had been up for sometime and had hot coffee and oatmeal in addition to our birds cooked. We packed and started off at 6:00. Everything was damp, wet rather, but we knew we would soon dry out in the warm sun. We were muddy for the rain of the evening had made a sloppy place of our camp. Ompah fried the crown pigeons. They were fat and nice. Dick had had him boil one and we had a big pail full of good soup. The river had risen about a meter during the nite and it was easier to load the boats so our get away was quick. We had our breakfast of oatmeal and coffee on the motor boat. It was good. We also had our “fried chicken” or trukey [sic], rice and good “chicken” soup to look forward to for lunch. So it was not so bad, even tho we were wet and muddy. The pigeons and soup which we sampled later “we couldn’t wait” were as fine eating as we ever had. No chicken or turkey could have done better. It was so good that all of us had a smack of it. If they are as numerous up stream and they are probably more numerous, we will be {F2.7} in fine “eats”. Doc liked the soup but does not care for fowl of any kind. He eats it tho. We made good speed and the sun came out and dried our clothes. The stream was much faster with the rising waters. We saw many birds. Kalongs, a bat like bird, flew over last evening in flocks. This morning [a] few strugglers [sic] evidently worn out from their night’s dissipation, for they were flying slowly and wing heavy, reminded us of the rounder half asleep on the early morning L train or cars. Hornbeeks, [sic, = Hornbills] Cockadoos [sic, = cockatoos], Parakeets, Beos, and many others. The Beos (Malay) Mr. Leroux informed us were good pets and were kept in Java. When you split their tongues they aught to talk. They must be covered tho he says for if they were to see blood when meat or fowl is being prepared they die immediately. We laughed and he said he had laughed also when he had first heard the story, but he vouched for the fact nevertheless. This is our third day out. Becker said last nite that if everything goes well we can reach Motor Camp in six days now. He expected to reach the Rouffaer River this evening but the rise in the river may make this impossible. There are many native villages along the Rouffaer and much game he says. It is also a better part of the country for we are out of the swamp and closer to the mountains. We had been under way about two hours when we spotted a crude looking canoe with two Papuans in it directly ahead of us. They were hanging on to a fallen tree in the river and waiting for us to approach. Becker said they had never come out before. As we drew closer to them we saw they were big, strong husky fellows. Both of them had arrows but no bows. They had a fire of two small logs burning in the stern of the canoe. It was a crude affair and was evidently hewn out with stone tools. It was just a shell with no sides to speak of, the paddle was unlike other paddles and they had only one. Instead of being flat it was more like a spoon. The lower part was cut out and the ridge very pronounced. (Doc description) They were eager to trade and hurriedly gave us their few possessions. One had a nose ornament uprite [sic] {F2.8} and horizontal thru his nose like those we had seen at Albatros Camp. We got arm bands, waist bands, tobacco ear ornaments for one knife. We couldn’t stay long, however, for if we stop we will not arrive at our destination. One could study and live with these people and learn many things for they have nothing and have had no contact to speak of with white men. Previous expeditions probably eager to get inside have done like we did, and then military men of course have not studied them. It would be interesting to live with these people. As we traded with the two in the boat others – all men – appeared on the bank. They had the same physics [sic, = physiques] and were much bigger and stronger than our Besino [sic, = Bisano] friends. They knew no Malay for the bird hunters do not get this far. One old chap with a huge beard stood on the side lines. They were good traders but when we refused and said “no” they immediately came across with the objects for they couldn’t help but show their eagerness at the small tin knife Leroux had in his hands. Metals and something they can use is what they want and they are as eager as can be. Dick shot some pictures of them trading with us. The prow and the old chap should prove to be good shots if the film is not ruined by the heat. Hope not. As we pulled away they clung alongside the motor boat and in their crude affair it was a rocky ride for them. The chap in the forward end of the canoe held the crude paddle between his big and little toe and held on with both hands. We got too fast for them however and they let go the Dyak canoes in the rear almost upsetting them as it did the other Papuan canoe yesterday. They certainly are not good when it comes to handling a canoe. (We also saw several rafts along the shore near sago palm groves previously). Before we got far they motioned for us to come back and shouted excitedly. Evidently they had something better to offer. We looked and sure enough they had bananas, green. They came running thru the jungles and for a used razor blade of Leroux’s and a pinch of tobacco from Becker and I we obtained six or {F2.9} seven bunches in addition to some sago. The sago is not very appetizing in appearance. It is hard and chalk like in color. Matt took one as a specimen. They were sorry to see us shove off but we continued never-the-less and left them standing on the shore waving. Others appeared by this time and we could see their house half hid in the jungle. We soon last “site” [sic, = lost sight] of them around a bend of the river. The scenery changed somewhat later on and we had a little change. The river became narrower thru a cut off and because of the higher water we pulled thru it. Dick stands on the prow forward with his gun as I write looking for crocks [sic] or birds. The sun beats down warm thru the canvas covering and the vibration and heat from the motor is oppressive. But the heat is warming our soup and pigeon so what[’]s the diff[erence]. We will have bagoose macan [sic, = bagus makan] this noon. Matt and Leroux are also writing. About two o’clock we came across two more Papuan villages. First we see a big sago grove and generally it discloses a few native houses. There were two canoes out to greet and trade with us so we stopped, to pick them up. It was the first time that these folks had come out also, Becker said and we could easily see that from their actions. We had a difficult time to get them to come alongside but finally induced them to grab ahold and we started on down the river with the canoe on our left. As one of them was alongside[,] Becker leaned over to get the canoe closer to the boat so it wouldn’t swing and the frightened native jumped overboard. They were eager to trade and we had no difficulty in obtaining all of their decorations. They wanted “saros” knives and the eagerness with which they stripped themselves of their bows and arrows and clothing demonstrated how badly they wanted knives. We obtained a good collection and shot some pictures. They, like the others[,] had sago[,] but we didn’t take any. They showed great surprise at this for sago is their chief food. For one empty Prince Albert tin, I obtained a bow and six arrows and for a knive [sic] I had one man stripped of[f] his forhead [sic] ornament of fresh water shell (stringed) in addition to all of his {F2.10} other decorations. They were plainly nervous and excited. Wanted to know if we were going to sleep up the river a bit. Their canoes were as crude as the others and so was the one paddle. They never seem to have more than one paddle but as they had a long pole we had no difficulty in getting their crude affair for one small knive [sic]. They also asked for cloth. These folks had no fire in their canoes. Another canoe with one man in itpulled [sic] along side on the right and Leroux and Matt traded with them. All Papuans smell bad but these take the prize of any we have come in contact with. They were from the Torakai tribe and like the others knew no Malay. They were slightly different especially in the ornaments they wore. One man always seems to be the leader of the bunch. For instance when I offered the Prince Albert tobacco tin for the bows and arrows and the chap I had been trading with hesitated haggling to get a knive [sic][,] the chap in the rear seat spoke quickly and sharply and the bow and arrows were mine. The temptation was too great. They appreciate it immensely afterbargaining [sic] with them if you give them a little pinch of tobacco for nothing. I have tried that and it always brings forthcoming articles quicker if that can be possible. We have left them far behind as I write. The motor hums with its accustomed monotony and the heat is intense. The Ambonese mechanic is pouring some Pennz Oil into the Motor as I sit with the Corona on my lap. Incidentally the Pennz Oil is good oil[,] the navy man says. It lasts longer and the motor starts easier. This motor which is a 12 horse power four cycle Kermath made in Detroit pulls the large canoe with 2,500 kilos and in addition tows two smaller prows with eight hundred kilos in each prow. The motorboat is also heavily laden with approximately 1,000 kilos. It pulls this load steadily from 6 or 7 in the morning all day against a four to five mile an hour current till 5 in the evening without a stop. Pennzoil is a good oil and is also doing good work in the motor boats beside the motor in the plane. {F2.11} Guy will be pleased to learn of this. When one considers the burning sun with the heat of the motor[,] the oil stands up well. They use a five gallon tin for seven days pulling the load and the number of hours I have explained above. It sure isn’t cold in this motor boat. Matt and Dick are taking a bath out on the stern of the motor boat. We bath[e], eat, ride and do everything but sleep as the motor chugs away. Ahead we can see a small range of mountains. The sky is very blue and the clouds high and fluffy white. We pass along [sic] mud flat upon which is spread a good sized crockadile [sic] and Dick takes a shot at him but misses. We see him splash quickly into the water leaving a long track behind him. As we make a turn in the river a cool wind hits us from the mountains. It is refreshing and blows some of burning motor heat out of the boat. It doesn’t last long however, and we have more heat. We are trying to make the Rouffaer river tonight so [we] continue on past the hour we had set for making camp, 3:30 – 4:00. We are close to the junction of the Van Daalen and Rouffaer river[s]. It is slow going because of the rising water at 5 o’clock we can see the two rivers ahead. The Van D[aalen] goes to our left while the Rouffaer continues on to the right. The Van Daalen is the route to swartz Valley and perhaps would be the best for us but who knows. Our plan is to go up the Rouffaer. We pick a good camp site at 5:00 and land just a short distance below our objective. It is a high spot but looks like we will have many mosquitoes. Camp is established in a hurry for it will soon be dark and it is impossible to eat with the mosquitoes eating you. They are troublesome pests outside of the malaria feature. As we are putting up our netting Papuans from a village a short distance up stream yell. We can hear them plainly and Becker says their village is not far off. sure enough in 5 minutes 7 or 8 of them appeared. They were little fellows and looked like Jews, while the others were very large. They were timid and nervous in a way but tried to act {F2.12} brave. Matt, Leroux and I traded with them and obtained a good collection. Like the others they wanted.knives.[sic] One in particular looked like a typical stock Yards large negroe [sic]. He was quieter than the others. The smaller ones jumped around and shouted excitedly. They were eager to trade their worldly possessions for small knives. They helped one another in unfastening their possessions and their eyes flashed as they came in possession of the coveted small knife. Matt was dickering with one over some bows and arrows and not wanting to give a knife for just the bow[,] insisted on more. This particular man was a born salesman for he demonstrated what a good bow it was. He pulled it taunt [sic] and showed its strength and fitting an arrow to it[,] pointed it out over the river. He illustrated how the arrow left the bow in the actual shooting and then dropped to the ground to demonstrate its death dealing power. It was enacted perfectly in the fading daylite and his pantomime was perfect. The others stood by and nodded approval. Matt finally got the bow and a few of the best arrows for the knife. Then Leroux caused a sensation by bringing out a large knife with a long handle and heavily built. Their eyes almost popped out of their heads and they babbled loud and long. Leroux demonstrated how easily it would chop a tree and they whistled as they all do when amazed. Leroux was not anxious to trade however, and they offered almost everything they had on. Off came the woven belt bands[,] arm ornaments, head ornaments [and] the bag they wear suspended over their shoulder or around their neck. One chap couldn’t get free from his stomick [sic] band and the others tugged on it while he went into all sorts of contortions. The knife was finally theirs and they were happy. The big fellow who was the head man evidently brandished it aloft and waved it rather close to Leroux’[s] head. They were not afraid now and demonstrated how it could be used on an enemy[,] all the while talking continuously among themselves. It is plainly evident their [sic] stage some of their actions to impress us with their bravery and courage. I am of the {F2.13} opinion they would be dangerous people to meet alone or with one, or two. Experience has demonstrated that they are not to be trusted. When they are outnumbered they are friendly. With the positions reversed I am sure it would be a different story. We continued trading and it grew dark. They would not part with their last bow and arrow for anything and pantomined the reason. They needed one bow and 2 or 3 arrows in case they were attacked by an enemy. As their camp was close by they probably wanted it for their own protection. Dick had gone hunting when we landed and returned at this time with a small pigeon. He had got[ten] lost for a moment but found his way back all rite [sic]. He had a good shot at a large crown pigeon again and had shot him, but he stayed up in the thick folliage [sic] of the tree. That[’]s too bad for it would have been another day of chicken and chicken soup. saleh came back with a large crown pigeon. It was an even larger one than Dick[’]s large one of yesterday. Dick reported seeing man foot prints, besides large game tracks. He thought he was close to a village and when he failed to hear the chop of the Dyaks[’] axes preparing camp he shouted but we didn’t hear him. He found his way back however. It is not a good habit for one to go alone hunting in these jungles for anything can happen. The Papuans had a canoe tied up to the bank a short distance up the river and much as they disliked to depart they illustrated their departure by lying [sic] their head[s] on their hands and bending over[,] meaning sleep. They would return in the morning. They did this four or five times but did not go for they wanted to get as much as they could while the opportunity was present. They asked for tobacco and when Saleh brought out a package from his bag and they saw matches and packages of tobacco they eyed it eagerly and I had the impression they were taking note of where the bag hung close to his tent. They had all along danced up and down and the big fellow waved his large knife while the one who had possession of the one bow and arrow fitted {F2.14} it and was trying its strength. We were not many persons on the spot for the soldiers and Dyaks were in various spots getting limbs and other materials to complete the camp. It looked as tho they were demonstrating how easily they could get the things they desired which we had in abundance to their way of living, so Dick got out his automatic and fired into the river to illustrate that we had fire arms. As his gun threw out a spray of fire in the darkness and the bullet threw up a spray of water near the log they shrinked [sic] away from it back of a tree. They were frightened and impressed nevertheless and we patted them on the back and reassured them we meant no harm. These folks were jolly folks. A smile and a friendly pat on their shoulder works wonders to gain their confidence. They couldn’t roll a cigarette very well but they had a trick way of smoking one. They would take a deep inhale of smoke into their lungs as is customary and then they made a sucking noise and drew their breath real deep. They were getting everything into their lungs they could on that one inhale and to insure its all getting there they inhaled again. After this they blew out the large volume of smoke thru their nose and smiled with satisfaction. They evidently hadn’t had tobacco for some time from the way they smoked it. It was pitch dark by this time and after illustrating as before they were going to go to their village and sleep and return tomorrow[,] they left after dancing and whooping a few times. The mosquitoes were plenty thick by this time and we had some hot coco[a] without sugar, a piece of Deng Deng with rice and to bed. The moon had come out and it was a love[ly] evening. Dick supervised the boys cooking the pigeon and reported from time to time on their progress. They had some trick way they wanted to cook it and we agreed. Matt had many mosquitoes in his clambo. I was more fortunate however and only had 2. As I lay in my cot I could look out over the river. It was a beautiful sight[,] the half moon throwing a good lite thruout the camp. Two soldiers {F2.15} were placed on guard for safety’s sake. They passed in front of our lean[-]to now and then and as one would stop and gaze out over the river with his rifle slung over his shoulder he presented a striking picture. One cannot tell what the Papuans would do. They have nothing and we have what to them is a fortune in one knife or one package of tobacco. They could not be blamed even if they did sneak in on us and attempt to steal that which makes them give up quickly their only possessions. With their primitive tools it must take considerable time and labor to make a bow and a number of arrows. As the sentry paced to and fro I lie [sic, = lay] awake drinking deeply of the view spread out before me. The jungle trees at the edge of camp swayed to and fro in the fantastic moonlite from a gentle breeze which had sprung up. It was refreshing for the evening had been hot. The murky black water of the Man [sic, = Van] der Willigen river looked sparkling clear and brite under the silver rays reflected on the water. A large tree close to shore and near the lean[-]to left standing threw off a gloomy shadow. saleh in a tent next to me was killing mosquitoes preparatory to going to sleep. The white top of the motor boat was just visible below the river bank. The two canoes with the crude canvass [sic] top was a funny looking site [sic] even at nite anchored behind the motor boat. All was quiet in camp. A candle in a square tin case flickered in the wind which was becoming stronger. The sky was comparatively clear in fact it was exceptionally clear for New Guinea but it seemed as the [sic, = though] rain was in the air. I fell asleep without any effort for it was nice and cool. I don’t know how long I was in the land of Nod when I awoke with a start for some unknown reason. I glanced out the side of the lean[-]to for I was in the end. The moon was still brite but away in the distance appeared a large space of blackness which was coming towards us. The wind had increased. I sensed someone close to me for some unaccountable reason. All was quiet. standing alert in the shadow of the large tree close to the shore was the sentry. His gun was pointed towards the jungle[.] {F2.16} Every nerve was alert and he was watching and listening keenly. I felt for my [.]38 which was at my head and waited. A crackling noise of sticks was plainly to be heard. I listened closely for a moment it was plain to be heard and was rather steady. I thot it was the wind blowing a dead branch back and forth. A Papuan approaching camp surely would not make so much noise. Just then I saw in the shadow of saleh’s tent and not five feet away from my cot[,] a man croched [sic] down. He was facing the guard also about five feet ahead of him. I took the revolver from the leather case and covered him while my eyes strained to see if he was a Papuan. He looked like one all croched [sic] down and it was plain to see he was watching the sentry closely. As my eyes became accustomed to the shadows I was not so sure it was a Papuan but who else could be watching the sentry. It would have been an easy matter for a native to slip from the jungle and pass thru the space between saleh’s tent and the end of our lean[-]to. I remembered that saleh’s large case of tobacco and matches had been hanging there and they had looked at it with covetous eyes. I couldn’t understand why a sentry would be croched [sic] down watching another guard. It must be a Papuan ready to get the soldier from behind unawares. I decided a waiting policy would be best and I lay their [sic] silently watching [as] the croched [sic] figure moved slowly and noiselessly and I saw a point that looked like and arrow just above his rite [sic] shoulder. I had just about decided to warn the quard [sic, = guard] of his peril and had my finger on the trigger in readiness for future events after I had done so, when the man spoke quietly in Malay to the quard [sic], but even after this in the shadow and croched [sic] in the position he was in it was hard to realize he wasn’t a Papuan. He was the other guard. I put my gun up and he crawled slowly to the sentry and joined him in the shadow of the tree. The noise which was causing their uneasiness continued but it was so regular I was certain it was the wind blowing a dead hanging branch or vine. They remained watching[,] their guns pointed in the direction of the noise in the {F2.17} jungle. After about five minutes of waiting one of them picked up a stick and threw it into the jungle and as the noise continued they too decided it was a vine or linb [sic] of a tree. They drew their sabres and advanced into the edge of the thicket and I could hear them slashing and cutting the vegetation. They returned and the noise ceased. Evidently they had called the corporal for he came up and after a few brief whispered words they departed. The soldiers evidently were on the alert and didn’t trust the Papuans either. The wind increased and the black clouds soon hid the moon from view. It was going to rain and rain hard. I reached out and got my puttees and coat which were hanging alongside my cot. It was cool and I drew my blankets closer to me. And then it rained. And how it rained. It came down in torrents and the wind splattered it into my face. I moved back slightly and was out of the worst of it. Then the canvas roll above me started to leak. It was old and cracked, but Becker has put our bedding canvas over it. It was not fastened or something for soon the drip, drip increased until a regular sprout [sic] was pouring down in the center of my bed. I took my water bottle and thot that I might has well take advantage of the running drinking water and filled it. In the meantime the water was coming thru in other places. I moved from side to side to escape it but it was raining so heavily outside and the canvas leaking so badly that I finally gave up the attempt to evade it. Then came the question of what to do. If I got up and fixed it with something I would be drenched and muddy besides. so I decided to keep as much of my anatomy dry and as much of the blanket dry as was humanly possible. The rain continued in torrents and I had several nice puddles in the bed for company. The woolen blanket on which I was sleeping soaked up a considerable amount but soon even that failed me and I was in water an inch or so deep. The soldiers passed at that moment and I had him [sic, = one of the soldiers] hand me the bedding canvas[s] and with a great deal of difficulty made him understand I wanted it placed {F2.18} above me on my netting. He finally got the idea and my faucets shut off[.] I drapped [sic] myself around the cot out of the water as much as possible and tried to go to sleep. Outside the sentries splashed around in the mud and rain. Several of the men in the middle of the lean[-]to made some sort of changes in their sleeping positions so I wasn[’]t the only one who was getting wet but I was willing to wager I was getting more than my particular share. The new arrangement worked splendidly but for a short time only. It was impossible for the soldier to get the canvas all the way back so it soon sagged over the middle and I felt it coming down the sides and over my feet at the foot of the cot. By this time I had not a dry spot on me[,] over or under me. Below me on the cot I had in the middle about 4 inches of water. It was very uncomfortable to be sure but one has to become accustomed to getting wet in New Guinea. When I swim tho I like to swim and when I sleep I prefer to do it dry when possible. I spent a very uncomfortable nite, didn[’]t sleep much naturally towards morning I got very cold and had the chills. Decided it best to get up and did. The sentries had built a fire under their part of the lean[-]to and I dried out as best I could. Finally the Dyaks began to stir with the coming of dawn and they built a good fire.



Wednesday
July 21
1926


As I was drying myself thusly we heard the horn of a motor boat and sure enough coming down stream was the motor boat and one canoe. We answered their signal and they pulled towards shore. something evidently was seriously wrong up ahead and they were coming with the news. Everyone was up and out by the time the motor boat had tied alongside ours and we learned that Jordans at Head Camp was having serious trouble with the natives there. They had previously visited the camp and stolen two Dyaks[’] knives and a Dyak had shot at one the next evening when they returned. He missed him however. Now we learn {F2.19} the small force of 5 soldiers who are established at Head Camp had shot and killed two Papuans. The natives had been getting bolder and bolder all of the time and when the 2 were shot about 70 had attacked them with bows and arrows. They narrowly missed one soldier for an arrow came close to his ear. They had to fire in self protection and two were killed and the rest retreated. Jordans who was on the line between M.C. [Motor Camp] and Head Camp at the time immediately sent back word for more soldiers to cope with them. Whether it will be a lesson to them or whether it will inspire them further in a revenge attack we do not know. 2 soldiers and 5 Dyaks were in the motor boat and canoe going back for help. Leroux pondered whether or not he should read the note they carried to Posthumus and finally decided to do so. He read only three pages but enough to learn that we should proceed rapidly for we had 5 soldiers with us. (note. yesterday afternoon a soldier fainted in the large prow alongside just before nite. It was the sun and heat. Leroux brot him to after a few minutes by dashing cold water on him. All of us felt fine after our bath. It is not so nice to set out in that burning sun from 6 to 5 all day.) The motor boat departed after Leroux had written a note to Posthumus. We did likewise. The news was not good and we all wondered what affect [sic] it would have on our trip into the mountains. Posthumus has made a serious mistake to establish H.C. [Head Camp] so soon or without a scientific man to help with the contact with the natives. We shall learn more of the details later when we arrive in Motor Camp. The day was dark and dreary and it rained while we were packing. Everything was wet from last evening[’]s rain however, so it made no difference. I got a Dyak to get my tin from the small prow and changed into dry things. It was a comfortable feeling. We pulled our damp things together[;] mine were soaked and while we were loading our Papuan friends of the nite before came and visited as they said they would. Matt traded with them and succeeded in getting many {F2.20} more anthropological collections. We didn’t have much time to waste on them however. They stood by while we loaded. We had a good supply of bows and arrows and other Papuan material and their eyes stuck out when they saw all the bows and arrows.we [sic] had. They had probably never seen as many in their lives and must have thot we were going to war with the natives inside. One of them reached over and tried to get one that caught his fancy as I handed a large bunch down to Matt, but we were too quick for them..[sic] They waved[,] shouted and danced as we pulled away. The big fellow came down in the river and helped shove us off. A few hundred feet up stream we saw their canoe. It was another crude affair[,] nothing more than a hollow log. I forgot to mention we obtained another of the crude[,] spoon shaped paddles they use last even[ing]. We soon past [sic] their village and several houses close to shore. There were no signs of any humans, however, but smoke was rising from the tree tops. Perhaps their wives were preparing breakfast for them. After about 15 minutes running we came to the junction of the Rouffaer and Van Daalen rivers and continued up the Rouffaer. The scenery was not so beautiful as that of the Vander [sic] Willigen, it was lower and the jungle vegetation was without the picturesque palms and other large impressive trees, we had seen the last day or two. (Had some figs last nite[;] they were refreshing and tasted real good.) We were making good time today and at noon it appeared that we would reach M.C. if all continued well in 5½ days. This is our fourth day. A little after 12[,] we sighted 2 Papuans in a canoe near the mouth of a small river. They held up their bows and arrows. We pulled over to them and one chap jumped ashore. Another was standing there with a large number of arrows in his hand. He had one fitted to the bow. The oldest of the three stood up in his log of a canoe and as we approached him he would pole away from us. The two on shore retreated into the jungle. They wanted to trade but they were afraid. {F2.21} Finally after considerable maneuvering we got alongside of him. His face registered the greatest of fear but he was anxious to get the small knife Leroux held aloft. As soon as he turned over the bow and arrows he glanced nervously towards shore as if to say “You will have to protect me now for I’ve no weapons.” He was anxious to get away and it was with difficulty that Matt induced him back with another knife and secured the rest of his outfit. The two on shore kept their arrows fitted to their bows. He glanced nervously at them from time to time. Dick shot movies and stills of them. We pulled out finally and he was a happy man. He shouted to his companions on shore and held up his prizes shouting excitedly all the while. As we departed they ran to the bank and looked over what he had received. They were most timid and the one chap who came out was rather brave at that when the others deserted him. We were getting well along the Rouffaer by this time and in this vicinity there are many people. A half hour after we had traded with these 3, 3 more appeared on shore. They had a rough canoe tied to the shore but would not come out to us. They stood on the jungle shore and offered us arrows and bows and as we approached fled into the jungle. Leroux and Matt followed them in. Dick stood on the forward end of the motor boat and shot pictures (stills)[.] Matt and Leroux disappeared from sight and Dick said he saw 4 or 5 of them scattered about with their bows and arrows all ready to let fly as they dickered with Doc and Leroux. Matt came out with a whole armful of stuff. They were frightened to death. They [sic] were hundreds of them in the jungle and they shouted to one another all the time very excitedly. Others on the opposite shore also ad’eh oh’d [sic] and they set up a furious racket. It was evidently planned for our benefit to show us that there were many of them. As the trading progressed[,] out would come a good quantity of material and as the man who traded received his knife or cloth or {F2.22} what not he would shout across the river evidently telling them of his success. We stopped the motor at this point and stayed for some time. They were profusely ornamented and as a general rule[,] large of stature. As soon as we shoved off a half dozen or so would appear on the bank and shout and dance or feel with his arrows. It would be in the same manner that one would try with a pistol. We had not gone far when we arrived at a huge mud flat point. standing alone on shore was an elderly Papuan also all dressed up. He[,] like the others[,] offered his bow and arrows. He had a heavy beard and presented a striking picture. Matt, Leroux, Dick and I jumped out. He traded his few possessions for a knife and some tobacco. During the procedure his friends on the other side of the river set up a howl similar to the others. They talk very fast and sing a “go ho” ada ho how. It is a jerky and impressive savage yell. Dick shot many good pictures with our transport in the background. A house or two was [sic] situated back in the trees and while deserted had all the family possessions in it. We wanted to visit it but to no avail. He was off in the canoe immediately and shouted nervously to his friends for assistance to stop us from invading their homes. They were afraid of [sic, = for] their women folks. We did not go altho every move towards it brot forth a babble of excited Papuan talk. Doc saw many interesting things in the house and we offered knives and everything for an opportunity to look in but the chap in the prow kept on going across the river. They seem to pole the prows in this vicinity. We left and as we started up the river they took after us in a canoe holding up huge bunches of green bananas. We were late tho and decided to keep going for we could spend months with them and we are anxious to get to Motor Camp. They kept going, however, and then our water pump broke down and we had to anchor. They are approaching us as I write. Five of them are in the prow and several more are in the jungles close to {F2.23} shore. In the midst of all their jabber it sounded as the one of them shouted “How are you” in perfect English, altho it must have been something else. They want us to come ashore and when we sit here as the mechanic fixes the water pump they talk fast and furiously. They sure can talk and talk fast. We have been meeting so many of them that it is hard to keep up with the events of the day. Ya ya do a ya ya ya. They are coming now after leaving 2 who were afraid to come ashore. Their prow is large and had [sic] a bow front and end. It is also a crude dugout affair. They come alongside and trade more bows and arrows, paddles and ornaments. Those on shore[,] braver now[,] talk constantly and yell excitedly when they see a new trade article[,] apparently advising them to get it at whatever the cost. We obtain another bunch of bananas[,] green and hard but in a few days they will be delicious. The Javanese mechanis [sic] is working on the water pump which has become clogged and dives under the boat now and then. It is fixed finally and to test its working the motor is started. One of the Papuans who thot we were leaving jumped over board with his bow and arrows. He was very much scared. The boat did not move, however, and those on shore in addition to those in the canoe gave him the laugh as did we also. He reached shore safely. By this time the old chap with whom we had traded just below – who feared we were going to visit his house [–] arrived. Another knife was produced and the chap who had jumped overboard waved his bow and arrows yelling and motioning to the others who were stripped of everything to come and get his. The old chap saw we were preparing to start for the motor was running, so grabbing the bow and arrows from the younger one he jumped into the river and swam out to the canoe with one hand holding the bow and arrows in the other. He was a good swimmer and illustrated that fact for the distance was considerable and the current swift. He lost no ground, however, and soon was in the canoe. The knife was his and the bow and arrows ours, we left them amid their dancing, wav-{F2.24} ing and musical talking. It was nearly four and ahead of us we could see rain coming so we searched for a camp site. We found it just around the bend. It began to rain, however, before we landed and camp had to be built in the rain. It was done quickly however, and in an hour we were all established and had our coco[a]. They were more careful in putting up the canvass [sic] this evening and saw to it that new and not old coverings were used. Becker and Anji also saw to it that last nite[’]s occurrence of mine would not be repeated. The mosquitoes of course drove us to bed early as usual. When they were clearing the site it looked like it would be a bad place for those pests but they were not so bad. Dick had put a can of pineapple in his little handbag and we had that luxury. It certainly tasted well. I was delighted with my dry bed for I had sunned the bedding on top of the motor boat and I lay in my cot warm and dry as the rain came down rather heavy during most of the even[ing]. It was as Briggs would say, A grand and glorious feeling after sleeping in water with a couple of spouts of water playing on one all nite long as I did last evening. And so I dropped off to a restful slumber as comfortable as if I were in the best of hotels.



Thursday
July 22
1926


I didn[’]t waken a moment until Leroux[’s] cheery voice greeted us with a good morn[ing]. It was just daybreak. We had our usual breakfast [–] Coffee and oatmeal, packed and were off. As we were doing this our Papuan friends appeared coming up the river on the opposite shore. They [sic] were 8 of them and they shouted to us. They poled their canoe along slowly[,] one man in front and one in the rear. They certainly do not know how to handle a canoe very well. Leroux shouted that they would have to hurry if they wanted knives but they poled along just the same. They shouted and yelled but we had finished loading and were off and soon left them behind. In getting into the motor {F2.25} boat I slipped from the side and went into the water above my knees. It seems as tho I must get wet. The sun was out and I soon dried. We made rather good progress against the stream and passed several Papuan houses but no people were in evidence. The sun was out brite and it appeared as tho we would have a warm day. One more nite and half a day and we are at our destination if all goes well. We pass real close to a Papuan house as I write. One large house covered with palm leaves is close to the water. It has two floors. Behind it several yards are two smaller ones. Nobody is in sight altho it has the appearance of being inhabited. They are probably hiding in the jungles and peering at us as we go by. The sun goes behind a cloud and stays for some time. The heat of the motor boat exhaust has dried me out completely and I am about to enjoy the scenery in company with a good pipeful (Dumbill [sic, = Dunhill] of course) of Prince Albert tobacco. Becker likes P.A. very much and is very appreciative when I give him a pipeful. He says the D. [Dutch] tobacco is too strong.



July 31

{FRAGMENT 3: End of July 31, 1926 through September 24, 1926}
{F3.1}

{End of Saturday, July 31 entry}…Of that there is no question. It is believed that the reason they did not want them in the house was because they had other things in there which they did not want Leroux and Matt to see. The tin could also have come from Motor Camp. #End insert.

After detouring around the village without seeing the Papuans the party crossed the river in a Papuan prow which was tied to shore and followed the Papuan path back to camp. It was easier going than the course they had followed along the river going up and they made good time. Leroux is of the opinion that the trail leads to river dix [sic] and continues back to the mouth of the river which we entered on Thursday. It connects all of the villages. We were pleased to see them again for with their story it cleared up the Papuan actions towards us in the morning. After they had met the party in the morning on their way to our camp they were anxious about their presence in the woods for they did not know where they were going or what they were going to do. That explains their hasty departure and I gathered from the actions of the young chap that he wanted to know if Leroux and Matt were going to sleep in their tent this evening. If not he was trying to put the idea over that it would be dangerous for them not to do so. That opinion may be right and may be wrong. We all had coco[a] and got ready for our second night in this camp. As I write[,] two Birds of Paradise are calling to each other above my head. Saleh and the Dyaks see one of them a short distance away and want to shoot it for it is a large beautiful one they say. They grab the shot gun and start out after it but we decided it best not to shoot and they are very much disappointed. It is best though; for it might have a bad effect on the natives and they outnumber us greatly. It rained heavily during the evening and we sat and sang in the Dyak lean[-]to as it poured down in volumes. During the latter part of the evening we decided that as the exploring party had got[ten] to the foothills of the {F3.2} mountains and had got the direction of the river and the location of it on the map that the two prows would return. Leroux and Matt were going to accompany us down stream for half a day and then camp in the vicinity of some of the houses where we had seen people but who were afraid to come out and trade. They would try and establish contact with them and return later. Our prow with our Dyaks had planned to stay out but one day and was now two days overdue. We would take the collection with us after seeing them firmly established in their camp for the evening.



Sunday
August 1,
1926


We have been in New Guinea now for three months do-day [sic, = today]. It was a bad night for it rained heavily most of the time. We were dry under our tents, however, and it wasn’t so bad. The Dyaks had kept a strict vigil despite the rain but neither saw nor heard any Papuans. They are surely remarkable people. We had a hurried breakfast and broke camp. Our trip down stream was much faster than coming up but we still had many trees obstructing our way and the Dyaks had to work hard getting the prows over them. In several instances as coming up they literally lifted the heavily laden prows over the trees more than three feet out of the water. Once after Matt and leRoux’[s] prow had stopped and they were lifting it over a submerged log[,] the Dyaks in our prow hastily looked over the situation and decided to “shoot” over it. They paddled hard and almost made it but it stuck just beyond the middle where the greater portion of the load was centered. One of them[,] the second man and a fine physical specimen[,] leaped from the prow just as the forward end hit the log to lighten the load. He missed the log and fell into the water. It was a thrilling sight and would have made a splendid picture. They get loads of fun out of this sort of work and no matter how hard they have to work they laugh and make a sport out of it. They sure know their business when it comes to {F3.3} handling a canoe. The Papuans who have failed to put in an appearance so far this morning but who must be watching us from the banks must be getting a good thrill and an eyeful for they handle their prows very poorly and just pole them along slowly like a raft. The Papuan dug out tips very easily and it is a difficult task to stand up in one. They are also very heavy and loggy. The river is clear in spots again and we speed by several Papuan houses. There is no sign of people though and no response comes to our call of saro. I wonder what they think as they see us glide by swiftly[,] our prow heavily laden with their bows[,] arrows[,] bags[,] and material we collected upstream. We have a fine collection. As was the case coming up[,] they have every opportunity of picking us off from the jungle shore but we go along and see nor hear no one [sic, = anyone]. The scenic beauty of the river coming back is enjoyed as much as before. It certainly is a paradise. We pass another Papuan house set back in the jungle but no sign of life. We have now got[ten] by the hard section of the fallen trees and logs. It appeared coming down that in one or two instances the Papuans had felled an easy tree across the river to retard our progress for the Dyaks say these obstances [sic] were not encountered going up. It may be so and it may be that they have fallen of their own accord. They can’t stump the Dyaks, however, for they soon have it out of the way and we continue on. At 10:20 we sped past our first night’s camp site. Coming up it took us more than six hours to reach that spot and coming down we made it in three hours. About noon we approached the village which had raised so much commotion on our coming and which we took by surprise. The Dyaks as before paddled noiselessly and we glided up to it without a sound. There were two men in the house and as they saw we intended to land they took their bows and arrows and fled out the back and into the jungle. I did not see them leave but Dick did. They did not make a sound. LeRoux and Matt went ashore and called {F3.4} to them but they did not answer the magic word “saro”. They looked in both houses and selected a few things from the house such as bags[,] stone axes[,] and so forth and left large knives in return for them. I went ashore and brought them back to the canoes. A fire was burning in one of the clay hearths and they had evidently been preparing their noon meal. It consisted of breadfruit and sago. Leroux then sent Saleh and six Dyaks up the path into the jungle to see if the path into the jungle led back into the direction from whence we had came and also in the direction we were going. He wanted to establish the fact that the villages were connected. It was a dangerous assignment for the Papuans had fled down this very path. Saleh, however with Dick’s rifle and four Dyaks with their shields disappeared from sight and returned some fifteen minutes later on the other side and reported it ran through in both directions. It strengthens Leroux’[s] idea that the path runs from the Rouffaer river along this unknown river to the River D and the foothills of the mountains in the vicinity of Had [sic, = Head] Camp. We continued on after counting more than a dozen canoes in front of the village [where] we had just stopped. Every one kept a close watch on the jungle shores for we did not know how they would take our idea of trading without their being present. When they find the large knives, however, I am sure they will be pleased. It might be though that they were unaware that we left anything and that is likely to cause some trouble. We soon came to two more houses on a high bank. In front of this ten canoes were parked. It was the spot we had tried to trade with them but they fled into the jungle. We had left a small knife in the forward end of one of the prows. Matt and leRoux in their prow pulled up to the bank while Dick and I in our prow proceeded across the river so as not to scare them. They wanted knives badly enough but could not get up enough courage to come out and trade out for them. This time they appeared and motioned {F3.5} frightenly [sic] to leave another knife as before. We wouldn’t of course for that would not put us in contact with them or secure anything for our collection. Leroux and Matt went ashore as before and they fled into the jungle shouting and waving their bows and arrows at them as they advanced. They climbed up the bank and showed them the knives. It was a big temptation but they had fright registered all over their faces as they retreated as leroux and Matt advanced towards them. After about ten minutes of coaxing, Matt returned with an arm load of sago pounders, stone axes, crude wooden food bowls, bows and arrows, bags etc.[,] which they had induced them to part with. They had finally got[ten] up enough courage to trade. Only one, however, traded while the others stood behind and shouted nervously. Little by little they lost their fear to some extent and I went ashore with Dick’s camera to take some pictures. Matt had shot some with the Browne [sic] (two rolls)[.] Dick went in swimming and had a fine bath. The natives were frightened to death. That was plainly evident and they retreated when they saw me with the camera. I went about getting close to them slowly and in easy stages [to] go near enough to shoot some pictures. They were handing everything out of their house in exchange for a few red beads and mirrors. It was excellent material also. Matt and leroux were busy trading with them. As I pulled out the film I offered the paper to one of them and he came forward eagerly. It pleased him immensely for he got something for nothing. They did not like the click of the shutter and jumped nervously when it shot a picture. They would retreat a few steps and their eyes would bulge out. Matt wanted to see what was remaining in the house and after a great deal of loud and excited conversation amongst them they decided no. He climbed in anyway they [sic, = with them] protesting and pulling and pushing him out. leRoux had induced several of them away from the door with a knife. Matt came back with two large wooden food bowls which together for [sic, = with] a stone axe was [sic, = were] eagerly exchanged for a knife. They were totally {F3.6} different people than those we had traded with at our camp up stream. It was evident that [they] had not had any contact with white people before from their actions. Inside the house Matt reported were several good skulls, jawbones hanging from the ceiling. Some of them were charred from fire. It was too dangerous to attempt to trade for them, so we gave them a few parting beads and a pat or two on the shoulder and left. We had stopped about an hour. They were pleased with our leaving also for they were getting nervous again. It might have been that they thought they would have nothing left in their possession and our trade goods were too much of a temptation for them to resist. Anyway they motioned us away and we left. I wanted to get another picture so Matt presented them with a mirror box full of beads. They couldn’t understand this and motioned excitedly for us to be on our way. They had had enough and were anxious for us to go. We continued on and are about four hours from motor camp going down. It was six hours or more coming up including many stops. As we glide down with the stream we come back to the swampy shores lined with saw grass. Another Papuan house now and then breaks the monotony of the Dyaks[’] “Chunk chunk” but no people showed themselves and we continue on. The sun is out and it is very hot for the time is just a half hour afternoon [sic, = after noon] when it is the warmest. We progress rapidly for the Dyaks are paddling hard despite their hard work of this morning and yesterday. Ahead we see our friend the white herron [sic] who flew along with us as we came up stream. Like before he stops about a hundred yards ahead of us and fishes. His white feathers are spotless and he makes a good picture as he stands erect and alert against the green back ground of jungle. We pass another house on the left. Jack Cope[,] the Dyak in charge of our canoe whose eyes are constantly searching the shores on both sides as he paddles along {F3.7} says after a keen observation:

“Tampat Orang Matai” [sic, = tempat orang mati (Malay)] which means sleeping place for the dead. I couldn’t ask him why he knew that because of my limited knowledge of Malay but he saw something on that house or in it which gave him that opinion. I ask him how many matai orang [sic, = orang mati (Malay, “dead people”)] are resting there and he says “Barancallie, bonyock” [sic, = barangkali banyak (Malay, “perhaps many”)], which means “perhaps, maybe many.” Jack also calls my attention to tobacco which is being cultivated by the natives here and there in small clearings. They are paddling very swiftly as I write and the heavily laden prow fairly jumps out of the water. Anji who is not well (he has the fever and has had it for several days) is anxious to return. We are following them and it is they who are setting the pace. We go by the Papuan house where we stopped and ate our lunch the first day up so we are about 1½ hour[s] from Motor Camp now. The large Herron [sic] is still fishing ahead of us. He leaves when we get within 30 feet or so, flies a hundred yards and stops to fish again. We are going fast and are soon up with him and he takes off flying low over the water. It is too had [sic, = bad] it was impossible for us to take the movie camera with us for we sure would have had some interesting pictures. If we come back we should be able to get them rather easily now. A film of all of our adventures to date would be one worth seeing if it had been possible to get it all. We go by several more houses with prows tied to the bank in front of them. We stop at one on a high spot. Leroux and Matt go ashore and decide this is a good spot to stop over night in order to attempt to get contact with the people. We all go ashore and the Dyaks clear a space a few yards from the Papuan house and make camp for Matt and leRoux, Saleh and five Dyaks who are to remain with them for the night. We take this opportunity of having lunch. It is a beautiful spot but the people are not to be seen anywhere. All is still. The small camp – there will be only {F3.8} two europeans, one native mantrai [sic] and five Dyaks, eight people in all – is soon fixed and we wave goodbye to them. They want to demonstrate to the military men that exploration work can be done in New Guinea without soldiers and with just a few people. This demonstration will be a good one and on top of our trip which we are just completing should prove a strong argument that soldiers are unecessary [sic]. In fact we would have been better off without them for there would have been no shooting at Head Camp nor Motor Camp had it not been for the soldiers who do not know how to handle the people. They care less also. Matt and leRoux were certain that there was no danger in their stunt of camping in the Papuans[’] front yard so to speak. I didn’t think so either except that it was taking another additional chance which might spoil the affect [sic] of the entire trip should they have to shoot in case of trouble with the people. It was a long chance, however, they said and one worth taking for it would complete the argument entirely. On the other hand, I pointed out, if something did come up it would enable the army to say “I told you so” and that it couldn’t be done without soldiers or trouble would develop. If all goes well as it probably will it will be fine work. While they thought it was not a hazardous thing to do[,] it was for they are right among the people who have fled from the Rouffaer river in the vicinity of motor camp after being shot at by the soldiers. We followed them, found their hiding place and they fled again. Now one prow returns and they are left alone. There is no question that there are hundreds of natives gathered in this vicinity for there are many prows. One can never tell what these primitive people think or do and it is best never to trust them at all. Of course one shot from the rifle or revolver and they will all scatter into the jungle. That’s certain. The Dyaks evidently were anxious to return for they paddled swifter than ever and we sped downstream past several houses {F3.9} more and canoes, from time to time. No sign of people but they no doubt are watching us closely from the banks. I wonder what they think of the load of stone axes, bows and arrows etc. we have strewn all over our prow. They, of course, do not know that we traded and obtained them from the people upstream and obtained them with the peoples[’] consent and permission. They would not be to blame if they think we obtained them by force for they know the force of our rifles. It would be a logical thing for them to believe. The Dyaks are evidently of the same opinion for they say nothing and paddle hard and keep a close watch on the shores as we go by. Another village of four houses with 10 canoes parked in front is behind us and a short distance further on two more prows are seen tied to the banks close to a path leading into the jungle. The river becomes somewhat wider and we pass many patches of saw grass. We expect to make M.C. by five this evening. Twenty more minutes brings us to the spot where we had past [sic] through the narrow channel to get to the village on our first day out. As we sped by I noticed what a narrow passage it was and how easy it would have been for the natives to get everyone of us on that trip. We are not far from Motor Camp now. The Dyaks and we shouted saro as we went by but not a sound was heard. We paddled along and stopped once for some ratan which the Dyaks spotted in the jungle. They are quick to see that short of material and are on the alert for it always. It will be used for the prows, to tie them up to the shore or to pull them thru the rapids further on in the vicinity of Head Camp. They always have a stock ahead and consequently when something of that sort is needed they have it on hand. It was four thirty when we came to the mouth of our river and turned to the left on the larger one which flows into the Rouffaer. This river looked very broad to us after our four days of confinement on the narrow stream. It appeared as broad as the Mississippi. It is a {F3.10} strange feeling[,] this being hemmed in by the jungle; and it is very noticeable when get out, into the open again. On this river we had the swift current against us and the Dyaks poled hard close to shore. We passed several banana plantations and soon were on the Rouffaer and Motor Camp appeared across the water. The camp looked like the City of Chicago and the Rouffaer river which is very wide appeared as large as Lake Michigan. We were soon in camp. Everyone was on shore to greet us for we in our prow were two days overdue. They were evidently uneasy about our safety for they registered that on their faces as we approached. I sang “Hurrah Hurrah Chin Chin” and they all smiled. We explained that Leroux and Matt were going to sleep in the Papuans[’] front yard and try to stay a couple of days. They were impressed with that. It was good to get back in camp with all of the “comforts” of motor Camp. We enjoyed a bath before dinner and the evening spent in the mosquitoe [sic] room was like an evening in Batavia. A good dinner of rice deng deng, hard bread and tea and the pipe afterwards. Some folks would say that isn’t anything to brag about and that the comforts of motor camp are hardships, but to us tonight M.C. offers everything to us that Batavia could after our four trip[s] up the unknown and unexplored river. We have named it the Gentlemen of the Science River because it was explored by the “Gentlemen of the Science” without soldiers. No one had ever been up that river before and it was an interesting as well as thrilling trip. Our collection is the best we have obtained so far. It was a great success and full of thrills – real honest to goodness ones, from the start to the finish – and when Matt and Leroux return tomorrow it will be finished.



Monday
August 2nd,
1926


After breakfast Dick and I and four Dyaks started out for the small river to do some fishing, get some bananas if possible and to {F3.11} greet Matt and leRoux on their return. The fishing was good although I didn’t get one[,] having my usual fisherman’s luck. We had been fishing about an hour when the other prow came into sight. All were present and reported an enjoyable evening in the camp. No Papuans appeared to molest them. They continued on while we continued to fish. After we had a good mess of cat fish we paddled on back and stopped and obtained three large bunches of bananas. Dick left a knife in return for every bunch we had taken. It was long after one thirty when we return[ed] to Camp for the Dyaks insisted on stopping for an hour to get the material which they wrap abount [sic] their knees similar to a fish line. Matt was busily engaged in sorting the collection. When it was all spread out we could see how much we really had obtained. (Get details of collections from Matt) Insert here. leRoux objected to the taking of the bananas but Dick pointed out that it was no different then [sic, = than] his taking things from houses and leaving a knife in exchange.



Tuesday
August 3
1926


Everybody was well rested after our strenous [sic] trip and enjoyed today as a day of rest. We played bridge, Matt, Leroux, and I most of the afternoon. The river was rising some and continued to rise when it rained heavily during the afternoon and evening. Dick prepared some fried bananas and they were delicious. We started estimating when the mail would be here and some were of the opinion it would be on the next transport which is due to arrive Thursday or Friday. It can [sic] be but because we are so anxious to get it[,] the next transport after the coming one will probably have it. It was cloudy both morning and evening so we did not see the high mountains.



Wednesday
August 4
1926


We awoke and found the river level with the banks. It has rained steadily all evening and yesterday we could see it was raining heavily {F3.12} in the mountains so we are due for some water in camp. Sure enough about nine o’clock it started to seep over the banks and at one o’clock it is spread out all over camp four or five inched [sic] deep. I am writing in the mosquitoe [sic] house with my feet on a gasoline tin. The soldiers are working hard on our house raising it so that our beds will at least be over the water and not in it. The entire camp was inundatedat [sic, = inundated at] noon and the water continues to pour in on us. This is the second time that the camp has been flooded but it is our first experience. It is not so nice. Dick and Matt are shooting pictures which will show the flood stage [See Film Selection #16]. If it continues to rise it will be up to our knees but as it has the whole lake plain to spread over it will not get that high. The river is very swift and will add another day or two to the transport getting here because of the swift stream. We ate our dinner in the mosquitoe [sic] house with our legs up on the seats. Our house is located on a slight ridge and was the last to go under water. It is an interesting sight all about me as I write. The soldiers are wading about in the water ahead of me making a platform of our house about three feet high. Then they will raise the roof and put logs down so we will be comfortable [sic] dry when we sleep anyhow. The convicts and Dyaks are wading about in the water. The sergeant says there is no extra charge for the bath with the sleeping accommodations. Everyone is taking it good naturedly. It is too bad though that Posthumus did not locate this motor camp at the same spot selected by Doorman previously for that was a high spot according to the pictures Doorman showed us. Posthumus has asserted that this motor camp is above the old motor camp while in reality according to leRoux and his observations to date it is situated two hours below the old motor camp. We saw the spot on a trip up the river the second or third day we were here and it is much higher there. I doubt that it would be floating now. Instead of profiting {F3.13} by the experience of past expeditions the army wants to make each one different [and] as a result they establish new camps all along the way just to be different. There is no sense in that. We will have to get used to water and wettings, however, for it will be the beginning of the rainy season when we arrive in the mountains and if this is the dry season we should see plenty more water soon. We had lunch with the water ebbing in under our feet at a good rate of speed. We sat on the tables and put our feet on the seats which keep them out of the water. It looks as though there will be no stop to the flood for it is getting higher and higher. It is about a foot high now. They sure got our house up out of it in time for we would have been sleeping in the water tonight if they hadn’t. Everyone was wading around camp in good spirits, however, and the dampness did not affect the attitude of any members of the expedition. It was taken more as a joke than anything else. It will be a serious joke if it continues to rise for there is no high ground in this immediate vicinity [where] we could go and camp. At about four o’clock one of the soldiers cried “Motor Boat” and every one splashed to get a view of the transport. Sure enough a long distance down the river the motor boat could be seen. The transport was not due to arrive until Friday we had figured but it was coming slowly but surely towards us. We discussed whether or not it would have the mail this trip and it was quite an unknown factor because of the two days earlier arrival of the transport. I got the glasses and couldn’t make out who was with it. It would be an hour or more before they would arrive so we spent most of it in the water discussing whether Posthumus and Van Leeuwen would arrive also. I thought they would because of the trouble at Head Camp. I also believed the mail would have time to get this transport from the knowledge I had of the transport schedule between Albatros and Batavia camp, and the date of arrival of the mail steamer. We {F3.14} were anxious for the mail. It is three months since we have had any news from home and more than two months since the Albatros departed for Ambon leaving us in New Guinea. It was hard to figure where the bank started and where it left off and Dick fell in the water. As the motor boat came closer the glasses brought out the fact that they had three small canoes behind the large prow alongside and Posthumus in the canoe. As it drew alongside in the dusk of evening Posthumus nodded that he had the mail in response to my query. I won a half bar of chocolate from Dick. It was not a pleasant sight that he saw as the Motor boat drew up to the shore. Everything was inundated and he didn’t look very pleased with the flood. He shouldn’t either for it was he who selected this camp site. The Dyaks[’] prows were loaded with dyaks and soldiers. It was a small army. Dick’s rifle came and loads and loads of mail. We learned that Van Leeuwen was coming also in another motor boat with some more canoes. He was down the river an hour or so. Had trouble with the motor boat engine only hitting on three and it needs about six against this current. Sure enough they hoove [sic] into sight shortly and [when] the other motor boat had unloaded its precious cargo it hastened down stream to help it along. The water was up to one’s knees as we waded out to greet the Rev. Doctor Docteurs. It was a funny situation to say the least. All the new soldiers and additional dyaks in addition to those already here splashed around in the water unloading the prows, in the dark. We invited Posthumus into our house to sleep for the night and leRoux took care of Van Leeuwen in his bali bali [sic] tent affair. As soon as the two heavy boxes of mail were opened we returned into our clambos and enjoyed many many hours reading. We had to pump up the lamp several times so that will give an indication of the amount of mail we received. It wasn’t all pleasant. The press in Java has been in a tempest over the expedition. It seems as though the War Depart-{F3.15} ment started the controversy and a Bandoen[g] paper there acting as its mouthpiece attacked the expedition saying it was a film proposition and not a scientific one. Most of the really important[,] if they can be called that, refused to get into that outrageous discussion because it was known by the Indian Committee and government that the Smithsonian had vouchsafed the information and guaranteed its scientific nature before we departed from the United States. The Preamble however, said that the Indies government was paying for a film which would feature American movie stars later in the states. It was the old question which arose at Albatros camp when the leadership thing came up. They insist that Dick told an officer of the Albatros he was representing Paramount films. He is also reported to have told the wireless operator that too. It is unfortunate to say the least. The papers point out that we have more than 40,000 feet of film and ask if that much is necessary to film scientific subjects. The truth of the matter is we had ten thousand feet and on the last mail both [sic, = boat?] received 10,000 more. It is all part of the misinformation sent out by Posthumus when we arrived at Motor Camp and is his part in the army campaign to discredit us. We do not know all that he sent but he sure must have sent plenty. If he had stuck to the truth it wouldn’t be so bad but the army is also under false information which makes it that much worse. It was done deliberately and the fact that we had no opportunity of correcting any of it for they had control of the wireless and all means of communication is what makes it such a dirty nasty trick. Of course we were in complete ignorance of the whole dirty mess except we heard remors [sic] now and then but of course had nothing definite of what they had sent or were sending. Then to top matters worse I learn now from a clipping Van Leeuwen wired that he had had a conference with Stirling on the film question which was raging in the papers and that {F3.16} the Americans were not at all dissatisfied over what the papers were saying but were heartily in accord with the new plan and everything as he had outlined it. It was a clever piece of work and now on August fifth in Motor Camp we learn all about it. He did not say a word about the controversy raging and did not confer with Stirling over it. He sent that message saying we were content when he knew we were not[,] for a day or so after he had sent it I sent a wire to the committee giving them as much of our side of the question as I could in a limited wire. He then had to send another telegram. He sure is a dirty skunk if there ever was one. Wait. We read and reread our mail. It was far into the night before we fell to sleep wondering a good many things. While the papers in Java were saying that the expedition could not be a success we were busy working and had already collected a great many specimens and had done some good work.



Thursday
August 5th
1926


The water had risen considerably during the night and it was just under our floors. We had much reading to do and got off a letter to Dr. Wetmore of the Smithsonian and sent a copy as well as a short letter to Hoover. As the water was everyplace in camp we had to stay in our house and most of the day was spent in the clambos reading the letters, newspapers and magazines. We sure were way behind the times for much had happened in the world since we last heard of it three months or more ago. We splashed around in the water up to our knees and higher in spots and got some good pictures of the camp under water, both movies and stills. Despite the high water we are not suffering any discomforts from it so far. It was funny to see Van Leeuven go around in the rain wading way over his knees in water and with an umbrella over him. To make the picture more humerous [sic] he fell in while going to the bath house and was soaking {F3.17} wet all over. Despite this he held the umbrella over him drowned as he was. I had a short discussion with both Van Leeuven and leRoux in front of the house in the early morning and told them what I thot of those who had sullied or tried to sully our reputation by giving the papers the dope that it was a film expedition and said that whoever it was that sent that information out from Albatros camp would have to answer to it when we came back. Leroux then came back with the statement that Dick himself had said he represented Paramount and I told him it was a darn lie and whoever said he did was a liar of the worst type. I also pointed out that if the movies wanted to get pictures here they would not tie up with a scientific expedition to do it for they could make better and more interesting backgrounds in their own studios in California and said that if anybody knew anything about the moving pictures industry at all they would know that. Posthumus sat across in his house and heard the whole conversation and kept his eyes on the floor when I said someone in Albatros camp had willfully given that information out and with a purpose. But we got over our anger for we are determined to make this expedition a success no matter what they do and say and swallowed hard. Matt said nothing at all except that he was displeased with the entire affair and that they surely knew before to Java that the scientific standing of the expedition was guaranteed by the State Department and the Smithsonian Institution. The day sped by and found us eagerly reading the papers and magazines, well into the evening. The river continued to rise for it rained heavily. We could see more rain in the mountains.



Friday
August 6th
1926


Higher and higher comes the water. But we are still dry although not so far from it a matter of an inch or so from our floor. It rained heavily during the entire evening. I forgot to mention also that {F3.18} the food tins which we had to leave behind at albatros camp was [sic, = were] not in the transport although Van Leeuwen and everybody else has [sic, = have] their little essentials such as milk chocolate and sugar which we have been without since leaving Batavia Camp. Posthumus guaranteed us it would be up on the next transport but it wasn’t although Van Leeuwen had tables [and] chairs in addition to a good amount of his newspapers, alcohol and other parts of his equipment. It seems as though they are trying to starve us out so that we will get disgusted and quit possibly. However, we can live on rice and deng deng and can go without even the little comforts such as milk and sugar. The hard part of it is that we are paying for half of the 40 dyaks and Doc has volunteered to pay five thousand guilders on the other sixty that came. We get practically no use of them but the others have no difficulty at all. If the plane was not out it would be different but we are dependent on them now and they are taking advantage of it. Good sports they sure are NOT. We don’t expect them to be generous hosts but we surely have every right to expect a square deal and get a run for our money. Becker left this morning in the motor boat. He is going direct[ly] to Albatros camp for his work here is finished. Doc [sic, = Dot] came up to relieve him. We didn’t have time to get all of the mail answered but did send back two with him in case the next transport does not arrive in time to get the boat – the Swallow – which is coming the twenty third of August. Van Leeuven also told me this morning that the letter we had given to Becker for Prince on the last transport was lost by the army sergeant at Batavia Camp. It is a funny coincidence that it could be lost and that we are always the ones to fail to receive telegrams and letters. Did not have an opportunity of talking to Becker about it. There was nothing of importance in it however except telling him about sending the food up on the coming transports. The Dyaks built a small canoe and it is being used as a {F3.19} ferry around the camp. It isa [sic] dainty little affair perfectly balanced and holds two people. Dick got pictures of it. The water rising slowly due to continual rain is making our position precarious. The magazine was under water and they built another one much higher for they have plenty of help. It should have been done before for it would have saved considerable amount of food from getting soaked. We can fish from in front of our house now and all we have to do to wash our hands and face is to do it any place around the house. The current is moving swiftly underneath our beds about three miles an hour. The camp sights are interesting and we have taken many pictures. As has been the case the last several days we have spent today in the clambo reading. It is fortunate we have so much new reading material for the time would hang heavy on our hands with this high water and no place to move about.



Saturday
August 7
1926


Water continues to rise and if it keeps on we will have to build up higher. Stayed in bed most of the day reading for there was nothing else to do. Dick however waded, swam, in addition to paddling the small canoe on a hunting expedition. He said that the water was deeper back in the jungle than it was in camp in many places being over the hips. He was rewarded with one small pigeon. Doc and I read and read and enjoyed the reading. Just before noon we heard a loud commotion and looking out of our river view apartments we saw the Dyaks in two canoes paddling for all they were worth across the river. They had spotted a cassowary in the middle of the stream and went out to get him. We [sic, = He] was being carried down stream by the swift current and was swimming desperately to get to the other side. The high water had evidently fooled him on where the edge of the bank was as it has most of us by this time and he found himself in the deep river. The Dyaks sure did paddle and were {F3.20} on the spot. It was an effort to get him aboard but this was finally accomplished[,] not until several of them had been badly kicked. They brought him back a prisoner. Tomalinda was severely bruised in the capture for they can kick. They built him a house and he now reposes inside of it looking rather meek and crestfallen. The Dyaks intend to take him back to Borneo with them. I forgot to mention yesterday that Posthumus and Leroux and Van Leeuwen took the motor boat and made a short excursion up our unknown river. They evidently had a long conference over something or other of importance for they did not ask Doc to go along with them. The Dyaks are busy working on another prow keheel [sic, = perahu (or prau) kecil (Malay, “small boat”)]. It is being ornamented both front and rear. The other one is being put to good use every day and we ferry back and forth in it from house to house as it were. It is hard to handle out in the swift stream, however, and one does not want to go too far down stream for it would be a hard task to come back. Posthumus has taken pity on us and has donated four cans of salmon and 1 Dulcina four cans of sardines [sic] to help our fare. Leroux also gave us three tins of hash which also helps. Posthumus has not said a word about our food tins except that he could not bring them this trip and they would be on the next. We are getting along all right though and it would take more than a little food to discourage us at this stage of the game. If it came to the worst we could live off the country. I had asked Posthumus the other day if he had any milk in the magazine we could obtain until our tins did finally arrive and he said they had none. Today Dick got five cans of sweetened milk from the sergeant in charge of the magazine. The funny part of it was he asked this same sergeant about the milk in front of me and said he said he had none. Nice people. Of course it rained.



Sunday
August 8
1926


Hurrah Hurrah Chin Chin! the water dropped about an inch during {F3.21} the night. That isn’t much but it is an encouragement any way. We can now hope that it will drop another inch tomorrow. It was a quiet Sunday all around. The soldiers and the natives played and sang during most of the afternoon. Their music is very melodious and pleasing. It is similar to Hawaiin [sic] music. During the day the water dropped a trifle more. It was just descertainable [sic] and no more. As it looked rather good in the mountain districts which we have not seen since the high water because of storm clouds it might be that it will continue to fall the next several days. It doesn’t look too well over in that direction though. We had run hurriedly through our mail and I spent most of the day in the clambo looking over it a second time. I got a good many more interesting information from the clippings which Leroux and Van Leeuwen refused to translate for me when I asked him about what it was all about. Posthumus did[,] when I presented one small clipping[,] translate it. It was about another bird supposed to be from the Smithsonian wanting to come to New Guinea on an airplane expedition. Matt never heard of him. Also learned that our former K.P.M. captain is in the discussion in the papers in some form or other but can’t make it out. [sic] what it is all about.



Monday
August 9
1926


It was a muddy sloppy sight that despite its nastyness [sic] appealed to us when we answered Umpah’s call of “Come and get it while its hot”. The river had fallen completely and was several inches below the banks. It was a good sight to see for if the high water had continued much longer it would have become monotonious [sic]. Walks were built around camp and if one stayed on them he didn’t get into the soft mud. The river had left behind all sorts of drift wood and mud which was certainly sticky. The sun, however, will soon dry it up. The most interesting feature [of] the day outside of the water dropping back to its level was a race between the Dyaks in the large {F3.22} prows. It was a thrilling sight. They paddled harder than I have ever seen them paddle before and had twenty or more men in the big prow. Posthumus and Dick shot pictures (movies) of it. In fact the race was started by Posthumus. The Dyaks had also finished their other small canoe and with two men in each they staged a race in these. The new canoe is carved most artistically at both ends with some sort of a dragon[’]s head curved gracefully both forward and aft. In the middle of the race the lighter canoe without the carvings upset due to their hard paddling and both Dyaks went sprawling into the water. Dick got them as they over turned with his movie camera. It should make a good movie for there is plenty of action in both the race scenes. As the river has fallen almost back to the level it sustained when we arrived, Posthumus, Leroux, Van Leeuwen and Doc are leaving tomorrow morning for head camp. Each man will have a canoe. Two others will carry additional luggage, food and soldiers (5). We are to remain here and when the transport returns from Head Camp get four Dyaks and go down the river to get movies and a collection from the people out a day or two from this camp. In about a month they expect the line will be ready into Explorators camp and we can then come up. Leroux and Stirling are going to go into the mountains first with Jordans. Van Leeuwen will stay at Head Camp and Posthumus will return here to keep the line running. I hope they keep their promise of our coming up in a month or so better than they kept some of the others. Still we will have an interesting time of it down the river with the people and our four Dyaks. A boat of the transport will pass us every five days[,] one coming up and the other going down so we will have some contact at least if the people below haven’t been shot and scared as they have been here.



Tuesday
August 10
1926


Despite the fact that most of the packing and getting ready for {F3.23} the trip was done yesterday a good deal had to be accomplished today so everybody was up early. The mud had dried somewhat but it was still soft and wet underfoot. The canoes were loaded. There were six of them. Van Leeuwen had the largest and it was the heaviest of load, being almost top heavy I thought. Leroux had one, Doc with two or three tins and the rest trade goods had another and Posthumus was in another. Two more were loaded with food for there is practically no food at Head Camp. Five soldiers were scattered about in response to the aid requested by Jordans after the shooting. Just before the start they had to unload Van Leeuwen’s canoe because it was too much and top heavy. The only prow in camp was brought into service and half of it was unloaded into that. Van Leeuwen who looked rather embarrassed while this was going on tried to blame it onto [sic, = on] the Dyaks not knowing how to load their canoes. He hated this large prow he said. It was no good and he had told the Dyaks not to set his things upright but to lay them flat so as to not make it top heavy. He sure must think we are dumb for if a Dyak doesn’t know how best to load his canoe certainly Van Leeuwen doesn’t know anything about it. He had large drums of alcohol and his folding tables, chairs, and what not. If they had loaded it flat they could not have gotten all of the stuff in three canoes. After the seventh canoe was loaded they were off. We stood on shore and waved goodbye to them and sang Hurrah Hurrah Chin Chin[,] the soldiers joining in making it a real song for we don’t know the words. Saleh, Leroux’[s] mantre [sic] and the most valuable man because of his map making on the expedition was left behind. Van Leeuwen’s assistant, however[,] who runs around cahsing [sic] bugs was with him. Saleh will go on the next transport. That is probably one reason they have no complete or authentic maps of this region. Saleh’s work even to the point which has been covered before has shown that the river as mapped on the previous expedition {F3.24} is all wrong. Still, he, the most important man on the expedition from the map making standpoint is left behind. That is just an illustration of their efficiency. When they even fight with one another as they have done on their previous expeditions, army against scientific men, and navy it is no wonder that we have had trouble also for we are outsiders to them. That friction of one wanting to get more glory than the other in addition to their primitive methods of transportation is the principal reason this country has large blank spots on the map reading “totally unknown”. They should be proud of all this but they are too busy trying to keep the other fellow from getting an advantage that they have just what they have in this country – large blank spaces. After they had gone we discovered that Doc had forgotten to take his small Brownie and Leroux who had asked to borrow Dick’s rifle had not taken it either[,] although Dick had it laid out and ready for him. It will be five or six days before the Dyaks return and in that time we should have another transport up from Motor Camp. We have no prow now so it is impossible to go anyplace for the small ones are not capable of two men bringing them back without a lot of effort so consequently we are marooned so to speak. Still we have much to do. I am busy answering mail to go out on the next boat and now that the ground is not so damp underfoot it can be done in the mosquitoe [sic] house by walking carefully on boards. It rained during the evening but not enough to make any difference in the river. Today we saw the first foothills of the Nassau mountains for the first time. They have been hidden by clouds all during our wet spell. It was cloudy most of the day but the sun won out now and then and broke through for a short time at intervals.



Wednesday
August 11
1926


I forgot to mention also that about Friday or Saturday Van Leeuwen discovered that his boy**not a convict one he brought from his home-- {F3.25} had been stealing alcohol and sugar from him. It was two or three liters of alcohol and he had him arrested. He was brought before Posthumus and according to what little we hear of it he gave it to the soldiers. Many soldiers were brought up and questioned. He is a prisoner and a soldier stands guard over him with a huge drawn sabre. The chap who is probably guilty but who also did it probably on the urging of the soldiers is very little and bashful and it looks funny to see a large soldier follow him through the water with his sword drawn. We have called him the camp bootlegger. They had three or four hearings which Posthumus held and wrote down statements in a large black book. He is going to be sent back to Ambon but not made a prisoner there because of the soldier angle. Two Dyaks are with us in camp. One is sick, and the other is for the returning transport. Dick went hunting this morning and was in hopes of getting his crockadile [sic] which he spotted yesterday on a bar in the river which are [sic, = is] starting to reappear. He had two shots at him, missed him the first time but got him the second. He was too far away, however, and could [not] recover him. He then went down the river and returned with a large white cockadoo [sic] and a brown and red one. We can see one little hump in the direction of Head Camp but the rest of the ranges are hidden by clouds all morning. The sun has failed to shine today so the camp is still wet and muddy. We had the cockadoo [sic] for dinner. It was not bad eating at all. It rained again last evening.



Thursday
August 12
1926


The sun is still obscured by heavy low hanging clouds and most of the morning was a dreary one. No rain, however. Spent the day writing answers to the many letters received. As it is likely that the river will flood the camp again sometime before the expedition’s return the soldiers are elevating their house and that of the convicts. Everything in camp will then be at least a half metre to a metre off {F3.26} the ground. It is a wise ploicy [sic]. The mud is still messy around camp for the sun has failed to get a good day[’]s work in since the river receded. Not much news. Miss Matt and wish we could be together.



Friday
August 13
1926


Still cloudy and a little rain. No news waiting for the transport to return and in the meantime spending the days writing. Saw the foothills for just a brief moment last night. The sun finds it impossible to break thru the heavy clouds. River is about the same. Fishing is good and they have caught several large ones. It helps out on the rice and deng deng. Played a game of checkers with one of the soldiers[;] they have a strange game and you can jump forwards and backwards and every way it seems. Just noticed that today is Friday the thirteenth. We will all be careful. Nothing startling happened however, although we did see a little of the sun for the first time in many days. It was very dim haze[,] the heavy clouds making it impossible for it to break through with all its brilliance. During the evening I played checkers with Dot and learned more about their funny game of jumping all over the boards.



Saturday
August 14
1926


It was another cloudy morning. We had our usual breakfast of rice with java goula [sic, = gula (Malay, “sugar”)], milk and coffee after which I dug into my writing. Yesterday I finished 15 single spaced sheets (seven carbons) of Doc’s diary to send back. Hope to finish it today together with other necessary correspondence. Dick went hunting and returned with a couple of green and red parrots. His pigeons of last evening made good eating. The transport to Head Camp and possibly that from Batavia Camp should arrive today or tomorrow. Just before noon someone spotted two Papuan prows downstream poling slowly up the river. They had not as yet passed the mouth of the small river and the glasses showed {F3.27} that they had a load of bananas in one of the canoes. There were three men in one and two in the other. They made slow progress against the stream and it was some time before they got opposite camp. They are evidently from down river for we saw smoke rising from the jungle down in that direction. We shouted to them and they shouted back but were afraid to come over. It is evident that they want to trade their bananas but cannot muster up enough courage to come to the camp for fear of shooting. We have nothing but the small prows. I asked the sergeant if he and Dot and I could get in the motor boat with a couple of soldiers and go across and trade with them to show them we were friendly but he said he had strict orders from Captain Posthumus that the motor boat was not to be used under any circumstances. I asked him if we went in the small prow and turned over in the middle of the river, if it would be possible for him to send the motor boat to our rescue. He didn’t know exactly but said orders were orders and that he as a sergeant had to live up to them. Dot had the same orders. I suppose if we did drift down the river and were unable to come back they would live up to their “orders”. That is tipical [sic] of the cooperation we are receiving. The Papuans stayed opposite all afternoon and we shouted back and forth and tried to encourage them to come over without results. They built a fire and evidently had their noon day meal there. Dick went hunting in the afternoon and returned and reported that the woods above camp were filled with them. He could hear them cutting down sago palms all around him while he hunted. It was impossible to go across in one small prow for they are not very stable at best and it is a long distance. One Dyak is also sick so we couldn’t take two of them with only one Dyak. It would appear, however, that they are getting short of food and are coming out from their little river hiding place[,] their braveness being attributed to our recent trip up the little river having proven in a way to them that we are friendly. It was not enough though to give them enough {F3.28} courage to come over to our camp where they were fired upon some weeks ago. The river has fallen considerably having dropped four or five feet during the night and now we have a bank of six or seven feet in contrast to a few days ago when all the camp was part of the river. We could plainly see from the way the soldiers acted today why they found it necessary to shoot. It is no wonder for they yell and howl in such a manner that would scare a civilized person to death if he were approaching this camp. It would be a fine thing to re-establish friendly relations with these people and I am sure we could have accomplished this if we had the motor boat to go over to the opposite shore. The prow sedicket [sic, = prau sedikit (Malay, “little boat”)] will hold two persons but with one it is hard to keep upright. The Papuans stayed over there for most of the afternoon and then returned down the river.



Sunday
August 15
1926


Cloudy and delightfully cool. In fact a most refreshing breeze blew through the clambo last night. This morning the sun appeared for a few moments but then gave it up as a bad job and went behind the heavy clouds. Our Papuan friends have not reappeared. Perhaps they are in sunday school. The soldiers evidently forgot that it was Sunday today for they continued working on the large elevated house which will hold 24 soldiers. The transports from both directions have failed to arrive as yet. They should be along sometime today. About three o’clock in the afternoon the motor transport with the large canoe and three smaller ones behind arrived from Batavia Camp. There was [sic] none of our tins or even the trade goods tins in the transport. A note from Prince said he had been trying to get them to put some of our tins on the transport but they had refused to do so but had exacted a promise out of them that all of them would come with the next transport. That is the same promise they gave us when we took them out of the canoes at Albatros camp. There have been two motor {F3.29} transports to here since and not even one tin has been included. The soldiers however, were able to bring a guiatar [sic] and another musical instrument packed in a large gasoline case. Still our trade goods (which Doc needs badly above) and some of our food, such as milk and sugar and butter[,] is not essential despite the fact that they know we had one tin for three of us since leaving Albatros Camp. With the arrival of the transport, however, and through the goodness of Captain Hoffman we are promised tomorrow to have some butter, oatmeal and milk. Hoffman seems to be more human than anybody in the outfit. He has always been nice to us, and always friendly.



Monday
August 16
1926


We were up early to finish the mail for it will catch the Swallow which arrives the 23rd of the month. Dot left about eight o’clock and we sent back a batch of mail with him. As there were no Dyaks to build boxes for the arrows and collection we will send it on the next transport. It is better to send it right than half way. The transport from Head Camp has failed to arrive to date. They evidently don’t want us to get started down the river to work any too quickly. Or perhaps they are having trouble up there. We will hear when they return. We got out one tin of oatmeal, one tin of butter through Dr. Hoffman’s efforts and it sure will be good to have oatmeal for breakfast tomorrow instead of rice. Hoffman also treated us to some whole wheat bread and butter last night. Oh how good it tasted. He also gave us a piece of dry sausage to go with it and chicken or steak or anything of that character never tasted better. We wouldn’t mind going short rations if the rest of them did but they don’t and they won’t bring up the little things like that for us when they cart it up for themselves. That[’]s the hard part of it[,] to see him sitting eating cheese and that kind of luxury and to know that yours is back below. That’s what hurts. Had quite a talk with Doc Hoffman {F3.30} and learned much news of what happened [at] A.C. since we left. Dyaks have cut [the] plane all to pieces and [are] wearing all sorts of ornaments from materials they had taken from it such as struts, wings, and so forth. Can’t learn who gave them permission to do so but Hoffman said they had started to destroy it when he first arrived [at] M.C. with Captain Posthumus and Van Leeuwen [See photo A055]. Dyaks returned from Head Camp and had [a] note from Matt. Said high water had stopped them this side (5 hours) of Head Camp and back to [the] original place of Head Camp where shooting occurred. Looked as tho that will have to be base. Said [the] jungle [was] thick and making [a] trail overland [was] going to be [a] difficult task. He said Jordans [had] been sich [sic] again but [was] better now. Evidently Jordans moved back to Head Camp below [the] rapids. Van Leeuwen had fever again. Said all Papuans ahead had come back for houses we had visited filled with people met and traded many of them. Counted more than 78, visited them on island[;] they ate luncheon. Secured large collection. Friendly and eager [to] trade anything for [a] few beads. Suggested we go up stream which we will do starting tomorrow. Said Head Camp not [as] nice as Motor Camp. Foggy, raining all [the] time and cold. Said Posthumus said we can come up anytime but Matt said better [stay] here and advised waiting [until the] trail interior [was] finished. Said Posthumus sending back prow and four Dyaks for our use, but not responsible for our safety. Will not give soldiers for protection. River rose and came over banks late afternoon.



Tuesday
August 17
1926


Had oatmeal for breakfast first time in many weeks and oh boy how good it tasted. Umpah was saving the one tin we received and served us just a little. Was a nasty rainy cloudy morning and most of day. Busied getting food for trip and packing things. Dyaks and Dick went up small river[,] hunting and fishing. Returned with one flying fox and many fish. Heard some Papuans and evidently they {F3.31} have returned. Water continues to rise and lower parts of camp flooded again, but we can walk around camp yet on boards from last flood. Hoffman[,] who had second attack of fever coming up feeling better today although still taking quinine. Made up a large tin of medicines for us for use [on] our trip. Selected our four Dyaks. Some not anxious to go but we have four good men including one old head. Will leave tomorrow if river is not too high. Transport also leaving tomorrow for Head Camp. Saleh will go and Hoffman will wait until the next one. Rained during [the] evening but before dark we got [a] little glimpse of mountains and saw snow mountains again for [a] little while. Not as good as before. First time in weeks we have even had a glimpse of foothills. Panarama [sic] very pretty with cloud affects [sic]. {F3.32}



Wednesday
August 18th,
1926


Left with transport of 6 canoes. Dick and I and Oompah with 4 Dyaks made [a] seventh prow. We will go up 2 or 3 hours to where Papuans are and then make camp and endeavor to trade with them. Passed all houses we had visited on our first trip and found them reoccupied. Papuans shouted at us as we paddled along. At one village [on the] other side of the river they came out with canoe about 7 men, but couldn’t get across river due to heavy stream. We continued on. Water high and current swift so progress is slow. Dyaks did not want to start today but Hoffman insisted. Previously planned [to] go down river but Doc said people above M.C. had returned and that [we] might try trading [with] them for they [were] eager to trade and wild about beads. After passing our 1st batch close to camp we did not see any more altho we saw many houses. Their goods were in the houses so they evidently were in hiding. At noon we stopped for lunch on an island alongside 2 Papuan houses. One was a large one and all enclosed with rough boards. I counted 12 clay hearts and many bags hanging from rafters. Also two sculls [sic] one rather fresh from appearance. The Dyaks get a thrill out of seeing the skulls of humans hanging from the rafters. They don[’]t like it for they think they are head hunters. Having been head hunters themselves a generation or so ago it is no wonder they are silent and look rather afraid when they learn of the heads being in the houses. As there were no Papuans there we continued expecting to run into the gang Matt spoke of trading with during a noon day stop for lunch on a sandbar. We reached it and the bar was almost submerged due to the high water. The Dyaks stopped and told us that was the place but there was no sign of a native so we continued on and made camp for the nite with the transport crew. We can either continue on or stay around here for a day and then go back to work with those closer to {F3.33} camp for it looked as tho they were willing to trade and not afraid. The Dyaks and soldiers say there is a large village not far from our camp. There are 11 houses but they were all deserted. There are 2 across the river and a few more down stream but a short distance. We are very comfortably fixed in camp for the Dyaks had worked hard and made camp earlier than usual.



Thursday
August 19th,
1926


Broke camp at 6:30 and were on our way. The stream was narrow and swift so our progress was slow. We saw nor heard no [sic] Papuans altho we passed several houses. After about 3 or 4 hours of steady poling we stopped to rest. As we had only 4 Dyaks and as much load as the other prows manned with 7 or 8 Dyaks we had to keep stepping fast to keep up with them. It was hard work for our men altho Dick and I also manned a paddleeach [sic]. As our canoe leaked badly Oompah was kept busy bailing. During the rest we learned it was still a considerable distance to the next group of Papuans and it would be noon or better before we reached them. That would be in the vicinity of Splitzings camp. As we were far beyong [sic] the 2 hours Matt had spoken of in his note where they traded with the natives on the way up and as it was uncertain whether they would be friendly and trade with us we decided it was best to return to the spot where they came out in canoes as we went up[,] for it appeared certain we could establish contact there. So we bid goodbye to the transport and started back down. We will make camp close to them and see what[’]s doing. With the stream in our favor we loafed and sped along. Dick had 2 shots at crocidiles [sic] on a bar but shooting from an unstable canoe is not an easy thing to do and Mr. Crocidile [sic] slipped off into the water. We were soon in the vicinity where we had seen and heard hundreds of natives[;] as we approached the 1st group of houses smoke was coming thru the roof. We pulled alongside shouting saro but to empty houses. They had fled. We slid on down stream to the {F3.34} next batch of houses, and had the same results. We could not understand it for on the way up they came out in canoes, and poled after us for some distance. We were on the other side of the river however then and now that we were close to them they were not as brave. There was nothing to do so we continued on and were soon in Motor Camp. They are back to their houses above camp but the moment you approach them they are gone. They are afraid and will be for some time due to the shooting by the soldiers. We were welcomed back in camp by Dr. Hoffman and spent the remainder of the day packing the ethnological collection so it can be sent down on the next motor transport. We will leave for down river early tomorrow morning for we know we can trade and work with the people there. Coming up we couldn’t spare time to stay long enough. Now we will be able to go and come as we please and should get results.



Friday
August 20
1926


While we were packing and getting ready to leave[,] 4 or 5 Papuans appeared on the bar about 500 yards above camp and shouted saro. It looked as tho they wanted to trade and so I got in the prow with 3 Dyaks and started up to see if they couldn’t be convinced we were friendly. As soon as we started almost they were off the bar and in the jungle. We went ashore and I held out a knife as an inducement for them to return. But no sound came from the direction in which they fled. After several attempts and using different tactics we returned to camp muddy and wet and no results. I can[’]t understand why they make overtures like they do and then flee when you come to them. We packed more food into the canoes and started down stream as Dr. Hoffman was having an inspection of the soldiers in camp. It will be easy going down but difficult coming back. The water was down to about normal height. We soon left the camp in the distance and in an hour or so were upon a village. We shouted {F3.35} and they answered in return but when we changed our course and pulled over to them they were quiet and the houses deserted when we pulled ashore. We could see 2 or 3 run into the jungle as we came close. So we continued on. About 15 minutes later we approached another village and shouted saro. They answered but we decided to go to the opposite shore on a gravel bank and see if we couldn’t induce them to come to us. We waved a knife in the air and 4 men in a prow poled across the river but landed farther down stream and came up slowly. They were very timid. They advanced slowly and I advanced slowly towards them. They stopped and retreated several times but the knife I held towards them would cause them to reconsider and to come again. Two stayed in the background while 2 carrying large sticks which they waved furiously talking all the while[,] advanced step by step. An old bearded chap was in the lead. We dicked [sic] step by step[,] they backward and I forward for some time until they were about 10 feet away, very nervous but their eyes gleamed at the site [sic] of the knife. During all this time[,] shouts of all sorts – advice – be careful from the wives – look out they are doing this or that in the canoe – don’t trust [‘]em – or choose your own we don’t know – floated across the river. [sic] Finally I got close enough to hand the knife to the bearded chap and he backed away. I had a banana in my hand and indicated that I would give him some beads for some. He understood and dispatched one of his friends in the background for some. In the meantime he lost his timidness and one or 2 others came up trembling. They were immediately at ease when we smiled. Dick got some pictures of the trading. I tried to get over the idea of stone axes and altho they recognized the one I improvised, they brot more bananas, sugar cane and some sort of palm. We stopped and ate lunch and visited. They would not come to where the Dyaks were camped. The noon day sun was hot and as they have no interest in the Papuans except disgust for them they rigged up a {F3.36} canvas shelter and sat under it. I finally got a few more ornaments[:] belt ratan, belts, bags and thot they might have more in the crude canoe anchored down stream. So I walked down[,] they following and protesting rather strenuously but I showed them the knife and smiled reassuringly and kept on. When I was half way I could see why they were anxious for 2 houses appeared and I recognized it as the spot where we had seen the women on the way up but had not stopped. As I approached more men ran into the jungle from various sides. There was nothing in the canoe so I offered beads to those who hid in the jungle and slowly one by one they came after seeing that the bearded man thot it safe. 2 small boys were in the group of about 8 or 10 and we sat on the sand. They were getting more at ease every minute and informed me that those who had been sent for the stone axes would be back and to wait. I tried to get a few words and they laughed bood [sic, = good] naturedly at my attempts to talk Papuan. One of the boys looked like and acted like Red at Albatros Camp. He was smart also and got an idea ahead of the rest of them. The Dyaks and Dick had loaded the prow and came down stream towards us. As the sight of them the newcomers in the party jumped up and started for the jungles but I reassured them and they stood a short distance away looking rather scared. Finally the prows and 2 of them came slowly across the stream and they shouted and pointed to them for they thot we were leaving. Five of them came up with bananas and 4 or 5 bunches of their bags, sugar cane and a fish net which one of them wore as a hat. There was no sign of a stone axe. The others left their bows and arrows behind when they left the prow. We gave them a huge knife for the entire lot for they had worked hard and gone a long distance to get the cane and bananas. They wanted to know if we were going to sleep down stream and we said yes. They waved a friendly goodbye as we left. After we made a bend in the river we saw the {F3.37} old bivauc we had made the last nite on our trip up to M.C. and as there were many houses and evidently the same people we decided to stop there for the nite to see more of them if possible. We had no sooner got[ten] ashore than a prow with 5 Papuans came down stream and we recognized our friends. They pulled in above us tho and after 2 hours have failed to put in their appearance. Directly across the river tho on an island are 2 houses and many people. As I sit and write many children are shouting and bathing in the river on the other side of the island. It is the 1st time we have seen Papuans bathe, but these are children and from their shouts and laughter they are enjoying their swim. Darkness brot out a full moon and many stars. At 10 o’clock we posted a Dyak guard and lites – candles set in 2 large water buckets – at either edge of camp and went to our Klambas [sic, = kelambu (Malay, “mosquito nets”)]. All was quiet during the nite. Of course it rained but we were dry.



Saturday
August 21st
1926


Shortly after we had our breakfast the Papuans appeared all around us. Some were our friends of yesterday and many were new faces. A dozen or more children were present. They remembered our sitting party on the bar and those who were present yesterday when we sat and talked with them instructed the newcomers to seat themselves. They did and soon too their shyness wore off. They increased in numbers until we had 30 or more among us. As I sat and traded and tried to get some words from them Dick shot stills and movies. They watched him with interest but only a few of the children were frightened. They were reassured by the others, however, and soon all were eager to get the black slips of the film pack. The old chap reappeared and for some reason or other took a seat in the rear and did not participate in the trading as before. We had an interesting party with them until 11:30 when we broke camp and {F3.38} continued down stream. They were exceedingly friendly – not one brot a bow and arrow into camp. Many stayed in the jungle and when I went to bring those on the gringe [sic] into the family circle they retreated a few steps but came on the advice of the others. They were certainly not intelligent as others we have met and seemed to have very little. We could not get a stone ax altho they brot in stone from one. They waved a friendly farewell as we pulled away[.] Our trip down stream was swift. We past [sic] several houses but none s [sic] showed. Finally on another sand bar we stopped and traded a knife for many bows and arrows, bags and ear boxes. One youngster with a small bow and arrow demonstrated his powress [sic] as a marksman to Dick while his older brother presumably shouted and insisted on trading. He was very excited and enthused and when one hesitated he would pull the object I desired from them and hand it to me to receive whatever I offered. We left and for some distance saw neither houses [n]or people. Sago was plentiful. As we approached a house several men appeared on shore and waved to us. They intended coming out in their dug out but we pulled into shore before they could get started. They didn’t want us to land but we did. They [sic] were big fellows among them – 6 or 7 – and [they] were not showing any fear. They wanted a large knife and had fish nets, bags and 2 or 3 stone axes to offer. They were hard traders and drove tight bargains. Dick shot stills and went over to the house and looked in. A big fellow shouted and Dick thought for a moment he was going to fell him with the stone ax he waved close to his head. The house was full of women folks[,] Dick said. They were not overly friendly so we decided not to eat [the] noon day meal there as we planned. The one chap refused to trade his stone ax and held on to it in with a sour look on his face. [sic] The market was too high so I withdrew my offer and he sent a chap for another ax and I closed the deal. We left and their attitude changed for they offered all {F3.39} sorts of things to induce us to come and trade some more, but we kept on much to their sorrow for they showed their disappointment. Their bluff didn’t work. Another long stretch of swamp and then sago. We came upon another house on a mud flat. Two small children were playing with back baskets at the water[’]s edge. They waved and were unafraid until the older folks[,] alarmed at the sight of us[,] called them in. We continued for they were very much afraid. More children bathing later. They were splashing and having loads of fun. One of them swam for a short distance with great splashing and shouting on the part of the others. At 3 we pulled into a bivauc we had made on our fifth nite up with the M. transport. It was here we had had such an evening[’]s demonstration and gathered stone axes and fish nets for 1 large parang [Malay, "long knife or machete"] the site [sic] of which tickled them like children and they couldn’t wait until they had tried it several rounds. We could not see or hear a single house or person. We made camp quickly and had our food. Shortly before Dusk 2 prows appeared from upstream. We answered their calls but they didn’t seem anxious to come over. After a considerable length of time a prow appeared on the other side of the island going down stream. We shouted saro but the one chap in the head of the prow poled on. We could see 4 or 5 others who had ducked their heads and were lieing [sic] flat in the boat which disappeared around the bend. Dick had cleared a large path to the rear of us to bet [sic] some breeze to help chase the mosquitoes which were very bad. Shortly afterwards a prow with 4 Papuans appeared and poled over to us, and came ashore at the same spot. They recognized us and we recognized many of them. They had stone axes and fish nets and shell ornaments but they wanted saro’s [sic] and a big saro at that. We traded a small knife and beads for what they had but they wanted knives badly and it was hard to get them to accept beads. They did finally but not until they saw we had no more knives or would not trade them. The beads were {F3.40} very acceptable. They were friendly and enjoyed our asking and repeating their names. Everyone had to be included. They were nite hawks as before for it was an hour or more after dark before they could be induced to depart. About 10 went thru the jungle path while the 4 in the prow returned from whence they came. Dick and the Dyaks built a stockade aroung [sic] our camp and before they departed he demonstrated what they would do to a Papuan who stole up to camp in the dark by cutting a 3½ inch tree in two with one well directed blow. They backed up and opened their eyes wide. The mosquitoes are bad here so it was inside the Klambas for us immediately after the Papuans left. As I write Ponan the Dyak who is the oldest and in charge is reciting a prayer or something in a monotune [sic]. He has been talking to himself now in a steady stream for more than an hour. He did the same thing last nite. When he hesitates one of the others says something and he is off again for ten minutes or more. He delivers it very well raising and lowering his voice as one does during an oration. We sure wish we could understand it.



Sunday
August 22
1926


It was a brite red dawn and the sunrise with the mountains in the left made a pretty picture. The Dyaks reported many mosguitoes [sic] but no Papuans during the nite. We had breakfast and immediately afterwards the Papuan canoe from down stream only 2 visited camp while we could hear many on the point below. [sic] One brot a back basket of a sort of carrot root and I gave him some beads for them and as the Dyaks said it wasn’t good “macan” [sic, = makan (Malay, “[to] eat”)] [,] we left it. I also got a small net bag and the few things he had in it as well as a woven head cap. Beads were acceptable. When the old chap had finished trading he asked permission to go up stream thru the jungle. He evidently belonged to the tribe which went above and remained below so he could be on hand early to trade some more. Last evening I {F3.41} tried to get the name of whickers [sic] and he thot I wanted some of his so he brot several shades wraped [sic] up which he insisted I take[.] I did and to show appreciation gave him a few beads. We packed and left at 9. Right around the bend in a canoe was the other chap who also asked permission to depart before he left. Their village was close by and we as [sic, = as we] passed the women and children stood on the shore waving to us. The men shouted friendly greetings. It is a very warm morning and very clear as it has been since we left. We are well loaded now and will have to stop trading for we’ve no place to put the stuff. We had gone but a short distance when we spotted another camp. It was where the transport had stopped. We stop[ped] to trade with some folks on shore but they were not very friendly when we refused to part with knives for everything they offered. At 2 in the afternoon we came upon the spot where the motor boat broke down and a short distance below we traded with some big fellows who were very friendly. We traded one knife and many beads and secured a good head dress. They were very picturesque and well decorated. After trading for 15 or 20 minutes we continued down stream and soon saw the bivauc we had made the night Saleh got 2 birds. We wanted to stop there but the Dyaks went on for some reason or other and we came to the place where a house was on an island point and [where] we had traded. We built a camp on the opposite shore and altho we saw and heard them shout they failed to put in their appearance. They continued shouting on all sides as we built a camp. Two canoes loaded with 10 men crossed over at dusk but they were evidently afraid to come over and shouted excitedly at us. They were none too friendly. We built a stockade at one end of camp and scattered dry palm leaves in back of our lean[-]to, which was only 3 feet from the high river bank. The water is very low. A huge dead tree was very close by and the Dyaks cut it a little so if a strong wind came up it would fall the {F3.42} other way. About one in the morning – the Dyaks did not stand guard for some reason or other – there was big thud and the Dyaks jumped out of bed like lightning. A large piece of the bank had given way rite up to upstream side of our leanto. We moved the heavy bagger to the opposite end of the leanto and back towards the jungle and went back to bed hoping the rest of it would hold until morning. It did luckily or we would have all tumbled into the swift stream, beds, bagger and all.



Monday
August 23
1926


We were up at the break of day and as we were having breakfast 5 Papuans from the other side came over in a prow and after a little yo howing back and forth came into camp. They wanted Saros and we traded them a small knife for an excellent head dress. They were not very friendly and always kept one arrow on the rite hand ready to fit in their bow. As we packed they were all eyes and look[ed] our things over to the most intimate detail. One even insisted on going into my pockets but I put a quick stop to that. They were the boldest of any we met. We thot we would go down stream a ways as it was a half day or more hard pull up to our camp where we wanted to stop yesterday. It was hard to decide what to do for if we went down we might miss the motor boat and our food. We finally decided to go on down and see how the river was and in hopes of seeing the motor transport and told the Papuans we were going down stream. About 5 minutes down we came upon the bivauc made by Hoffman on the last transport and as there were many bends and we could easily miss the motor if we took the wrong one, we decided to go back up as we approached the house of our friwnds [sic], which was behind the island[;] they were suspicious of our change of plans and two came out with their bows and arrows fitted. We motioned that we were going on up and as they appeared ready to shoot[,] paddled over to the opposite bank. All the time they were {F3.43} shouting excitedly and were certainly menacing. The current was swift and our progress was slow but when we passed the point of the island where one of their houses was situated they quieted down and after 20 minutes of heavy poling and paddling were out of their vicinity. It is going to be hard work getting back to our camp where we wanted to stop yesterday. The Dyaks say it will be about 6 hours. We came down in 1 hour. It will be the best thing to do however, for the people above will be easier to work with and do not want so much. They are more friendly and the limited amount of trade goods we have left will go farther. We had a hard time of it for the current was swift and our heavy load and only 4 Dyaks. Of course we helped paddle. Oompah and I however bailed water but it seeped in as fast as we could bail it out. The poling pushes the prow down some and it seeps thru where the side boards are attached. As we were struggling along close to a heavily wooded shore, we heard and later saw 2 Papuans concealed in the jungle. There evidently were more of them from the noise they made. They didn’t show any signs of wanting to trade so we kept on. In 2 hours and a half we arrived at our camp. It was just noon. We are not sure it is our camp of the next to the last nite we spent on the river going up. The water was low so the Dyaks had to build steps down to the canoe for unloading. After camp was established a prow with 7 or 8 Papuans appeared from down stream and we shouted at them. They poled across and landed below camp and 3 of them came thru the jungle to camp. We traded for about 2 hours, Dick getting some good movies. He had the beadd [sic] being manufactured by the camera and while it took some maneuvering and motioning of hands[,] they wanted the beads. When he ran out of film in one camera he had the other manufacture tabacco [sic]. (These people smoke) We traded one knife for they always insist on saro first. For one small bead we got arrows, bows and everything they {F3.44} had. We became very friendly and told them to come back tomorrow morning. They misunderstood us however, and just before dark were back this time with 8 of them in the canoe. All eight came to a portion of the jungle and the trading was fast and furious for some time. The newcomers were somewhat timid at first but soon they were the same as the others and entered into the trading for beads with the same enthusiasm as the rest. It was almost dusk when we first saw them on the river so it was impossible to get any pictures. I had promised them a saro but wanted them to return tomorrow but they misunderstood our signs and came at dusk. So I gave them a large knife and they eagerly parted with bows, arrows, tobacco boxes, head dress and what not in their eagerness to get it. When I handed it over they danced and shouted with joy and chopped away at trees in the vicinity. It didn’t last long however, for they dispatched one of their men to the canoe with it for safeties [sic] sake. I presume in case I should change my mind. Then they had more little things to trade for beads, and we traded. One older chap was holding on to a shell ornament and wanted a saro for each. When he saw it was not forthcoming he traded the shell ornament for 5 beads. It was now dark and we indicated we were going to sleep and told them to return tomorrow. In trying to get the idea over to them in the morning that we wanted to go over to their sago place and make pictures they had thot we wanted sago and brot several huge pieces of it [for] which we traded them beads. They call it fee. They left all in good spirits and say “Assai” when they want to go. They never leave until you not [sic, = nod] approval. I told them my name and they got some funny combination of Saeh out of it and as they poled across the river they shouted it back and forth for some time. It rained during the nite and our roof leaked a little. The Dyaks had failed to fix it as I told them in the afternoon. {F3.45}



Tuesday
August 24
1926


At six this morning they appeared in the jungle behing [sic] us and we had to jump out of bed hurriedly and meet them. Only 2 appeared for they had shouted Toway and then they had not heard my answer [so] they felt uneasy I presume. The Dyaks had shouted saro several times but they left the other 5 downstream by the canoe. I explained that I hadn’t heard them because I was sleeping and from their actions and talk they understood. They didn’t have much to trade but I gave them beads for what they had. They informed me they were going up stream to make “fee” (sago) and we told them to come back at noon by pointing directly over head. They left but not before they had pointed to the shields which the Dyaks had placed on the top of the canvas to hold it down. They demonstrated their use and I nodded approval but assured them it was only in case they shoot at us when we are in the jungle or on the river. I don’t think they got the idea but a smile and a pat on the shoulder reassured them. They waited for a considerable time before they poled up stream and before they were in sight shouted their intentions. Their canoe was a large crude affair with an immense bout [sic] and their progress was slow because of its immense weight. As the y [sic, = they] approached the corner of our camp they again illustrated their purpose of going up stream to make fee and when we nodded approval they poled slowly in front of camp. They used two large bamboo poles – one forward and aft and the head man was in the middle splashing some water with his crude paddle. 2 had bows and arrows in readyness [sic] in case we should shoot while the others were seated with just their heads showing. When they saw we were agreeable to their going up stream they were more at ease altho one of the younger ones kept his head down all the time they were going by. Dick and the Dyaks cleared a good portion of the jungle back of us for pictures and I got out the trade material so we will be {F3.46} ready to make pictures when they return at noon. They poled up stream a short distance and then went across the river[,] the stream carrying them back to a point below our camp. We could see them poling along upstream for some time. Afterwards they announced their presence in our vicinity but didn’t anser [sic] to our calls. They are probably working above us or watching what we are doing close by. Then too they may be going up stream to get some more things to trade. We know not. The transport has been out of B.C. 5 days now and should be along today or tomorrow. It is a day or more behing [sic] now. It may be that we have missed it but I think not. This motor is not as good as the other one and it will take it much longer for with only 2 small prows behind on the last trip it had difficulty in keeping up with the other motor boat pulling the prow “basar” [sic, = prau besar (Malay, “big boat”)] and 3 small prows and the large one to two so it will not be able to make in the regular time, of 7 days. Then, too the river is very low and it will be impassable to go thru the cut offs in the river like we did with high water coming up. At about 10 o’clock we heard them shout again above us and when we answered they replied. Everything was in readiness and the spots fixed where they would be in focus. I was to do the trading there one machine (movie) the Ackley, was the bead making machine while the universal was the tobacco, producer as per yesterday. [sic] They are camera shy but eager for the beads and tobacco which Dick produces from the interior after considerable cranking. They stopped a short distance above camp and I motioned for them to come alongside our prow in front of camp. This was a question to be debated and for 2 or 3 minutes they argued back and forth among themselves on the advisability of doing so. They saw one of the cameras on the edge of the lean[-]to and the direction thru which they would have to pass if they came to camp thru the spot above {F3.47} so finally they poled down to us. Two of them, however, stood up with their bows and arrows in readiness. I went down the bank to our prow and urged them on holding out my hands to show them we meant no harm. The cameras, however, stationed at either end of camp held their eyes and they were on edge as they pulled along side. They had gone up and secured some more bows and arrows, tobacco boxes and several batches of sago which were wrapped in leaves. Only 2 would come ashore at first but when I showed them a brite sharp knife and walked into our clearing[,] the leader told the others to come up which they did. They were quick to notice the clearing Dick had made behind our leanto and were glancing around nervously. 4 went to the edge of the jungle and stood on guard with their bows and arrows ready to meed [sic] any hostile action on our part. We reassured them by the sign language and slapping our legs and bodies indicating it was done to help clear out the mosquitoes. That was all that was necessary and the trading began in earnest. I stood on the spot fixed by Dick and traded small p [sic] pieces of cloth, “Keebesso” and put it on them for the pictures. They were eager for the cloth and all but one came and sat down. The lone man stood off to one side with his bows and arrows. They had several bunches of bananas and wanted the knife for one of them[.] It was too early in the game so I had to ask Dick (who was supposed to own the knife) if it was all right and he said “no”. They added a paddle eagerly and when Dick said no again I went over to argue him into it. As we talked they stood by watching. Then I suggested they hold up the bananas so he could see what a large bunch it was and they did. Dick then said yes[,] cranking in the meantime. He got some good pictures and after each shot threw over the beads which they accepted with amazement. They didn’t like the looks of the movie camera but they did the beads. We sat and traded back and forth and they became more at ease. They were still {F3.48} suspicious tho and when a Dyak said he wanted one of their long bamboo poles and started towards their prow to show them they ran shouting in the jungle. It was some little task to get them back again but with the aid of one of our long poles I illustrated what was wanted and they brought one for which they received some beads. All was well again and four came back. I traded little bits of odds and ends with them and they started to get their names. That always puts them at ease and for a half hour or so I succeeded in getting about 30 words from them. When I divided up equally a batch of beads and told them it was for the words they were astonished and called excitedly to the others that everything was well. At this moment shouts of many natives came from down stream. At first they stood alert and listened. Then all but 2 departed into the jungle and listened again to the shouting coming from down river. They sure can glide noiselessly thru the jungle. They had left a good many arrows and bows there, and when the shouting commenced[,] grabbed them. We didn’t know what it was all about but thot it was another tribe coming up and probably we would see some action. They answered something once or twice and then asked “asai” and pointed to their village across the river. We nodded approval and they departed somewhat anxious. I thot maybe that as we were on the opposite side of the river we mite [sic] be on an enemy of theirs[’] territory. There [sic] got into their prow which they had taken to the usual landing place down stream and did considerable talking as they poled out in the river, they called to me “toway” and when I called the le ader [sic] by name he made a “bub bub bub” r r sound. At first we thot of an aeroplane but when he churned the water with his paddle and pointed downstream we knew they had been warned by the natives below of the approach of the motor boat[.] Their signal system of alarm is as quick as a telephone line for it is relayed up and down the river. We started packing immediately {F3.49} for we didn’t know whether it would be 10 minutes or 5 hours before the motor arrived. It was just 11:30. At 12:30 we heard the chug chug of the M.B. [motor boat] and in five minutes it appeared. Dick got some pictures. We shouted “saro” Saro” [sic] and the transport folks thot they were approaching another Papuan village. When they saw who we were they were pleased and stopped. In 15 minutes we were on our way[,] our canoe loaded[,] being towed with the 3 others behind. The large prow is alongside the M.B. Despite the fact that the motor boat makes only 2 or 3 miles an hour we felt like we were on an express after our hard 2½ hours paddle upstream the day before. Dot said the motor boat was leading [sic, = leaking] badly and part of the starter clutch had broken and that it had been a hard trip. This was their 6th day and we are at least 2½ days to M.C. by m[otor] from here. By prow it would be 6 or 7 days at least and hard work at that. After we shoved off[,] our Papuan friends across the river followed along shore for a considerable distance. We had told them we were going up with the M.B. Dot and “Singapore” who has the distinguished title of motorist[,] made some coffee and we had our luncheon on board. They also informed us they had our food from A.C. and we could see the time in the big prow. We also got a note from Prince. We are making fair time and it is very clear so we have an excellent view of the mountains. They had 4 soldiers and 10 convicts in addition to some Dyaks. Dot informed me he had trouble with the Papuans on his third night out. It was at the camp we had on our _____ night out at the junction of Van Daalen and Rouffaer river[s] and where they came and were anxious to know our intentions for we were camped close to their village. It was here that they were so excited and impressed with the large knife and also pantomined [sic] excellently for Doc how they acted when the plane flew over. Dot said he pulled up to that bivauc at 6:30 and while the soldiers {F3.50} were fixing camp, 2 canoes with 8 men each came over and insisted that they move on and not sleep there. Dot said they wouldn’t and they jumped around pulling on their bows and arrows[,] so to stop further action he shot his revolver in the air 4 times and they fled. They did not reappear in the morning. These same folks were exceedingly friendly when they ascertained we were friendly and even came back with more goods to trade before we left the next morning. It was here we had the soaking from the leaking roof and heavy rain, and were awakened by the horn of the M.B. coming down to tell of the shooting at H.C. and to send up reinforcements. I believe a transport or 2 has stopped there since ours did and as no one has any interest in trading with them or goods to trade with for that matter, they decided they would not let them camp on their land anymore. I gave Dot some beads to use when he is in camp so repetitions of a similar character will not accur [sic]. A few beads is [sic] all that is necessary to avoid trouble and he should have something like that. I told him to leave whatever he secured in that way at M.C. and Matt could divide it with Leroux for the collection. It will serve actual purpose. Dick has been searching the large prow and has discovered our food blicks [sic, = cans, from Dutch blik “can, tin”]. We progress very slowly. The river ahead is evidently rising for the stream is swift and drift wood of all descriptions. [sic] It is getting late and as we make a turn we stand still for about 15 minutes because the stream is so swift and our food too heavy for the wheezing, clanking 12 horsepower motor which is badly in need of repair. At one point we lost distance and were swept backwards. It was almost 5:30 when we sited [sic] the bivauc on the south side of the river. This section is very low and swampy and the camp site does not look attractive for the mud bank in front of it is not very high. As we land the man who jumped out with the rope sinks up to his knees in soft sticky black mud. Everything has been flooded {F3.51} and the camp is a mess. We go ashore and the Dyaks who have been eating their evening meal in the prow have our shelter up in a jiffy. We had just landed when Papuans in 3 prows ahead of us shout. They had a fire in one of their prows which we could see for some distance. To my surprise they shouted “Toway” which the Papuans at our camp of yesterday called us. It couldn’t be them so we awaited their arrival with considerable interest. They landed about 300 yards below us and came running thru the mud sinking up to their hips. I tried to walk out to them and sank up to my knees and had to be pulled out. It sure was sticky mud and I went out on a small tree and waited for them to come. To my surprise they were our friends of the sandbar – the big fellows who waded out in the water on our trip down. They knew what we wanted and called me Toway when they saw me sitting on the tree. They were all out of breath and excited as well. We got a head dress, shell ornaments, stone axes, bows, arrows, sago, sugar cane and what not. I gave them a large parang as I [had] promised them one on our return. They were tickled pink and as soon as it was in their possession shouted and danced in the mud as much as the mud permitted. They too dispatched a man with it and he tore thru the mud to the prows. I traded beads for the remainder of their possessions and also a small piece of cloth. It was easy to see how easily trouble can start on the transports at bivaucs when no one is able to trade with them. They have nothing and are eager for knives and the small things which they have seen and been given is the biggest event in their lives. It was almost dark and tho they were eager to remain and trade to their last bow and arrow they departed joyfully when we motioned we were thru. As they poled back up the river in their cumbersome prows they talked excitedly over their new possessions. We had We had [sic] spaghetti for dinner and after rice and deng deng we sure praised Mr. Heinz’[s] chef. As a desert [sic] we had sago with Java goula – {F3.52} a brown sugar made from the palms. It is similar to tapioca in some respects. The mosquitoes and mud were too much for us so we had our macon [sic, = makan (Malay, “eat”; or makanan “food”)] in our Klambos. Oompah our personal convict covered himself with glory by finding my pipe in the dark. It had dropped from my pocket while I was getting out of the mud and Papuan filth. As a reward I shared half of my chocolate bar with him. Twas the first sweets in months so it was a big reward but he had it coming. Two soldiers are on guard tonite and the Dyaks who have not stood guard for the last 2 nites when we were alone, asked if it was necessary tonite. Two days should bring us to M.C. if all goes well.



Wednesday
August 25th
1926


We were off at 6:30 and our Papuan friends of last nite were out to trade with us but we can[’]t stop so we pass [‘]em up. Their village was located a short distance up stream and it was an hour or more before we lost sight of them. The motor boat barely moves at times and it is very tiresome to sit [and] burn gasoline and oil and get nowhere. One would think that after the last expedition was here they would know enough to use more than 12 H.P. motors when the loads are so heavy and the stream so swift. Posthumus some time ago asked for another boat and they sent one of 8 horsepower. We run steady, I should say drag along and during the day many Papuans came out in prows and wanted to trade stone axes and bows and arrows for knives. We had no time to stop so had to be content with tossing [‘]em a few beads. They had no difficulty in keeping up with us and several times tried to hook on but the Dyaks and soldiers in the prows behind shoved them off. They couldn’t understand why. We didn’t see any of these people of today on our trip down so they must have got the word of our trading from those above or below over their wireless system of howling communication from village to village. Dick opened the Klim he received on the transport from home and oh Boy how good it tasted. It has been an exceedingly {F3.53} hot day – all of them this trip have been hot – and we are as brown as the Dyaks. Dick especially for he has been going without a shirt for some time and is tanned from the hips up. The river is rising and we were able to save some distance by taking a short cut. There was just enough water and no more, but we made it. If we had [had] to turn back and go around the large bend it would have meant at least 4 hours more. That was the only brite feature in addition to the Klim of the day. At 5 o’clock we sighted the bivauc which was a day and a half from M.C. coming up and where we stopped our 2nd night on this trip. The Papuans who have a village below and above camp were out in full force and when we landed they were on hand shouting saro. Those from the village upstream came shortly afterwards and I traded with all of them. It was almost dark so it was impossible for us to get any pictures. That was unfortunate for we would have secured some good ones. Another tribe from across the river also put in their appearance. They were profusely decorated with forehead shell ornaments and large fellows. Two of them had 4 layers of shell on their foreheads. About 30 of them were in camp and they were hard traders. Leroux had given the tribe from upstream a large knife so I traded the other 2 tribes large knives for stone axes and their shell ornaments in addition to some bags. They were loath to part with there [sic] shell ornaments and it took considerable dickering back and forth. They stayed late and when it was dark commenced to jump and shout in what appeared to me to be a menacing attitude because of their numbers. They were trying to bluff us into trading more in their favor, so I showed them what my revolver was for and they stopped. Some ran away. They wouldn’t part with hardly anything except for a saro up to this point but later accepted other things and were eager to get them[;] as we are heavily loaded I selected the little things and gave them the best of the deals. They were quick to take advantage {F3.54} of this, however. It was after eight before we could get them to depart. It was a beautiful evening and a full moon illuminated the rugged ruts and the river accross [sic] from camp. Some one had an oration until almost midnite. I think it was one of the soldiers. Of course, we couldn’t understand it but he kept talking in a monotone and then singing in the most weird manner. All I could get was Mati which means deal [sic, = dead] americans, Posthumus, Sergeant Choeblate and a few others of similar character. [sic] It grew tiresome after a few minutes. I don[’]t know whether he was peeved, praying or what and Dot the navy man said he didn’t know what it was either. The convicts (10 of them) are out of food. Dot says he can’t give them any from the transport. Don’t know what he’ll do. The Dyaks also got uppish (ours) because they were told to build their own shelter. They claimed they had built it for us and were entitled to use it and the transport gang should build one. I was busy with the Papuans and Dick told them that as we were being taken up by the transport as a courtesy they had to do what the commander of the transport said and we had nothing to do with it. When we were with them in the prows we could [say] yes or no. He was rite but the Dyaks couldn’t see it and sulked on us and refused to unload the prow until they got good and ready. They have been acting funny since our second day out but this was the worse. They sit in the prow all day and do nothing. If we had not been given a lift by the Motor Boat they would have had to pole and paddle for 6 or 7 days to get us back and then it might have been impossible to make the grade at that. When the current is swift and the boat stands still because of lack of power they have to be urged repeatedly to paddle a little to help out. Just a little is needed and we go forward slowly but forward we go, otherwise we stand still. It[’]s a tough trip up with such a heavy stream, heavy load and only 12 horsepower to pull it. {F3.55}



Thursday
August 26th
1926


We were up and packing for an early start before daylite, 5 o’clock. At six it was lite enough and we started. As we pulled away our Papuan friends appeared and eagerly seized the empty tins we had left behind. The river had fallen about a foot during the nite and it was necessary to go back a short distance and go around the island. We got stuck a short distance above camp and lost a half hour or more. We crept along slowly and got nowhere. It is nerve racking to say the least. Papuans above for 3 hours came out to trade but we couldn’t stop. They were surprised of course and waved their stone axes and bows and arrows shouting saro. At nine we tried to avoid a long bend and take a short cut and got stuck before we started. We were in front of a Papuan village and they came out, about 30 from up the cut came to trade but this long way around will cost us 3 hours or more so they follow along on the sand bars. We are not even going as fast as they can walk slowly. It is a hot nerve racking experience. All day long Papuans appeared and were eager to trade but we cannot stop. At 4:30 we arrived at a bivauc and stopped for the nite. A Papuan village was immediately below us and across the river was another. They were in camp before we landed. I secured some good objects with a few beads. They[,] like the others[,] wanted saros. That is the cry of New Guinea now. So for a couple of ston[e] axes, bows and arrows, knitted head caps, body ornaments, etc. they received a large saro. They wanted more and brought additional stone axes but we have none left and they are disappointed. They like the beads tho and trade doesn’t stop. This is not one of our bivaucs made coming up so these folks are new to us. They are a timid sort and not bold like most of the others. They departed before dark also and we had our dinner and were off to bed for the Jamucks [sic, = nyamuk (Malay, “mosquitoes”)] were bad. All day again tomorrow and then “Barencaillie” [sic, = barangkali (Malay “perhaps, maybe”)] M.C. The speed we {F3.56} made today would just about get us there at dark. It rained heavily all evening but we were dry. Had our pills and gave the rest to Dot for they were out.



Friday
August 27th
1926


It was after 7 before we got away from camp. Couldn’t get the motor started for some reason or other and I utilized the time trading with the Papuans who were on hand early in the morning. About 15 or 20 including many children were present. I got a small boy[’]s bow and arrows in addition to many other things. The soldiers reported many Papuans in back and around camp all nite, but nothing was stolen. They could both hear and see them on the fringe of camp. The stream was exceptionally swift in front of camp and it took us considerable time to loose site [sic, = lose sight] of our nite[’]s stop. At 8:30 as we were dragging along[,] 4 or 5 women and children appeared on shore and watched us with interest. Two were young girls and they embraced one another as they walked along. The men were stationed upstream. It was the first time we saw the women above and so close to the water as we past [sic] by. Shortly after this the Motor Boat from M.C. appeared upstream and we are now “speeding” along at about 3 or 4 miles an hour. It is such a big change that we are all singing with joy. It means M.C. by noon at least. The extra motor boat gives the extra power that is needed and we make good time. At eleven o’clock the atop [sic, = atap] roofs of M.C. appear and we are all happy. The river is exceedingly low and many large sand bars appear so the head motor boat which is pulling us has to maneauver [sic] about considerable [sic], to keep it off the bars. Finally we have to go thru the narrow swift channel just below camp for the water is too shallow all about us. This is a difficult stretch for a large island is in the middle of the river and the shore close on the other side. The stream rushes thru here at a speed of about 6 or 8 miles an hour. On the other side of the island and above it are many sand bars {F3.57} which are submerged during high water. We are lucky to have the extra motor boat helping us for it would have been impossible for us to have negotiated this swift stream with our Motor Boat and the 4 prows in addition to the prow basar [sic, = besar (Malay, “big, large”)]. We just move along even with the extra motor boat. As we are in the center of the worst spot our motor commences to howl and squeak. The motorist gets excited and fearful of something breaking[,] shuts off the gasoline. This puts all the load on the leading Motor Boat which at this critical time goes aground. The motorist gives her the gas again and we pull up to the towing motor which is pulled off the bar by the heavy stream and our heavy drag. Instead of putting the motor in neutral to stop our advance we come up to the other motor. Then things began to happen faster than they could be recorded. It was funny as well as tragic. The motorist in the head motor boat threw out his anchor and we came up and cut the anchor rope all to pieces. The first boat swung around[,] lost its anchor and was carried swiftly down stream for the tow rope was severed by our propellor. As we had no anchor and had no power we started down stream after him with the same speed and our canoes behind us. Everything whirled around and we narrowly missed upsetting when we bumped against several trees sticking out of the water. The other motor[,] not having a load[,] outdistanced us and we could see the motorist in that boat working frantically trying to start the motor. They were nearly out of sight and we were disappearing so fast that they decided to try and paddle to a sand bar to stop their progress. They made it all right and edged up on it a considerable distance down stream. In the meantime we had dropped our anchor and it held after a fashion. It held enough so that we could get our canoes behind untied and they paddled to the island shore. We were dragging our anchor just a little and the motorist worked on the engine. He started to tear things apart and Dick[,]{F3.58} who had suggested that he look into the propellor for he had seen how we had cut the other motor[’]s anchor and finally the tow rope[,] peeled off his clothes and dove under and came back with the information that the prop was all wound up with the heavy anchor rope and that was why the motor would not start. Dick said that he would have started to king the magneto off before he would look for the real trouble so decided to make sure for himself that that was the cause of our trouble. Sure enough it was and when the Dyaks had cleared the propellor of the heavy rope the engine started. He also informed them that that was the matter with the other motor boat for it too had its prop wrapped with anchor and tow rope. We dispatched one prow with Dyaks down river with that information and then proceeded to motor camp with the big prow leaving the three others on the shore. When we reached the camp the motor boat went back for the others but returned shortly for they had found the trouble and everybody came back happy[,] but one motor boat was minus one anchor. It was a thrilling experience and funny besides. We would have liked to have had a picture of it. Everybody talked at once in our Motor Boat but nobody did anything. All of the trouble could have easily been avoided had the motorists been instructed or had taken it upon themselves to put the engine in neutral as we pulled up to the other motor boat on the sand bar, and so we got back to camp. The camp was the same but a Dutch sergeant from Head Camp was in charge and the native sergeant had taken his place above. We were tired after our ten days or more absence and the camp looked good to us. We soon had our baths and something to eat and were once more settled. Dick developed a few of his films taken on the trip. They turned out good.



Saturday
August 28
1926


We enjoyed a good night’s rest for we were tired out after our somewhat strenous [sic] trip. The last few days and nights with the {F3.59} motor transport was a nerve racking experience. We got a note from Doc which contained much news [and] we were glad to hear from him. The transport on which we came also had a note from Hamer. Dick developed more of the films he had taken on the trip and had good results. We got some good pictures. The motor boat left for B.C.



Sunday
August 29
1926


Today was another day or [sic, = of] rest and we confined our efforts to getting everything in the house shipshape. In the afternoon I had one of the Ambonese soldiers give me several paragraphs of the song “Hurrah Hurrah Chin Chin” and they got quite a kick out of my trying to learn it. It is a very musical piece and with the words written down Dick and I expect to learn it so we can sing it as they do. It will be interesting in America. Of course it rained in the evening, and was cloudy most of the day. We have not had a good look at even the foothills since we arrived. The soldiers said that three days after we left the Papuans had appeared and Doc Hoffman traded with them. Today they are across the river shouting but won’t come over[;] we didn’t go to them for if they were here once they will return again and we don’t want to scare them by going after them. It appears that they are all back now and we should be able to get contact with them again. I hope so, for it will be easier to work with them here than down river or up stream. As we have received our tins of food we are enjoying good things once more such as oatmeal, butter, milk, coco[a,] cheese and some green peas. Rice and deng deng has [sic] been omitted for a meal or two and the addition makes a welcome change. We are packing several tins to send up to Doc on the next transport for he has been on the same diet as we have been since leaving.



Monday
August 30
1926


{F3.60}

Had a heavy rain last evening and Dick took advantage of it to wash the films which he had developed. Out of 36 pictures he had 32 which were dandies. Shortly after breakfast we were surprised to see six Papuans appear at the edge of camp and I went out to trade with them. They were somewhat frightened but they were eager for a saro and beads and we traded for some time. They informed me that they were the folks I had tried to come into touch with on the sand bar the day we left for down stream. I had left a knife and some beads and they took that as an indication of our friendship. They were different sort of people than we had seen any place on the river[,] being much darker. They wore no ornaments at all and several of them had their faces and bodies decorated with mud. Dick[,] who had been hunting[,] returned[,] and when he tried to get some pictures of them they became frightened and fled. They are still scared because of the shooting. Previously though I had told him that if they returned tomorrow I would give them a large knife and they indicated that they would. I secured several good net bags, bows and arrows, two bunches of bananas for a small knife and some beads and tobacco. They want tobacco very bad and the beads also influence them in trading. I hope they return again and we can visit their village above. It will have to be accomplished by easy stages however. The river has risen a little the last several days due to heavy rains in the mountains which are not visible. It has been cloudy almost every day since our return. Dick got several good sized pigeons, a cockadoo [sic] and a green and red parrot. Hunting in this vicinity has been good the last several days for the soldiers have all returned with at least two or three birds. The transport has not yet returned.



Tuesday
August 31
1926


Nothing of especially [sic, = special] interest today except that the Papuans did not return. The motorist has been working on the motor {F3.61} boat and it is almost repaired. It rained during most of the afternoon. It was just a light drizzle and not the usual New Guinea rain which generally falls in torrents. Another day closed without the appearance of the transport from Head Camp. They are now three days late and it is possible Captain Posthumus is using them in the mountains to cut the path for it is a huge task according to Matt. The sergeant here is an efficient individual and is getting some good work done around the camp. At present he is having the Dyaks and soldiers build a bath float and the convicts have been engaged most of the day clearing up the camp so it presents an excellent appearance and also helps eliminate some of the mosquitoes when the dead brush is cleared away. We felt in the need of reading so Dick and I spent an afternoon and most of the night reading. Today was the Queen of Holland’s birthday and the sergeant informed us. Dick developed the remainder of his pictures and they turned out very well.



Wednesday
September 1st
1926


Another month today. It has been four months now since we landed in Albatros Camp. We have four months more. The Papuans came about nine and I went out and traded with them. They were eager for the large knife I promised them and had brought for trade two large bunches of green bananas. Dick got the movie [camera] out and of course it scared them to death but after much maneuvering and coaxing (using the bead making idea again) we finally assured them of its harmless nature. The motorist who had finished working on the motor boat started the engine to take a test cruise and even that frightened them. We worked hard though and finally got them all and were able to secure some good movies of them using stone implements. Four were all that could be induced to come back and the others remained in the jungle due to the camera and the motor boat engine running. We bribed these with beads which {F3.62} were too tempting to refuse. Several new faces appeared in place of several which were present yesterday. I learned that they were the same folks who had shouted saro from the sandbar above the camp and then disappeared when I started out to trade with them the day we were packing to go down stream. They are still afraid of being shot and it takes all of our efforts and signs to reassure them of their safety close to camp. Many soldiers are hunting in the woods and when they shoot they jump up and run. We finally got over the idea that they were not shooting to scare them but were shooting birds for food. We will have to go slowly with them for several days. I was somewhat surprised that we got them accustomed somewhat to the movie machine the first time. They promised to come back tomorrow and indicated they would bring some stone axes. As soon as they got the large knife they were off. I thought as much from our experience with others on the river and consequently made that trade the very last transaction. The sun came out in all its power for a short time today but the rest of the day has been overcast. We have not as yet obtained a good view of the mountains since our return because of the many clouds in the sky. The river dropped a little during the night and many of the sandbars are again visible. Dick went hunting this afternoon and announced his intention of going straight back from the river to see what is in that direction. There is much water a short distance in and he believes there might be a large lake in the vicinity. The motor boat is entirely repaired now and has a new steering cable and a new propellor which was twisted by the winding of the anchor rope around the shaft. The transport from Batavia Camp left yesterday and should have the mail. It is due to arrive here Monday if it makes the trip in seven days. Dick plans to return with Dot the next day with the films and to bring up new film to make sure they are handled right. We wanted to make another {F3.63} short trip up our small unknown river again, but the Dyaks refused to go for some reason or other. The sergeant said that only one Papuan was killed at Head Camp and one badly wounded in the shoulder during the trouble they had while we were enroute [sic] to this camp. The Papuan was buried at the edge of camp. The transport from Head Camp did not return today.



Thursday
September 2nd
1926


Saw the snow mountains today for the first time since we came back from our trip. The view was the best we have ever had and we saw more snow than we had on the other few instances when it was clear enough to see the farthest ranges. The view lasted for ten minutes at seven this morning and then the mist set in and obscured all of the mountains for the entire day. At ten[,] fifteen or more of our Papuan friends came to come with quantities of sugar cane and bananas. [sic] Many new faces were in today[’]s group and both Dick and I thought that some of the new faces of today were familiar. It might be that some of them had been up the unknown river that [sic, = where] Matt, Leroux, Dick and I had such an interesting trip. They were not quite so shy although it was considerable time before they could be induced to come to the edge of camp in a group. Dick shot more movies and a great many stills. The water dropped again last night and is the lowest we have seen it in motor camp. Large sand bars are visible both up and down stream now. The Dyaks completed the bath float late in the afternoon and as I write everybody in camp is trying it out. The transport has not yet returned from Head Camp and we can’t help but wonder what is detaining them. They are now more than five days overdue. We were kidding Oompah last evening and asked him if he knew about Hell and Heaven. It came about when Dick told him to answer that the tea was as hot as hell. I then asked him to explain hell – if he knew where dead people went and he laughed and asked how dead people {F3.64} could go anywhere. He then answered they went into the ground. It is not quite as funny relating it in English as it was in the conversation we held in Malay. But he couldn’t understand that good people went to Heaven so he isn’t so dumb after all. The Papuans walked a long distance for we could see them on the sand bar. They must be living in the temporary houses above. We are going out to see if we can visit some of them tomorrow. It has been cloudy all day but no rain. The Papuans have not been decorated with mud since the first day’s visit. One was a perfect New York Jewish type. At five o’clock in the afternoon when we were trying out the new bath float[,] five canoes with 14 Dyaks returned from Head Camp. They brought good news from above. Matt wrote from the upper Head Camp that on the twenty ninth of August he and Leroux were leaving for exploratuers camp and the Pygmies and we were to leave immediately and come up to upper Head Camp. The usual day of rest for the Dyaks (due to their being used on the trail overland) has been eliminated and we have but a short time to pack. Dick wrote a note to Prince about sending the film back for he will not be able to go to Albatros Camp as he had planned with the film. He also instructed Prince to come up on the first transport with additional film for it looks like action from now on and we will need it. The boat on which the expidition [sic] will return has been ordered for December 15th[,] Matt wrote. So we leave early tomorrow morning. It is a four days trip. Hoffman who made the trip up on the last transport reported that the Papuans above prowled around the camp during the night stops this side of Head Camp in the moonlight. Matt wrote for us to keep our eyes open for it is in that vicinity that one has been killed and another severely wounded. We will have four soldiers who will stand guard during the night. Dick and I will have a prow each for our baggage. It is the first time that we have been so honored so we will be able to take all of our food with us this time. They {F3.65} are beginning to treat us better. It is too bad, however, that the food was not here when Matt left for he had to go without anything but the regular rice and deng deng, and has been existing on that ever since. It will be impossible to get much baggage inside because the land line is going to require a great many carriers. It is about a four or five days trip to the Pygmies from upper Head Camp. Anji Ipoei[,] who made the trip three or four days into the mountains with Matt and Leroux and Captain Posthumus[,] reports that they could see their villages and signs of many people about. It is good that Matt is along to get the first contact with these strange people who are isolated by the huge mountains from the even [more] primitive people of the Rouffauer and Manbramo [sic] river[s] who are still using stone axes. What we will find in there will without a doubt be the most interesting discovery made among peoples for some time to come for there isn’t [sic] many places left in the world where people are unknown to white man. {F3.66}



Friday
September 3
1926


There was the usual delay getting started for the loads in the prows were too heavy and it was ten thirty before we could get it all straightened out. We brought everything in camp that we had but had to leave a box of flares behind[,] the sergeant promising on a stack of bibles it would come up on the next transport. Dick and I each had a canoe to ourselves for our tins and we had a little overflow in a third prow. We are carrying the trade goods (four boxes)[,] one box of cowrie shells in addition to the food Doc should have brought with him but couldn’t because it wasn’t here to bring. It is the first time on the expedition that we have been so honored to have a prow all to ourselves. Leroux[,] who has a large quantity of tins with him[,] has seven more in this transport. Poor Doc has no food at all except rice and deng deng and carried the trade goods in his prow. The water is extremely low but the Dyaks insist that the canoes are too heavily loaded and it will take five days to make the trip. They are dissatisfied, Anji especially and are not out to break any records altho with this low water it could be made easily in four days. The weather is extremely hot and it is the warmest day we have noticed since coming to New Guinea for the sun beats down on one unmercifully in the prows. We are happy, however, for we are on our way to the interior and a little thing like a burning tropical sun does not melt our spirits. It was three in the afternoon when we went by the first camp we used when we went up the transport previously to meet and work with Papuans. The river was high then and considering we left three and a half hours later today we are making good time. At five we made a bivauc on the edge of a sandbar. It was the best place and turned out to be a good camp. A Papuans [sic] village was below us but as we came by we saw no signs of people. There were very few mosquitoes on this bar but if the water drops during the night it will be hard to get the canoes out of here. It rained {F3.67} heavy during the evening but we were dry. We have learned from hard esperience [sic] to see to it that the canvas over our Klambus is fastened down good and if there are holes to cover them with palm leaves.



Saturday
September 4
1926


The water dropped considerably during the night and we awoke to find ourselves high and dry. Just a few inches of water remained through the narrow passage we came thru last night to get to our bar. It was hard work to get the canoes out and all the Dyaks had to concentrate on one canoe and pull it over the mud to the stream several hundred yards away. We broke camp at seven but it was an hour before all the canoes were in the stream and we could depart. The low water enabled us to make good time. At nine we past [sic] a bivauc made by Hoffman and at ten thirty the first night[’]s camp of Posthumus and Matt on their trip up. So we are doing extremely well despite the fact we left three and a half hours later in the morning than they did when they left[;] we are only three hours behind them now. We stopped at noon opposite a Papuan house for lunch but they didn’t show themselves. Immediately after we had shoved off, however, and made a turn in the river[,] we ran into a large village (the largest we have seen) and hundreds of them shouted with all their vigor and savage ability. At the bend in the river we sighted a flock of ducks and Dick got out and shot one down. In the meantime the Papuans kept up a racket similar to that made when we surprised them on the unknown river. Only here there were many more of them and in plain sight. They jumped menacing[ly] up and down on the shore with their bows and arrows and as we came up they leaped into the dug out prows and came out to meet us. Most of them stood up in the canoes with their bows and arrows in readiness and the shouting and yelling from the shore by the hundreds of them there drowned out their own individual whops [sic] to a great extent. Three prows were loaded with these big {F3.68} husky brutes. They are the largest of the Papuans we have seen and they showed no signs of fear whatever. They were plainly excited and the situation looked ticklish as they advanced with their war cries ringing in our ears. The Dyaks poled along but kept their weather eyes peeled in their direction. They were coming straight out to meet us so the soldiers had their guns in readiness and Dick and I had out the forty fives in case they should take a notion to attack. It looked very much like that was what they were going to do. The shooting of the duck probably gave them the impression we were going to fight them also. We couldn’t tell but as they advanced we shouted saro and evidenced our intention of trading with them and they were all for it when they saw the knives and beads and cloth. We stopped a few minutes and traded. They were big brutes physically and not a bit afraid. We got bananas in addition to some good ornaments [–] all small stuff such as head dress, etc. for we are too heavily loaded to take on any more. We were in a swift current at the time and if [sic, = it] kept the Dyaks busy poling and paddling us along[,] so they would have been helpless in a fight at this point. This must be the same people that met Doc and Hans when they landed near Splitsings Camp in the plane. They acted just like he said that [sic, = they] did then. I have never seen so many Papuans before in one place and they are beyond any doubt better physical specimens than any we have seen. They were also somewhat cleaner than those below but that doesn’t mean much for those below certainly are dirty. Still[,] a little cleaner than the others is an improvement in the right direction. Their cry is saro also. They are iron hungry to the extreme. Matt and Leroux must have traded with them on the way up for it was hard to get anything without a knife. It was an interesting five minutes or more though before we knew their intentions or I suppose they knew ours. Dick remarked it would make a good cartoon using those famous {F3.69} words “Let[’]s go ashore now” in “Famous Last Words.” A little farther on we ran into another campung [sic] but not so many here. We stopped and traded here also for a few minutes. They were very excited but anxious to trade bananas for cloth[,] knives or what have you. We can see the foothills of the mountains and are getting into them now. This region is low and swampy and not a good place for a camp site. We were going to make Matt[’]s second night camp site tonight. We did. We soon came to river A and where the Rouffar [sic, = Rouffaer] enters into the mountain region. We poled along slowly for as we progressed the stream became very narrow and swift. Many rocks were all about us and it was a difficult task to propell [sic] the heavy laden canoes forward. It is easy to see that this is no place for an aeroplane to lane [sic] although Matt and Hans tried it even farther up where it must be worse. We arrived in camp just as it was getting dark but as the frame work was up all we needed to do was to cover it. The Dyaks have worked hard today to make this in the second day. Not [sic, = Now] we can make it in four days for it is only one day more now to lower Head Camp and a day from there to upper Head Camp. The water is always swift above and it is dangerous and impossible when it is high. We are pleased that it is low for it is swift enough now. I think I located the basin doorman spoke of just above the Splitsings camp [where] he was established. In the foothills the character of the vegetation changes and the birds become more numerous. It is pretty along here, and the mountain foothills in the distance are beautiful in the glaring red of the setting tropical sun.



Sunday
September 5
1926


It was a good camp. Few Mosquitoes. We shall soon be away from them entirely now, and that will be a blessing. We left a[t] seven and the Dyaks had a hard day[’]s work ahead of them from the early morning indications. We stopped and traded with a handful of {F3.70} Papuans who came out on a large bar of rocks and stones. Later in the afternoon we got out of the canoes and walked along the rocky shore and sometimes saved considerable distance and made the load in the prows lighter. The sun was burning hot and so too were the stones. We made the mistake the first time of going barefooted but only once. Swollen[,] blistered feet was [sic] the result. At five in the afternoon[,] after one of the longest and hardest days I’ve seen the Dyaks put in[,] we reached the lower Head Camp. It consisted of three or four palm covered houses, a long Dyak house elaborately decorated and a long warehouse all built up on piles for the river rises enormously just over night here. There was no one here for everything had been moved up to upper Head Camp. We moved into the hut used by Leroux and Doc and it was very comfortable. We were tired and sleep came easily for the day[’]s trip had been a hard one.



Monday
September 6
1926


Of course it had to rain heavy during the night and the Rouffar [sic] which is a rushing mountain stream here is now churning and foaming over the boulders with racing speed. It is impossible to go up to Head Camp today so we stay here. The canoes are too heavy and the stream is swift. Anji says it is dangerous but if we don’t believe him he will take us up a short way and prove it to us. We take his word for it and wait. We are shown the place where the Papuan who was killed here is buried. This is the camp where they killed one and injured another severly [sic]. At first the reports had it two were killed. It is deserted now for no Papuans have put in an appearance since the killing. The soldiers tho say that they are not far away down stream. A guard was posted of course but nothing uneventful [sic, = eventful] occurred to mar our sleep last evening. If the water is lower tomorrow we will go to upper Head Camp. In all events we can’t go up until it gets lower. There is a trail cut overland to upper Head {F3.71} Camp and it is a good day[’]s journey of stepping out fast and furious to make it from seven in the morning until five in the afternoon. Not much can be transported that way though and it is better to wait for lower water. The hunting is extremely good though [–] many crown pigeons which are sure swell eating. Just like turkey and better. Dick and the soldiers went out today and came back with four. Oh Boy how good they will be. There are many birds of Paradise also and we can hear them calling all about us. This is a picturesque camp. It is the best one we have hit yet. It rains almost invariably in the late afternoon and in the morning but the other advantageous [sic, = advantages] make up for that. Crown pigeons and good food are the big items.



Tuesday
September 7
1926


The river was still high so it was no go today. The morning past [sic] quickly. Dick went hunting and returned with another crown pigeon. We are living on turkey now days and Oh Boy good is no name for it. Late this afternoon a prow came down from Head Camp with a few soldiers and a couple of Dyaks to see how we were faring. They are going to try to take up two prows tomorrow with just a little food in them [–] rice and deng deng, mostly deng deng for they are short of food up in upper head camp. Doc, Leroux and Posthumus are inside and Dr. Hoffman and Van Leeuwen are at head camp.



Wednesday
September 8
1926


At eight this morning Anji and three prows with just a little food started out for Head Camp. The water had gone down some and they poled up out of sight in no time. It doesn’t take long to get out of sight here for we are hemmed in with jungle and hills all about. They returned at four thirty and had a note from Dr. Hoffman and a note from Doc[,] who was in the land of the Pygmies. {F3.72} They are real negritos according to Doc and he was all tickled pink. The trip over land from upper Head Camp is a five day man killing one he writes. His boy shortly deserted him on the first day out and went back with all of Matt’s food and equipment so he has to live on what Captain and Leroux can give him. He is all enthused over the Pygmies though and wrote a good letter which I have written a news story from and will send it back on the transport which is going to leave for M.C. tomorrow morning. Dr. Hoffman has sent us four soldiers and we are to stay here with them until the canoes come back from M.C. There is a shortage of food[,] both in the Land of the Pygmies and at upper Head Camp. We have plenty here, however, and are living on the fat of the land with our crown pigeons featuring every meal, morning, noon and night. Some of the Dyaks who had been to the mountains with Doc returned with the canoes today and we got some interesting accounts of the trip. Doc wrote a dandy letter and I have written Aneta 674 words. It[’]s a good yarn but it will be a long time before it will get on the wire for the trip to Albatros Camp is a long one when you wait on transports. Going straight through it is only three and a half days and coming up straight through with good luck all around it can be made in fourteen or fifteen days. However, with the transports there is a wait at Batavia Camp for the returning morning boat of some eight days and then a day or two wait at M.C.



Thursday
September 9
1926


The canoes and all of the Dyaks with the four soldiers who accompanied the transport up left at eight this morning. I sent the wire to Prince but also had Lieut. Korteman’s name on it in case Prince should be on his way up. Inside and sealed was the wireless message which had on the envelope to be delivered to Radio Station N.G.E. I also wrote a note to the wireless man {F3.73} asking him to send up the information on when it was received and sent on the first transport. If Prince is there it is to be delivered to him so he can take care of it. Dick and I went hunting in the afternoon but didn’t get anything. We saw and heard numerous Birds of Paradise but only one she [sic] which was not worth shooting at. It is only the males who have the beautiful plummage [sic]. We went out on the trail which leads to upper head camp. It is an up and down proposition and the woods are full of leeches.



Friday
September 10
1926


It was lonesome here with the transport gone. Just four soldiers[,] Dick and I and Oompah[,] our boy[,] are holding the fort until the transport returns. One of the soldiers[,] on coming into the mosquitoe [sic] zone again got a touch of the fever and I gave him pills. We are low on pills so I hope no one else gets a bad attack of fever for then we are out of luck for we only have about ten left and that is just one day’s dose. The four convicts started overland early this morning to Head Camp carrying canvass [sic] rolls. They were unaccompanied and should reach upper Head Camp at five tonight. If they keep going, which they won’t for they have no one to urge them on. It will probably take them two days. I wish I had known about the pills for I could have asked Doc to send down some more but I thought we would be up with him ere this. High water tho stops everything here and one con’t [sic] do anything about it but wait. Dick went hunting and shot and wounded another crown pigeon but he got away before he could get to it. They run very quickly when on the ground. We still have turkey meat so we are living high and smacking our lips after every meal. The white meat is great. Dick likes the legs and I the White meat so everything is more than rosey [sic] although there is more than enough of both.



Saturday
September 11
1926


{F3.74}

The soldiers are ardent hunters also and are out early in the morning. They have already brought in several beautiful Birds of Paradise. Today they came in with the crown Pigeon Dick crippled yesterday and it is now a camp pet and put in a cage. He doesn’t like that so well and I don’t blame him. His wing is injured. Dick made a baseball and we are teaching the rudiments of the game to oompah who is doing rather well. He says his hands are sacket [sic, = sakit (Malay, “sore or ill”)] from the ball hitting them and is not what one would call a baseball enthusiast. The swimming is good although the water is almost as mudy [sic] as below. It is cool and refreshing though and we enjoy our morning and evening dips.



Sunday
September 12
1926


The water has been low since the transport departed so that they should be here tonight. It will probably bring the mail which arrived on the Swallow August 23rd altho there is a possibility of it missing the last Motor transport from Batavia Camp. Hope not for we are out of reading and not much to do here. We had two books and an aviation [magazine] but have read and reread them all the first few days. At three thirty the canoes appeared around the bend. No mail except a note from Prince. He had a special note of considerable interest which is filed with the records. The no mail from the outside world was a blow. It will be a week more before we can get it. The transport up made the trip in (motor) six days and the returning motor left Monday[,] the Corporal reported. It is due in M.C. Wednesday September fifteenth and the next transport here will bring the mail, news and papers. That will be a long wait especially when we had rather expected it this trip. The transport will continue on tomorrow with the food and the load they brought up this time and come back for us tomorrow. We have added Kangaroo to our menu and it is just like lamb. The soldiers shot a female carry{F3.75} ing a youngster and Dick has taken charge of the infant and is feeding and mothering it [See photos, A012 & A014]. It hasn’t its eyes open yet and can’t be more than a week old. He had improvised a nipple for it and it is now being fed Libby’s milk. It is a [sic] very weak though and [it] is doubtful if it will pull through. Dick though is giving it every care and attention getting up in the middle of the night to feed it.



Monday
September 13
1926


The transport left at eight and I rather hated to see them pull off for it would be just our luck to have high water tomorrow so we can’t go up. The water was low today and they should have no difficulty. Once we are there we won’t have to worry about the water. The canoes are to remain at Upper Head Camp over night and come down the first thing in the morning and take us up. Here is hoping high water waits a day or two. The baby kangaroo is progressing necely [sic] and evidently has won the fight for life. We haven’t given him a name yet. We had our usual baseball game of catch late in the afternoon after the sun gets behind the trees and our dip afterwards. And then dinner, roast Lamb, pardon me, I should say kangaroo. The liver is especially good. Tasty with the rice cooked in butter. Dick has taught Oompah the finer arts of roasting lamb and turkey. And then it rained. How it rained. It blew and came down in torrents so our hopes of leaving tomorrow are swamped for the river will be very high after an all night session such as we had tonight.



Tuesday
September 14
1926


The river was higher than we have seen it so far and it is impossible to go up. The transport seeing this of course stayed at upper Head Camp for it is even a dangerous trip down stream with high water. The soldiers got another knagaroo [sic] today so we are still supplied with fresh meat. They always give us a choice portion of {F3.76} whatever they bring in. Dick has let them take his twenty two several times and they appreciate its use for it doesn’t make as much noise as their army rifles. Oompah is getting very profecient [sic] not only in English but in playing catch. It is amusing to watch him try it. The soldiers tried their hands at it too but soon gave it up for it was too hard on the hands. The ball is made of fish line and is wrapped with tape. It is quite hard, and is large. It helps pass the time, however. The flies are very bad here and have been getting worse. Dick has been declaring war on them with the flit but still they increase. It is the only bad feature of this camp.



Wednesday
September 15
1926


The transport returned from upper Head Camp with a note at nine thirty, from Matt and one from Posthumus who is there now. He ways [sic, = says] high water kept him from sending the prows back to bring us up but as soon as the water is low he will send two. Matt’s note said everything was going lovely and that the Pygmies were anxious to be measured and photographed. He said it wouldn’t be long until we were up there. Posthumus also said the trail is ready so I suppose we will leave as soon as we get to Head Camp or with the next batch of carriers going up. Matt also enclosed a letter which he had written. The transport was going right down so I sent two more copies of the telegram in case the other went astray and to make sure that it would reach A.C. all right. One letter was addressed to Prince and the other to Prince to be opened by Korteman if Prince was on his way up. I enclosed a letter to Korteman in which I told him I had been informed he was to censor all our telegrams before they were sent and told him I was given premission [sic] to send telegrams from the Head Office at Bandoeng and that no censorship was provided in that. I also suggested that he become familiar with the penalties for tampering with Radio Messages under the international code agreement by all {F3.77} nations and warned him that if he changed or held up the telegrams I would hold him personally responsible and would push the case before the proper authorities in Java and the international board governing such matters when I returned. I also said I was goind [sic] to talk to Posthumus about it when I saw him above and tell him the same thing. I said I had nothing against Korteman and knew he was acting under orders but warned him what I would have to do in case he tampered with any of the press messages I sent. I also informed him that there was nothing untrue in anything I was sending out and I was not ashamed of the telegrams but could see no legal reason for him to see them before they were sent. I told him he had always been fair in his dealings with us and I didn’t want to think that he would do anything like I heard he was intending to do. Navy Sergeant informed Prince that he was going to get eight days punichment [sic] for not showing the press message I sent Prince to send from Motor Camp to Korteman. Prince said there was an order that all of our messages have to be O.K.’d by Korteman before they can be sent. That’s nice people. The canoes had a thrill coming down for the water was comparitively [sic] high yet. One canoe turned over but the Dyaks rescued the soldier in it. Didn’t get much details for they left immediately by mail was ready. [sic] Dick shot some pictures of the baby kangaroo, the birds of paradise, crown pigeon heads, etc., and then decided that the kangaroo couldn’t live for no one would bother to take care of it while we are inside[,] so killed it. [sic] He later got a good shot at a large lizard right in front of camp and as I write is busy skinning it. The motor transport is due in M.C. Today and the returning morning should leave tomorrow. That would get it into B.C. Friday September 17 if the transport from A.C. to B.C. [Albatross Camp to Batavia Camp] has just left it will be four or five or six days before it will get to A.C. so at [the] latest the news of finding the pygmies will get out (if it isn’t censored or kept off the wire by Kortman [sic]) and to the world about September 23. It might be a {F3.78} few days sooner. Hope so.



Thursday
September 16
1926


The water is still rising and it looks as though it will go higher. It is hard to be kept here by high water when things are going along so nicely above but it can’t be helped. We swam, ate and had our regular game of catch which is making a big hit with the soldier and convicts who want to try it despite the damage it does to their fingers and hands due to their lack of ability of catching the heavy ball right. Nothing of any importance developed worthy of mention. Yes it rained.



Friday
September 17
1926


Crown pigeons are getting scarce but the kangaroos are plentiful so we have a supply of fresh meat. The water dropped some during the early morning and if we have no rain in the mountains tonight it is likely to be normal soon. It rained, however, as usual just before dark and some during the entire evening.



Saturday
September 18
1926


It may be pay day in the states to many people but it[’]s just another day of waiting for Dick and I in camp. The transport from M.C. will be coming along soon and we will go up on it so there will be no one to take care of the kangaroo baby Dick has been nursing along[,] so he killed it today. It would take someone to feed it at Head Camp and Dick doesn’t believe Hoffman would care for that responsibility, so he chopped its head off to put it out of its misery. We had become rather fond of our pet and it was hard to loose [sic] him but there was no other way out. The river is about the same.



Sunday
September 19
1926


The transport arrived today and he had a load of mail. It was {F3.79} a Godsend for we have been having a hard time to pass the time and now we have magazines, Saturday Evening Post from the Davidsons, Aviation, American and Liberty from Mrs. K. and we have plenty to read and plenty of time to devote to reading. We also received many letters from home. Wish Matt were here to enjoy it with us but he is with the Pygmies and it will be some time before the mail can reach him. Received a nice letter from Glenn. It was after four o’clock in the morning when I finally gave up the mail and the Post. It rained heavily all during the night and made it certain that the transport would not be able to go up stream tomorrow.



Monday
September 20
1926


The river was very high and it was out of the question to think of going up so the sergeant dispatched the dyaks and a few convicts up with the mail and some food. We did not know about it until after they left so we couldn’t get a note off to Matt. Spent the entire day reading and only stopped to eat. The night was also devoted to catching up with the times as illustrated in the advertisements and the Elgin Papers.



Tuesday
September 21
1926


More reading. We had been starved literally andwere [sic] once more indulging in an orgy of reading with nothing to do but wait it helped make waiting easier. Both mails which have arrived since we left A.C. have come at a time when they could be the better appreciated. At Motor Camp during the flood and here. Late in the afternoon the Dyaks and convicts with more convicts and Dyaks from Head Camp arrived with a note from Captain Posthumus informing us to come up by land so we had to desert our magazine[s] and get busy packing for an early morning start. Everything had to be packed in small tins for the overland trip and we worked until late in the evening to get the things we needed separated from that {F3.80} which we would be forced to leave behind until the water drops, and it can be transported by canoe. It was a big task, because we did not have many small tins suitable to be carried. Each man carries seventeen kilos and as we had no scale we had to guess at it.



Wednesday
September 22
1926


We were up bright and early and after a hasty breakfast got the carriers loaded. A few of the men who were allotted to us, however, hiked off before we had given them their full loads and the result was that a camera and the movie tripod was [sic] without anyone to carry them. They were bulky and I suppose the Dyaks all tried to get out of carrying them. It was impossible for me to go so we decided that Dick go up and I remain behind until they returned for my stuff as it was more important to get Dick and the camera inside than it was for me to go. This was done. Ompah however, had packed all of the cooking utensils and equipment in his large tin and was off so I was marooned without anything. Had plenty of food, however, for we had to leave much of our special food behind until it could be taken by prow. The soldier in charge of the camp cooked for me and loaned me his dishes so I was all right. It was lonesome without Dick but I had the magazines and laid into them with avengence [sic] for I knew it would be impossible to take all of them up. Anji is very sick and can hardly walk. Another Dyak is suffering from an ulcerated tooth but I could do nothing for either one as there was no medicine suitable for their particular ailments available. I feel sorry for the Dyak leader for he is in a bad way and needs medical attention immediately. I told him the best thing he could do was to get to Hoffman as soon as possible. The river went down some but not enough to make it possible by canoe. It rained in the evening. {F3.81}



Thursday
September 23
1926


Spent most of the day getting our supplies and equipment which we are leaving behind in suitable shape so that it can go up by carriers. Other things which we can leave we are leaving here. The soldier informs me that there will be a guard here as long as anything remains and when the camp is abandoned everything will be taken up should the water fall sufficiently. The carriers arrived late in the afternoon with a note from Dick. He had a tough trip, it is a hard one he says (one day and the trail is no trail at all[)]. It is up and down and up and down all the way. Dick had to carry the tripod when he left because the others had gone off and left it and he said that it was a big mistake for one needs both hands all of the time. He managed it until about one hour out of Head Camp and then turned it over to a Dyak putting some more of the Dyak[’]s load around on others. He also said Head Camp was nice, good swimming, no mosquitoes and fine drinking water. I was to come up tomorrow with the carriers. Of course if the water went down we would go by prow, but it rained in the evening and it doesn’t look “a like” that is possible. One of the Dyaks on the return from Head Camp went down with the fever and had to be left behind with one man to watch over him. He is very sick and a prow with eight or nine sturdy Dyaks put out just before dark to go up and bring him down. The river is high and it is a dangerous trip, but the Dyaks never leave anyone suffer without help no matter what risk is involved. Of course the canoe was unloaded but it will be a hard dangerous trip neverthe less [sic], against the raging current and in the dark. At eleven they returned with the sick man. He was immediately given a big dose of quinine. I too was not feeling any too peppy for some unknown reason and from the symtpons [sic] of headache together with that listless feeling I thot it might be the fever coming on so {F3.82} I was not especially pleased in as much as I was due to go up tomorrow and it appeared a certainty it would be overland and not by prow. When I had what resembled a slight chill in the evening I took ten pills. Five is the regular dose for one sitting and five in the evening. I wanted to make it strong for I didn’t want to be delayed here. Fever generally breaks out when one leaves the mosquitoe [sic] country and there have been many cases of it up here, both among the soldiers and dyaks and convicts.



Friday
September 24
1926


I felt better when I arose in the early dawn but to clinch things I took five more pills. There was a big discussion as to whether it would be wise to go up in the prows. Anji was sick and the Dyak with the fever was slightly improved but needed Hoffman’s attention. After a good deal of discussion Anji decided that despite the fact that the river was high the Dyaks would attempt to go up by prow instead of by land but that the canoes not be loaded bery [sic] heavy do [sic] to the high water. So I departed with an extra tin or two over that which would have been possible by carrier. We started and it didn’t take long to see that the Dyaks knew what they were talking about when they said the river was dangerous when it was high. We proceeded slowly poling up the river, clinging to the side of cliffs in some places and pulling our way inch by inch. When it was possible to pole along it wasn’t so bad. The current in the middle was a raging torrent of water and the waves were high making it choppy along the sides. We shipped a good deal of water. The trip was a beautiful one[,] the river narrowing and going by at express speed. We passed many beautiful waterfalls on our way. At noon we stopped at a beautiful spot near a waterfall and had our lunch. The Dyak with the fever looked bad and Anji was frightened because of the high water. It was necessary to go from one side of the river to the other at times and when this was done it {F3.83} proved to be a thriller such as I have never experienced before. Some times it appeared as though a huge wave would engulf us but the Dyaks paddled with might and main after the nose of the prow was swung out into the current and we sailed across and down for a good distance before the other side was reached. There were five or six of these express speed crossings up to the time we stopped for lunch. The manner in which the Dyaks handle these dugout canoes in this rough water is remarkable. The current is about fifteen miles an hour and with the Dyaks paddling hard as they shoot across sideways the shore slips by very rapidly. As they approach the opposite shore the man in the rear slips the end around and as the prow comes in it appears as though the canoe and its load of passengers is about to be smashed against the rocks. The others however, are waiting eagerly and as soon as it is possible reach out and grab hold of overhanging limbs, vines, or whatever is in reach. Once on such a dash across the waves the only vegetation possible was a large limb of a tree which dropped down just barely in reach. Below was a large wall of solid rock with not a place for a hold of hand or long pole with an iron hook on it. The man in front saw the situation and leaped for the limb[;] he held it all right but the speed of the canoe was too great and it was impossible for him to keep his hold. He broke the speed of the boat and the end man slipped it around while others grabbed the limb and hung on with a death grip. If he had failed to reach the limb we sure would have a good bump along the rocks and probably gone down stream for a considerable distance if we had not smashed up. The Dyaks enjoy this sort of thrill and yell loudly as they paddle with all their might and main. When it is all over they all emit a long was [sic] hoop and start poling or pulling their way along. We were the first in line and after we had made the dangerous crossing the other Dyaks waited and looked while the other canoe attempted it. They were on hand in case anything should happen. During lunch Anji appeared {F3.84} nervous and said he didn’t like it for it was not entirely safe. He would rather fly in the aeroplane he said. It wasn’t as dangerous. He was nervous because he was ill and could not take part in the handling or the directing of the canoe I suppose. We shot a few more of equal sensations and were soon in head camp. It was about three in the afternoon. Head Camp is the most delightful camp of any camp we have had so far. It is situated with mountains on all sides with the rushing, raving Rouffaer River far below, a large island of solid rock witha [sic] few trees on it stands in the middle of the river at the point where head camp is located. The water churns and passes by with a loud roar. Waves are six to eight feet high. A small river enters the Rouffaer in the opposite side of Camp and another one of clear crystal water flows into it in front of the Camp. It is necessary to climb some hundred feet or more to a level spot on the side of the mountain before the camp site is reached. They had built steps and once on top the view was splendid. Below rushed the Rouffaer with its loud noisy growl twenty four hours long. The huge waves broke against the rocky island and splashed white spray in all directions. Immediately below one in front of camp came the quiet clean mountain river. Huge boulders and rocks of all sizes and descriptions could be seen plainly through the clear water. It was a swimming hole to behold. On the right the mountain rose steeply to a sharp edge. Ahead and behind one could see the ridges of the mountains. Dick, Posthumus, Van Leeuwen and Hoffman met us. They have built a large warehouse and several good palm thatched houses. Dick had occupied the one Matt and Leroux had when they were here and I joined him. It was comfortable. No flies, no mosquitoes and a [sic] few bugs of any king [sic, = kind]. This sure was heaven. The evenings were delightfully cool and the days were also not as warm as even below at lower H.C. A pleasant breeze fanned your face as one

{End of September 24th missing}



Saturday
September 25
1926


{FRAGMENT 4: September 25, 1926 through November 7, 1926}

{F4.1} Spent the day in camp making ready for trip to Explorators camp. Nothing of importance happened.



Sunday
September 26
1926


Left Head Camp. Camped Sunday night first large river. Waded across boulder to boulder. Current strong. Shot movies and stills. Great Place. Sergeant Kratrow arrived night after we in camp with Tomalinda. Learned Doc gone in on seven day trip with Saleh. Later got Matt[’]s note.



Monday
September 27
1926


Off to good start 7:00 and reached bivauc [at] 1:30. Going rough. Camp this side of another strong stream. No bridge here either. Nice camp.



Tuesday
September 28
1926


Water rose 15 feet during night and at 7:00 o’clock Dyaks said [it would] be impossible to go today because trail follows river for good distance and high water makes going impossible. Soldiers however, sent 8 out to fell tree across and make new trail so we won[’]t have to follow river. Returned at 9 and we left. Going rough and when river had to be followed which it did most of morning, extremely dangerous for we had to hang by fingers on rocks. Water dashed up to our waists as we hung on with everything but our teeth. Reached largest river, 3rd one, at three o’clock which we would have reached by noon but for high water. Dyaks [are] building a raft so we can cross [the] river tomorrow. Water still high.



Wednesday
September 29
1926


Going very rough and dangerous. Water still high.



Thursday
September 30
1926


{F4.2}

Arrived Exploritors Camp.



Friday
October 1
1926


Spent in Exploritors Camp. Visited village (tombe)



Saturday
October 2
1926


Left Exploritors camp with Matt, Dick, 2 soldiers, and 9 carriers (8 convicts and 1 Dyak) arrived Damoonarue which is high up on the steep slope of an adjoining mountain – 3 hours[’] hike. All inhabitants of this village apparently were diseased, evidently flambosia [sic, = framboesia]. It was a terrible sight. Two men, one crippled with running sores and swollen joints so that it was impossible for him to move about at all. The other was just as terrible to look at but could still navigate. The children evidently had been born free of the disease but had contracted it from contact with the Mother and from crawling around on filthy ground floors. No one was anxious to stay long and there was a long hard trail ahead of us – by the use of a few cowries we enviegled [sic, = inveigled] the headman of the village who seemed to be more or less free from disease to act as our guide. Awfully hard going, up and down, crawling along precipitous slopes all heavily clothed in tropical jungle, but an excellent trail for New Guinea. Just before dark our Pygmy guide halted us beside a fine clear mountain stream where the convicts under the direction and help of the Dyaks and soldiers, set up camp. In the meantime our pygmy friend had disappeared but [only] to return with great armsful [sic] of fern sprouts and roots that make good eating.



Sunday
October 3
1926


Broke camp at daylight. Found going much harder [and] had to wait on carriers as they had heavy loads and tired rapidly Aguintawa still [a] long way ahead. Have five ridges to cross and many {F4.3} rivers. Camped high on ridge near water at 5:00. Carriers good and tired for going is up and down and trail [in] some places slow tedious work. Colder than ever, and heavy blankets felt good especially early mornings. Rain of course.



Monday
October 4
1926


Papuans say we will reach village tonite. Don[’]t know whether he is figuring his speed which with only little bag over shoulder and bows and arrows is certainly swift thru jungle. Soldiers and convicts succeeded in getting him to carry blanket and one canvass [sic] role [sic] which he carries over his head. He received a convict shirt for it yesterday, met him on [the] trail and [the] other guide went back [to] his village before we camped for the night. Going tougher all the time. At noon reached large river bouncing down thru gorge and over boulders short way up stream was a beautiful water falls. Shot movies and then it rained. Trail followed river down stream short distance and then up high mountain. Half way up could see village of Aermba where our guide is from. While we were eating lunch another Pygmy Papuan met us and continued on with us. Trail was rougher today and at 3 o’clock we see we can’t make [the] village for [the] carriers are way behind and will do well to get here by five. Our two Papuan guides signed to us they would go ahead and reach [the] village by dark. We prepared camp half way up [the] mountain side. Water was far below. Carriers straggled in one by one from 4 to 5 and it rained heavy before camp [was] established. Rained heavy all evening and boys had [a] hard time to prepare supper. We did have early tea so that helped. Cold in evening despite we were in sort of [a] hollow with mountains all about us. [sic]



Tuesday
October 5th
1926


Papuans from village arrived before we were out of bed. Father of boy had [a] small pig which we bought and they killed. {F4.4} five cowries. [sic] Was good pig, also brought pot and sweet potatoes! Decided to leave one soldier and two carriers behind so they had pig. Old Papuan however wanted head and entrails. Then we departed with him with other soldiers and rest of carriers. After two hours climb up mountainside came to his village of several houses and he said he would get our pig and kill it for us. Dyaks and soldiers and convicts built our shelter in their midst at his suggestion and we told him we [would] stay. He agreed to bring people from vicinity. We sent back remainder of carriers with [a] note telling [of the] difficult trail here and sent back potatoes and pig. They will return in 2 days and with days rest should be here in 7 days with food. We have food for several days, but can get more from people. Spent day measuring people and shooting movies and stills. Half way up we can see mountains all above us, good view from here. They sure are isolated people[;] women folks do most of work. [Women] Raise tobacco[,] sugar cane, sweet potatoes and pigs. [The] Latter run in and out of houses at will. Women all carry small babies in large net bags slung over [the] tops of their heads. During day many came. Different types. Had some excellent bananas. Women, however, went into fields to work and returned at 4 loaded with potatoes and greens. Prepared their evening meal. Kids crying and pigs squealing and dogs howling. Heat stones over fire. Will kill pig tomorrow morning. Head man informed us for some reason or other. He was sure a salesman and was anxious that we stay here. Children when not in net bags ride legs straggled [sic, = straddled] over shoulders of women. Boy just brought in large bunch of bananas for which he got a cowrie. In the states one banana would cost 5 cents. We got 20,000 cowrie[s] for $40.00 – high cost of living – for they figure about 5 cowries to the cent. Women on return from fields began preparations for feast dinner in honor of the occasion, was interesting to watch. {F4.5} Men gathered the wood and broke it into firewood size by striking it against huge boulder. That[’]s [the] only part they played. Village had about 30 guests. Huge fire [was] built and large quantity of sweet potatoes placed in burning embers to bake. After wood had heated the stones[,] women then built circular fireless oven of huge palm leaves and with wooden fire tongs lifted hot rocks out of fire and wrapped them in leaves[,] placed them on bottom and then piled potatoe [sic] [and] greens on top and them [sic] came pig[’]s head and entrails we had given them in morning from pig we bought and they killed below. More greens on top and more hot stones with another layer of greens on top. The children assisted mothers and brought various articles to them as they called for them. Pigs and dogs ran around and they kicked and slapped them away. Older children 5 or 6 cared for babies as this proceeded. One pig (small) succeeded in grabbing potatoe[s] as they were brought out and being put in fire and ran schreeching [sic] delightfully away pursued by small boy with baby on his shoulders. Pig escaped with his loot however. Hot stones packed on top of all the layers and then leaves parked [sic] tightly all around and tied securely all around with a vine. Men sat around and watched with interest. The fireless cooker now began to steam and the cooking of the feast was on in earnest. The odor was not half bad, meantime potatoes [were] baking. About an hour [later, the] feast was ready, [and] we sat by and watched. Women and children ate first and a layer of stones and leaves were removed. Women and children brushing pigs and dogs away constantly, who also wanted to join in, picked out greens and pig entrails pushing them into their mouths in handfulls [sic]. Small children grabbed with the rest. When they had concluded[,] men ate and soon all alyers [sic, = layers] had disappeared. Pigs and dogs [were] always around and would run yelling and squealing away when kicked or slappedwhen [sic] too close to the food supply. They succeeded however, in getting something to eat {F4.6} of the remains. The feast over[,] the men lighted their pipes and cigarettes and sat around smoking in the fast fading twilite. Matt traded some after dinner. We had potatoes and greens and a piece of deng deng for our meal. The mountains around us were very pretty as the sun set. Women at dusk retired to a women’s house with children and men retired to men’s house. Laughed and talked far into the nite. Evidently talking over their trade operations. Women could be heard repeating something to children who repeated words slowly after them. Then all quiet for a time, until head man shouted something to wife in other house. She replied and after few minutes of conversation came out with a burning torch in her hand and stood in middle of camp. Head man spoke loud and earnestly for several minutes and she answered lai lai every now and then. Finally turned and disappeared into house with torch and all quiet. Rained late evening.



Wednesday
October 6th
1926


Pygmies and visitors – only [a] few departed last night – were up and about early. Evidently had their breakfast in houses for when we awoke at 7:15 smoke was pouring out of crevices and door way[s] in large volumes. Did not see them eat breakfast. We had our rice and oatmeal mixture – oatmeal is running low – and coffee and the head man indicated he was ready for the pig killing ceremony. Too early for movies so we put him off. He did not like it and wanted to see the cowries he was to receive. The pig victim was on hand and was busy nosing around in search of food. He was a good porker. Finally Dick said [the] light was O.K. and we started. The ten cowries were satisfactory – they like certain kinds – large, yellow and diamond shaped. Will accept onegood [sic] one in place of 3 not to their liking and Dick has his movie set. {F4.7} The Papuans[,] some of them painted, gathered round for the ceremony. A woman led the pig to the middle of the space between the two houses and one chap stepped out and jockeyed for a favorable position and then snap went the arrow and Mr. Pig was no more. Dick shot away with native house and mountains and pygmies in [the] background. Soldiers and convicts dressed the pig and [the] head man didn’t forget to demand the head and entrails. They will probably have it for another feast tonite. Our soldier did good work cutting [the] pig up. Matt traded all morning and secured [a] good collection. Many newcomers from neighboring villages arrived during morning including 3 more women and babies. Shot more stills. Matt measured women and found smallest so far. She measured 138, smallest in other village [was] 139. Women here are small and real pygmies while men are larger. Reverse is true in Ex.C [sic, = Explorators Camp] where men are small and pygmy type and women are large. Got several good close ups of women and children. Women and men are both very jovial and laugh and greet each other affectionately. They seem to kid one another and laugh heartily. The head man of the village here is a brainy chap[;] he is all over the place and isn’t missing a thing. He holds the others in their places and lets them know we are his guest. During the morning chiefs from several other villages tried hard to induce us to go to their Kampong but we refused for we haven’t carriers or time or food and this chap is doing well. He gave us more sugar cane and sweet potatoes and we assured him we would stay. He is pleased and must be charging the rest commission or something. It is a big event in his families [sic] life. The eldest boy continues to make himself useful to our convicts and soldiers and are [sic] busy most of the day fetching water, wood and doing anything they ask him to do. He has attached himself, as have two younger ones, as our personal {F4.8} aides [sic]. After the pig killing ceremony the women retired to the fields to their labor and did not return until 4. Began same feast preparations as yesterday for they had another pig killed this morning. Shot good movies of pipe smoking and also making fire and preparing feast in fireless cooker. Same procedure in laying layers of hot rocks and fern leaves as yesterday. Movies all through showing children and dogs and pigs hanging around as women busied themselves with their tasks. Got some good kid stuff. Men, women and children and animals sat around and ate sweet potatoes after they baked in fire. Chief had some sort of row with [an]other village chief and they had a good argument and he sent a small delegation away. They were not included in the feast ceremonies. Of course we didn’t know what it was all about. They have been holding [a] conference between themselves all day and most of it is regarding the trade. Two or more slip off and talk things over and then return to trade. Matt traded all day long and as usual the space under our beds is filled with bows and arrows, stone axes and bags. In building the fire the women frequently used their teeth to crack wood. They start it with a stone ax, that is split it and then crack it over a rock and then over their heads. They also bite palms in two with their teeth. The scene upon opening the fireless cooker is always interesting. Tonight there were not as many people present for some reason or other. When the rocks and ferns are removed the women and children picked up the smoking wet greens and stuffed them in huge handfuls into their mouths. Even the smallest children including those just able to toddle, stood by and reached in for themselves. As was the case last nite the dogs and pigs interrupted constantly by breaking thru the circle. A kick or a slap or a stick over the hinds kept them yelping and squeeling [sic] all during a meal. When the circle barrier to the food was completely {F4.9} closed to them the dogs would put their front paws on the smaller children’s shoulders and nose in in [sic] that manner. Then one of the kids would stop eating long enough to push him off and when he persisted to nose in again between them the the [sic] children would continue eating but kept up a constant back fire of swift kicks with their feet in his direction. When the attack failed to keep the dog off the scene ended by the route [sic] of the dog thru chase with a stick. Both the dogs and the pigs however, are gluttons for punishment and as it[’]s the only way they can eat[,] they are persistent creatures. Those visitors who did remain were given a huge pile of greens and ate in various sections of the clearing offto [sic] the side by themselves. Last night they all joined together in the eating. There were three courses this evening. First[,] all sat around the fire and ate the sweet potatoes when they were baked. Then came the greens from the fireless cooker and then the pig head and entrails. On this course the women and children were first. Then the men and afterwards the eldest son of the chief divided what was left of the pig and passed it around in equal portions which men, women and children put away in their net bags for tomorrows breakfast and lunch. They seem to have only one main meal and that is at nite. During the day they eat a stick of sugar cane. We got quite a shock yesterday when the headman appeared eating a perfectly good ripe lemon. He ate it as we do an orange, but made as many faces as we would if we were eating a lemon. We secured several green ones for a few beads. They are exactly like our lemons. New Guinea is probably the home of the lemon and bananas for they grow wild here Matt says. After the meal the smaller boys brought water in long sections yambo [sic, = of bamboo?] and they all drank heartily from it. During the day the chief and one of the chiefs from a neighboring village tried to tell us some protest or other about our bathing with the {F4.10} water. He pointed to the other chap and indicated he was possessor of that water below and he had seen some of our carriers bathing in it. That was one version. Another was that we shouldn’t waste it by washing our hands and face as he illustrated. We acted dumb and after several attempts they gave it up. There is only a small trickle of water from a nearby spring and it might be he wanted us to pay for using so much water. The only use of water on their part we have observed is to drink, and that was only once and to sprinkle on the hot greens when the stones and ferns are removed. They wipe their hands after messing thru their food on the vegitation [sic] about, finishing the drying process by wiping the greese [sic] off completely in their hair. We watched their eating operations with great interest and when we heard the call to eat our food they sat around and watched us with as much if not more interest. They get a big kick out of our dishes and food in tins. When anything impresses them they tap their penis cases and during a meal when many are around the clicks remind one of a telegraph office[,] so fast and furious do they tap. Our towels always get a big rise out of them as does [sic] the blankets. They sit and survey our belongings with longing eyes and ask permission to fondle the various articles such as shirts, hats, shoes, leggings, blankets, etc. They pat each article and shake their heads in amazement. Matt gave one of the chief[’]s wives, he has two, a small piece of brite colored cloth and she was tickled with it as a child. I gave him an empty tobacco tin and he was as equally pleased. We had fried pork chops for dinner with baked sweets tonight and they were find [sic]. The chops were as good as any, not too fat and not too lean. When we had finished we threw the bones to the dogs and the kids entered into the competition to secure a bone. The dogs were victorious, however, for we gave them an advantage by throwing the bones directly in front of them. They gnawed their bones {F4.11} like any other dog would but seemed to enjoy them more for they evidently are not accustomed to such luxury as meat remaining on a bone given them.



Thursday
October 7
1926


It rained a little last nite but not as much as we expected for just before dark it looked as tho we were in for a good storm. A beautiful rain bow [sic] was visible directly ahead of us in the mountain peaks where it was raining heavily. Both Tuesday and Wednesday were fine for pictures, no rain in the day and not much at night. We had our sugar cane syrup on our breakfast food this morning and it was great. A few early arrivals from distant villages got Matt out of bed early to trade. They always shout a warning before coming into the village, and do not approach until the head man or some one of his family answers them. The women and children had quite a time rounding up all the pigs last night. Several of the smaller porkers had to be captured by the small boys. His method of attack and capture was unique for the small pigs are fast and impossible to catch by just chasing them. After several unsuccessful attempts he enlisted the aid of another small boy and let him jockey him around while he sat by watching. He remained behind the pig and when the pig watched the other he crept up behind him and made a flying football tackle at his hind legs attacking and holding on with a Red Grange tecnique [sic]. This soon had the two little pigs who wanted to russle [sic] more food perhaps, soon in the houses and to bed. The larger ones are more obedient and hop into the house on call of the women. Despite all the kicks and beatings they get at the dinner table the dogs and pigs are very much attached to the pygmies. The little porkers follow the children and women around constantly and the children play with them. One little porker followed the women as they departed for the fields for their daily labor despite their efforts to discourage {F4.12} him on their part. They carry their babies on a huge net bag with the strap over their heads. The children seem to rest quite comfortably in this position all day as they work in the fields. The houses are more substantially made than those of the Papuans of the lake plain and the entrance is much lower being but a foot and a half from the ground. As one enters one goes to the right thru a narrow passage which has a small window[;] it is at 10 inches high and 4 inches wide. Inside is very plain with a fire burning in the center. There [sic, = They] are all about the same size[,] 10 by 8 or so[,] and the roofs are thatched with palms. They have several good sized palms down on either side. The side towards the slopes down [sic] more and is longer while the side towards the gully or ravine, takes off slightly and is half the size. Our host brought us more potatoes and a few pussey marrow [sic, = pisang matang (Malay)] – ripe bananas – for which he refused payment this morning. The small boys and girls just able to toddle all smoke cigarettes as profusely as do their elders. Their tobacco is not half bad but very strong. It is twisted and they grind a little in a dry palm leaf and smoke more leaf than tobacco. They too all make a loud hissing sound as they inhale a deep draft. Matt has a brite [sic] youngster cornered and is getting more words from him this morning. Their language is entirely different from that of the people at Tomenba [sic, = Tombe] but they know the language there also and Matt is getting words by giving the word used at E.C. [Explorators Camp] and getting it here. They all seem to understand the other villages[’] lingo as well as their own. They value the tobacco highly and have it all wrapped in a sausage shape. In fact the wrapping is not unlike the way different foreign sausages are wrapped. It reminded me of some of A’s brands and from the outside one couldn’t tell the difference. The head man has disappeared since early this morning and has not shown himself all day. We had more pig for lunch with sweet potatoes. Several new women appeared {F4.13} and Matt measured them. They certainly are coy and bashful. Holding their hands to their mouths [they] grin and wiggle around as he puts the measuring instruments to their faces. Traded all morning and got good collection. If it continues it will be a problem on how to get it back with the carriers we have. The pygmies brot us 4 more ripe bananas this morning. The secret trades and conferences continued today. They sure plan what to trade and how to trade it before approaching the open market which is Matt. Some are schemers and haggle but on the whole they know the market Matt has established and trade accordingly. As I write they evidence great interest in the pencil and when I erase they tap their penis cases in unison and shake their heads. We are probably more interesting to them than they are to us. Dick loading the camera always has an interested audience around him. Many new children are around today. It rained early in [the] afternoon and spoiled our movie taking some. We can’t complain however, for we’ve had 2 good days for pictures. Doc took a trip around to several villages nearby and [was] led by a small boy who conducted himself like a regular tourist guide. Whenever he came to a point of interest he stopped and gave a long speel [sic] about it. Matt returned with several stone axes and many personal ornaments all of which were carried by the youngster in his huge bag. He was amply rewarded by Doc with a large handful of bright red beads. During the rain of the afternoon and early evening the pygmies visited with us. The children especially enjoyed themselves. Several of the youngsters are brite and very likeable. The old chap – head man – his name is Phooteevee, appeared on the scene but didn’t say anything. Evidently he turned this day over to his neighbors for he wasn[’]t present all day to influence or oversee the trading operations as he has been doing since we arrived. He did hold several secret conferences with the leader of the other village behind his house {F4.14} on his return, but as usual we are in the dark as to what it is all about. They built their regular fireless cooker oven again last evening but had no pig so ate the greens and sweet potatoes. It rained not so heavy early evening and they all retired into the houses. The men into the men[’]s house with the children and the women and babies into the women[’]s house. We [sic, = They] were awake most of the nite talking. I awoke at 2 and they were still talking and laughing among themselves. Evidently talking over the trade events of the day and comparing their wealth. The head man will be the Rockefeller of this district. All are anxious to have us move and the old boy is tickled pink that we stay. He has his big parang in his hand all day long and chops at everything in sight like a small boy with a new ax. This is our 3rd nite here and we have enjoyed every minute of it. Every minute is interesting. They walked about a good bit tonite carrying torches. In the houses they use a gun [sic, = gum] copal[,] a rosin substance. A few new comers late in the afternoon were rather sturdy fellows and well built. They measure around 56x.



Friday
October 8th
1926


Our oatmeal is “abess” [sic, = habis (Malay, “finished”)] so we had rice and milk with one ripe banana and coffee without sugar. Our six day supply of food is exhausted but we can get plenty of pig and potatoes, bananas and sugar cane. We also have a small reserve of rice left which we are saving. Had french fried potatoes last nite and they sure were good. Our pork is keeping well for it was real chilly last nite. We smoked it a little yesterday and that helped to preserve it. Trading opened early as usual. They always flock around Matt as soon as he has finished breakfast and sometimes before. They have their ideas all ahead on how they will trade and Matt lets them get the impression they are giving him the worst of it[.]{F4.15} As saro was the cry in the lake plain, so is woo the national cry here. They start by demanding woo for everything. Shot some movies of the women making net bags. They got the head man and his wives with the children to go into the fields above and Dick got some good shots above of village and mountain background, also climbing up trail with children on shoulder. Couldn’t get them to understand about the garden work scene, but will try later. Newcomers are constantly coming with new material and our collection is increasing rapidly. Getting good stuff also. When Dick folded the legs of his tripod the chief nearly had a hemorage [sic] as the legs got shorter and disappeared into the ground. It was unexpected and he jumped up and shouted excitedly to the women to watch for themselves. We assured him, however, everything was all right and demonstrated its working which got a rise out of all of them. The expression on their faces was a site [sic] to see. Our pork is improving with age and for lunch we feasted on fried sweets, pork tenderloin and tea. If we had salt and butter and sugar there would be nothing missing. Our effort to get the movie scene in the potatoe [sic] garden resulted in large quantities of Abegs [sic] being brought in at noon which we purchased eagerly of course for potatoes are our main supply of food. Not having had that luxury for 6 months we are pleased with that diet. The men folks sat around this morning and showed their women folks their wealth. Dick saw the head man’s collection of cowries as he was proudly displaying it to one of his wives. He had dipped them in blood to color them yellow conterfiting [sic] money. The yellow ones are evidently the prize of the cowrie money. He put them away quickly however, when he saw Dick watching them. I went into the women’s house with him this morning when I gave him an empty Prince Albert tin. It is somewhat smaller that the men’s house and except for a rack on one side on which firewood is kept, is bare. A few bags and personal belongings {F4.16} hung from the rafters. It was very dark inside for there are no windows. The one window is near the entrance and only lights the narrow passageway to the room. It is used evidently to see who is approaching the clearing or to shoot from in case of attack. Shirts and the small boys of the Head Man continue to make themselves useful bringing water, wood and now and then presents of sugar cane and potatoes for which they will accept nothing. The youngsters are very proud of their brite red arm bracelets which Matt has given them. Shirts is very proud of his bandaged finger which Dick dressed after he had fallen and cut himself while guarding the soldier who went hinting [sic]. He was carrying his saber at the time. They are very quiet and touch nothing of ours without first asking permission. Their greeting to one another is novel. They smile a real friendly smile and with the 3rd finger of the rite hand make a snapping noise 2 or 3 times as they lock fingers and then pull them away saying wow wow. They laugh heartily when we greet the newcomers in this manner also. The women are in the fields all day. The children (small) in their big net bags over their back and seem quite comfortable. We secured more bananas today. One of the younger bucks traded his penis case this morning and appeared with an extra large one which would do a giant credit so we took a still of it for our own personal use to show how modest they are. We have learned from several that the route they take back to Ex. P. C. is down the conyon [sic] to the Rouffaer and then along the river so we will probably try it. It should be shorter and possibly better. It rained and clouded up after one today so we could take no movies. The natives sat around in our shelters tho, and Dick and I entertained them with various tricks. He demonstrated the [.]22[’]s shooting ability to them by shooting three times at a tin can on the fence. The first demonstration of it succeeded in scaring most of them in the house. 4 or 5 however remained and tapped their penis cases vigorously when they arrived at the can and saw the three holes {F4.17} thru the tins. They couldn’t understand how six holes were in the tin when he only shot 3 times. The bullets also went clear thru the fince [sic] post. They did not want any more and indicated he should put it away which was done. A kindly middle aged pygmy who was exceedingly pleasant visited with me most of the afternoon. He admired my pipe, knife, matches, shoes [–] in fact everything I had and kept shaking his head and tapping his penis case with wonder. I made an exception in his case and let him look into the Klambo and he saw the soap, towels, blankets and my coat. He sat gazing[,] admiring everything all afternoon. He had an empty match box so I put a few matches in it and he immediately dug into the bag around his mech [sic, = neck] and gave me his small charm bag in which he carried, as do many others, a cacoon. It was exceedingly small and well colored and woven. The best part of it was the fact it was clean and new. I was much pleased with the gift and gave him some more matches. He is a fond friend now and follows me about. Some particular pygmy attaches himself to a certain member of the party and makes him his particular friend[,] bringing gifts now and then for which they will accept nothing. All of us have one now. Dick gave them all a thrill and we thought we were in a W.U. office again when he brought out his camera trypod [sic] and after pulling the sections into their proper length proceeded to run them into the ground, his leg or a tree. I got a picture I hope of the expressions on their faces. Most of the older men stayed in the house during the afternoon, probably sleeping for they must have been awake most of the night. Dick also performed some slight [sic] of hand tricks with my knife and I showed them the match trick. The women folks returned from the fields at 4 and there was much talking on their part. Most of the visitors left so I presumed they put up a strong protest against having so many mouths to feed again and told some to go. Their tongues sounded effectively and if my guess is right their barrage {F4.18} of talk succeeded in getting many of them to depart. The children secured the firewood this afternoon using a stone ax to cut it in two. The women then broke it over their heads and cracked the smaller pieces with their teeth for the border. As the customary building of the fireless cooker proceeded the children played around with the dogs and pigs. The youngest is a fine actor and tried her hardest to assist the mother. If the light had been good we sure would have had some knock out pictures for with the building of the fire and the kids and pigs in the background it would have been a “wow”. Tonite was the first time our hosts were alone and they acted natural. The dinner of potatoes and greens were [sic] shared with us and we tasted their food. The potatoes tonite were not baked in the wood ashes, but were put on [the] top layer of the fireless cooker and green fern leaves and hot rocks placed on top. Hot rocks and greens were underneath. They were the same as potatoes boiled in water and we ate them with relish. The greens however, were not as good as we prepare them so we tasted of them and turned the rest over to our convicts. The evening meal finished on both sides, the men and wives and children came up and sat around and smoked with us. He likes his pipe and talked with us. Of course, the most of it was over our heads but we learned that if we would stay he would see we got firewood and many potatoes. As Matt later remarked[,] the family scene was similar to that after dinner on any American farm. The women and children laughed and joked with the soldiers and convicts while we talked with the men. It was an interesting picture as it grew dark, and then it started to rain so they retired to their houses and I went with the chief into the men’s house. He and the others got a good laugh out of it. The men’s house is a little larger than the other but the distinction is not as great as in the Lake Plain for the women also visit in it which they are not {F4.19} allowed to do below in the Rouffaer. It is entirely bare and has a big earthen fireplace in the center. They sleep on matts [sic] on the floor around the fire and use the window to get the large dogs thru. They started the fire going and in a few minutes the small room[,] 8 by 10[,] or less was filled with smoke. It was hard to breathe. The wife also came in and joined the family circle around the fire while the children told me the names of rain, floor, window, etc. They are smart likeable youngsters. I left when the smoke got unbearable. They don[’]t seem to mind it a bit. The walls and ceiling are greasy from many nites and days of that procedure. Before the rain 2 of the youngsters played before the house in regular kid fashion and chased each other around. They saw we were enjoying it so they acted. The larger one treated the smaller one rather rough but he didn’t seem to mind. Their idea of sport is to kick the hot ashes of the fire with a swift backward stroke at each other. This became too tame so when the younger one was getting the worst of it he reached down and picked up a handful of dirt ashes and meal debris and threw it in the other[’]s face. That brought on a sort of wrestling match in which they got headlocks on one another and finally ended in the smallest being thrown on his back. Holding him squirming on the ground with one foot[,] the older boy covered him with ashes and dirt and then placed several large rocks on him to complete the burial. The little chap took it in good nature but when he had extricated himself, chased the other up the mountain side with a huge piece of cord wood emitting a savage yell of “Yi Hoo, Yi Hoo” which brot a machine gun barriage [sic] of words from the mother to the husband who ended further hostilities by calling them both into the house and to their rough board floor beds/ [sic] Dick developed some tests of the films he has shot and they are fine. Just before he started developing operations the bali-bali [sic] bed of his gave way and he and {F4.20} films and containers sank into a crash to the ground tearing some of Matt[’]s section with it. The damage was soon repaired however. It was fortunate it broke before he had opened his chemicals and started the actual developing operations. I forgot to mention that while the boys were splitting up the wood for the evening[’]s fire[,] Sawmony found a large wood worm. When he spied it his eyes beamed with delight as a child in the states would at the sight of an all day sucker. He placed it tenderly in the ashes and roasted it, slightly. Then[,] rubbing his stomach in anticipation of eating this delicacy[,] he lifted it up and was about to devour it whole when his mother reminded him that the baby should have a taste also. He broke off a section and the child in the bog [sic] which can just toddle around opened his mouth and swallowed his portion. The boy ate the remainder with seemingly great relish.



Saturday
October 9
1926


We were up above the clouds when we awoke at 6:00 this morning for the clouds were hanging low in the canyon. It was a beautiful sight with a rugged peak jutting up here and there out of the flaky clouds which were spattered around the mountains like lather. The usual gathering of traders appeared and Matt was surrounded as usual. Our collection is getting very bulky and the Papuans have not failed to notice it repeatedly. The Head Man came to me and explained he had a pain below his ribs and it hurt when he breathed. I suppose they think I could cure it after I illustrated the match trick yesterday. I rubbed it and had him hold the camera trypod [sic] upon which they look with awe because of its collapsing ability. I painted the spot with iodine after I had used it on several scratches on my arm. I illustrated that it would go from him to me pointing to my painted arm and then up in the air. Several tried to dissuade him but when I walked away he came running after me for {F4.21} “treatment”. I then burned the cotton and made a few mysterious signs and told him in 10 nites he would be better. He was pleased and said he had an arrow hit him there during a pig shooting ceremony from what I could gather from his sign language. Dick shot some movies of them expressing surprise at the camera and also close ups showing how the women carried the babies in their net bags one lying in it and an older one standing uprite. It clouded up immediately after lunch and began to rain so it was impossible to take any pictures. We finished our pork and made negotiations for another pig to be brought to us. Today was the really first bad day we have had. The natives have run out of most of their good possessions so it was more difficult to trade with them. They tried every means to put over their bum arrows and other material using the children as a sympathy gag for we have been nice to the children but Matt was not easily fooled. Nothing else to do with it raining we retired to our Klambos and kept dry. Now and then, however, 2 or 3 came behind our lean[-]to to trade with Matt. One old chap[,] a head man from another village[,] after a great deal of whispering and chasing everyone else away but the headman of this village, unwrapped a strange cowrie which he had wrapped in a dozen different methods and showed it to Matt with great enthusiasm. It appeared to me that he wanted several cowries for it or perhaps an appraisal of its worth. It was all v [sic] very secret and amusing. We learned this morning from the Papuans that they had word that our transport was on the way for somewone [sic] had seen them in camp enroute [sic]. They have a good communication system for at 3 in the afternoon Mr. Leroux and 2 Dyaks appeared in the rain. We were all pleased to see them but Phootewee the head man here was not so pleased for some reason. They had some sort of scheme up their sleeves and it was evident they were not pleased with this addition to our forces. Leroux was accompanied by Egoon {F4.22} the Head Man of Tombay and 2 of his men. That is what displeased them evidently for they have been having everything to themselves here and resent his coming. These two tribes are not overly friendly. Matt says Phootewee had visited and lived off Egoon when they first arrived at Ex. Camp for 3 weeks or more. Phootwee gave permission for the Dyaks to cut some timber and Leroux’[s] tent was placed alongside of our lean[-]to and an addition made to the soldiers[’] and convicts[’] lean[-]to to house the new soldier dyaks (2) and carriers. We received a fresh batch of milk, sugar, a little salt, some butter (from Leroux) oatmeal, etc.[,] so our larder is complete. The weather continued bad and the clouds settled in and hid the mountains entirely as we ate dinner. It was a misty[,] rainy afternoon and evening. Egoon and his men were plainly disgusted with the Papuans here and [he] voiced his dislike of the way they had treated us. He said when we arrived at his campong he gave everyone presents and would take nothing for food for it is the custom here evidently to feed newly arrived guests. He also said they had demanded too much and we had given them too much and he was rite according to their custom. He also said they were always asking for something and giving nothing and he pushed his nose with disgust and shame which illustrated his feelings. They are very jealous of each other and take pride in letting the rivals see what they have received from us. Egoon and his 2 men also carried some of Leroux[’s] baggage on the trip here. We are to stay here 3 more days and then return to E.C. the 14th. For some unknown reason they built their fire indoors and ate there tonite. Perhaps we were too many to share in their food with the visitors they have to accomodate [sic]. When we informed Phootewee we would remain with him he cheered up immensely. I offered him some beads for a new supply of potatoes but he wouldn’t take anything but has as yet failed to bring any potatoes. We received several good cucumbers yesterday and they {F4.23} were very good. The natives eat them skin and all with great relish. Leroux was exceedingly nice to us and shared his coco[a,] salt and butter in generous porporations [sic] with us. We returned potatoes and bananas. Just before dark the clouds had entirely enveloped us and we went to sleep with it rainy, misty and cold. Dick says there is a drop of 30 degrees, from 85 in the afternoon to 55 at 3 or 4 in the morning. It sure gets cool in the mornings but we are comfortable with our heavy clothes and blankets.



Sunday
October 10
1926


It was as delightfully clear and nice this morning as it was misty and bad last nite. The atmosphere was clear and the mountains stuck out like a sore thumb. The view was excellent all around and we spent some time looking around thru the glasses. A Sunday atmosphere prevailed for the women sat in fron[t] of the houses making net bags and did not go into the fields. It may be because of the newcomers[;] I don[’]t know. Got a lot of new dope on inside intrigue. They have been cross examining the convicts, soldiers and dyaks after our trips, and enlarge on any little incidents that take place. Leroux is all rite. The schemers use him and his temperment on their side and Dick and his on ours to stir things up. We also learned that the Java cruiser incident, Cruiser took the blame for us 3 times to his commander and stuck up for us admirably. [sic] This made us feel good. We also learned it was Van Leeuwen who is responsible for the censorship order. During the morning one of the leaders from another village brought us a pig but for some unknown reason the deal wasn[’]t completed. The old chap here evidently called it off so we are without pork. He evidently is not pleased with the new turn of events. Some trading was done this morning but they offered poor material and wanted a high price for it which Matt naturally refused. Secret conferences were going on all morning and the old bird stuck to the house. The women also {F4.24} disappeared but I did not see them go into the fields as usual. They were busy working on new bags during the morning. Much new material, such as bows, arrows and necklaces are being made for trade. Several newcomers arrived and stood by looking on with mouth and eyes wide open. It is interesting to watch the newcomers. Leroux went up trail and shot a pan [panoramic photo] and is now down trail shooting another. After lunch Dick and I went up trail and shot a view of Papuans clearing a garden spot and building a fence. A group of a half dozen or more from a neighboring village arrived after lunch and had some good material which Matt secured. Old Phootewee got them off to one side and tried to induce them to hold out for high prices. Egoon greeted the new visitors with a warmth that was pleasant to see for he is not in love with the others. The new chief to visit us paraded up and down displaying all of his finery. He sent his men to trade their possessions first and was interested in the prices they received. Matt was kept busy all afternoon trading. The chief finally came up to trade but offered a few small things first. Instead of wearying [sic] his bog [sic] over his shoulder he had it advantageously perched on top of his head to display it well. When the afternoon was well spent he finally strutted up and[,] taking it off his head[,] laid it proudly in Matt[’]s lap. He had tried his best to have Matt ask for it but couldn’t wait it out. He received 3 good cowries for the bag and was well pleased with the deal. They were from Bigineila they said about a 2 days trip. They tried hard to get us to come and visit them offering a big pig as an inducement. It would be interesting to go but we cannot because of lack of carriers. They were nice people and easy to trade with. Old Sour face came around with sugar cane and potatoes tonite and wouldn’t accept anything. Evidently Egoon has been telling him a few things. I gave Egoon a P.A. and he was pleased with it. It rained heavily late this afternoon {F4.25} so we retired to our Klambos. The clouds and mist settled in again as it [sic] did last nite. Our hosts ate inside again and the pigs and dogs[,] unable to scurry around the fire to get their scraps[,] raised an awful fuss most of the evening. They ran around outside and squeeled [sic] and howled as only they can do in N.G. The kids and women came out and chased them under the houses but they came out for more. The food was cooked in the women’s house and the small boys carried handfulls [sic] of the wet cooked greens to the men in their house[,] running back and forth. The pigs and dogs followed[,] kicking up an awful fuss because no crumbs were dropped. After dusk Leroux and Matt sat around with the men in their house. It rained heavily all evening. The Papuans got a big kick out of the visit.



Monday
October 11
1926


Another clear brite morning. Everything was quiet and no trading [was] done early. It was the first time. They are getting a pig from a distant village and he should be here today. Not so many visitors today, but presume they will arrive later. Dick and I with 2 of Egoon’s men and a Jap boy for a guide went up trail and shot some new movie scenes, got some good stuff. Pygmies in new houses, stone axes, a good view of a distand [sic] pygmie [sic] village on the mountain side. It was a several hour trip and we enjoyed it. Our guides were from Tombay. We had [a] lunch of potatoes ground [sic, = around] a fire in one of the houses. This house was different in some respects from the others. It was newer and was built up on poles. It also had a front porch which is a novelty as far as the other houses are concerned. There was also a vine covered house and another typical pygmy house with a skull hung out over it. We returned and shortly afterwards a group of 10 or 12 natives of Bigiciga arrived, headman and wife and children. They were all painted up and profusely decorated. We shot many pictures of them. {F4.26} They had brought a huge pig which we purchased for 10 cowries. [sic] and they put on an impressive ceremony. The afternoon passed very quickly for they had brought much new interesting material and were anxious to trade to Matt, [who] was busier than a hen on a tin roof. The head man here tried his best to gum matters but they didn[’]t listen to him very much for he seemed not to be able to influence them. The chief was a going fellow and rather hard boiled. Phootewee put him up to demanding some of the pig so he wouldn’t have to feed them, but when Matt told them he wouldn’t give them half of the pig unless they returned half of the cowries he had paid them for it, they backed away and a big argument resulted. It finally turned out all rite and the new chief said everything was O.K. He saw his bluff wasn’t working and he was afraid we would be angry. He offered to snap fingers as a friendly end to the argument he had started. I gave him a red tobacco tin and he was pleased. Phootewee sent him and his gang up trail to a neighbor[’]s house to sleep. Soon all was quiet. It rained of course.



Tuesday
October 12
1926


We planned to leave today and some of the Papuans agreed to go back with us to help us carry. Old Phootewee, however, threw a wrench into the machinery and tried to keep us here by using the rain as an excuse for not going. He had convinced Egoon someway but we decided to go anyway. Whether we will be able to recruit enough carriers is a question. Egoon is afraid of this bunch and he can[’]t be blamed much. We continued our packing while the Papuans looked on rather sullenly. It is plainly evident they do not feel pleased to see us depart with our large collection. They overlook the fact that we made them many presents and paid them more than a fair price in their own money and standards of value. Matt also paid the head man rent for the site and for the wood and water we used. {F4.27} He should be satisfied but isn[’]t. He sits in the doorway and looks sore as a cut finger. It rains heavily but finally the packing is completed. Leroux calls for Papuan carriers (he told them about our leaving last night) but no one will offer to help carry a thing despite the fact that he offers them 10 cowries which is a fortune. He calls on Egoon and his 2 men but they remain silent. The situation is bad. Our collection is large and even without it we need as many carriers to go back with as we came up with and Leroux is now added to our party. It was a serious situation but we told the Papuans we could move without them and did. They thought we would either stay or leave the collection behind which is out of the question. We loaded the Dyaks and carriers with the collection and Dick and one soldier went with them to our last camp coming up which is only 2 hours away. Matt, Leroux and I with one soldier remained to watch the rest of our baggage, until the carriers could return. Dick and the other soldier stayed with the collection on that end. As the last of the men were leaving several youngsters came of their own accord and carried small bundles. We accepted their aid. Old Phootewee and several of his fellow conspirators tried to talk them out of it but to no avail. We sat around in the rain and the gang sat around looking sullen and without a doubt were much angered. We had our revolvers and rifles in readiness. As we sat waiting for the return of our carriers several deep conferences were held. We [sic, = There] were 4 of us against about 30 Papuans but we sat and chatted as tho nothing had happened. The natives scattered around, the women and children grouped down by the houses and the men scattered about in groups of 4 or 5 with their bows and arrows plainly in site [sic] for instant use. There were 2 bad looking fellows who looked as tho they were anxious for trouble and Matt said they were the 2 to watch. We did. The new man from Bigicia seemed friendly enough but acted as tho they didn[’]t know what it was all about. A few minutes after {F4.28} Dick and the carriers left[,] 2 men were dispatched after them evidently to see how far they would go and to see what our plan was. After a long discussion one of the hard boiled chaps came over with a committee of five or so and the bad chap informed us thru the sign language and a long Papuan recital that they outnumbered us greatly and then pulling his bow and fitting an arrow to it he demonstrated the use of the bow and arrow without shooting it. To convince us of his fighting ability he proudly exhibited 3 or 4 arrow scar wounds on his anatomy. There was no mistaking or misunderstanding his threat. His companions nodded and also voiced his sentiments. We acted dumb as could be as to what he was trying to tell us and he went thru the act all over again. It was raining and the clouds were settling in giving the scene a weird enough setting. It looked bad all around[;] Leroux went over to the soldiers and inspected his rifle in a business like manner[,] opening the chamber with a bang and taking out the five cartridges in the clip and holding them up for a critical examination. The natives watched this scene with a good deal of interest. Leroux placed the bullets back into the chamber and closed it with an impressive click and returned the gun to the soldier who held it on his knees in readiness. Matt and I had our revolvers strapped on our sides. Leroux was unarmed. After this demonstration the committee said nothing and I rolled a cigarette and passed around papers and the makings to the group. They are always in the smoking mood. Old Head Man sat in the doorway and looked sour but said nothing. He evidently saw we were not afraid and his scheme to keep us from leaving had not worked out as he had anticipated. Most of the Bigicia tribe came over and some wanted to trade with Matt but he said he would buy anything they had at Tombay and trading was off here. One chap had a good pipe which I had filled with tobacco and we wanted that so {F4.29} I took a brite yellow and blue empty card board film bos [sic] from my shirt and looked into it. Half a dozen or more offered me various articles for it which I refused. Finally the chap offered his pipe and I reluctantly accepted much to his delight. The others were disappointed. He was pleased when I let him finish the tobacco in the box and handed it over eagerly, when he had finished his smoke. The Dyaks and convicts returned in 2 hours and we loaded them with the remainder[,] ignoring the Papuans entirely. There was too much left over so we gave each carrier and the Dyaks a little extra and Matt carried the movie tripod and I a bundle of large feathered headdresses which was lite but bulky, and so we departed. We waved a friendly goodbye to the chief and the rest but they did not return the courtesy. Matt was going to present him with ten cowries upon leaving but do [sic, = due] to his last minute actions did not do so. We had everything and were on our way. The carriers went ahead and Matt, Leroux and I followed with the soldier bringing up in the rear. We had not gone far (the trail out of the villages is always difficult for there are innumerable fences to climb and gardens to pass thru) when 3 or 4 natives came running up offering their services as carriers. I enlisted one, Matt, however, choose [sic] to carry the heavy tripod. We reached camp where Dick and the soldier were waiting guarding the collection. Several Papuans were present and had helped carry a few things for them but they stopped very often[,] Dick said[,] and talked for a long time. Nothing could be done to induce them to continue until they wanted to. Dick stayed with them until they arrived in camp. It was late when the first section of our transport started so as it was past noon when we arrived[,] we decided to lunch there. Six of the Papuans agreed to carry for us, 3 of them boys, and two[,] incidentally[,] sons of Phootewee who had always helped around camp. We decided the best thing to do was to contue [sic] on as far as we could going in {F4.30} two sections. Leroux and I with the carriers and the Papuans – 6 – took as much as we could and started off with one soldier, leaving Matt and Dick and a soldier behind to guard the rest of the luggage. We climbed to the top of the first ridge and then sent the Papuans and our carriers to bring up the rest. Several of the Papuans tried to quit on us on the way up and wanted their pay but we told them they had said they would carry to Tombay and they would receive their ten cowries when they had carried out the promise. They continued. The small boys carried heavy loads and didn[’]t complain. It was late when the second group arrived and we made camp in the dark. Egoon[,] who had remained behind at the village when we left[,] had come up with one of his men on the second trip. He said he left the other one behind to bring potatoes back. He also informed us the Agentuwa folks were bah – no good – and said he was afraid of them for they are larger and stronger than his tribe, which are real pygmies. These folks have a good mixture of lake plain blood in them and from their actions are also of their temperment [sic]. We camped on the top of the ridge where a Papuan shelter is standing and the Papuans with us slept in it. They started a conceited [sic, = concerted] movement to get their pay saying they would go no farther. We consistently refused and said they would be paid at Tombay when they had finished their work as agreed to. They evidently intended to go to Tombay with us for they had brought a large bag filled with potatoes and bananas. Our guide on the way up who had announced his intention of going back with us, as did several others, were [sic] not included in our list of six, however. We put all of our collection and baggage under our beds and the beds of the carriers before retiring. Two of the natives, one a boy of the chief, returned, but announced their intention of being present to continue in the morning after many attempts to get paid off had failed. We kept a {F4.31} close watch in the night, but nothing materialized. Yes it rained.



Wednesday
October 13
1926


One of Egoon’s men started building a fire for us at 5:00 and the camp was soon astir. We had breakfast and were soon packed. We decided to continue the relay plan as per yesterday and Leroux and I went ahead with the first transport. Bedding and collection was [sic] first with food only for the noon day meal. Our objective was our camp near a river which we made on the second night up. It wasn’t so far but we had a stiff long climb to make over the highest ridge of the journey. We reached the camp at noon and the carriers had their noon day repast and left for their return at 12:30. It was going to be a strain on their physical endurance to go back and make the trip again with another load. Once up with a load such as they carried was a good day[’]s work in itself. There was nothing else to do, however, for in between the twain offered no site for a satisfactory camp site. At 3:15 the Papuan[s] arrived. They refused to leave when Leroux and I did because they did not want to make the relay as of yesterday. Perhaps they saw thru our plan and they did not want to see us leave so fast. The 2 chaps who had promised to return did and carried their load. Matt and Dick arrived at 4:00 and said it was after three when they met the first of the returning carriers at the river an hour down from our camp. They had decided to leave when the Papuans did and when they reached the river they had not seen the returning carriers so decided it was impossible for the carriers to make it back before dark. The Papuans had gone on ahead so they decided to camp there for the nite to be near the soldiers. When they met the returning carriers later, they came on at a rapid pace. Dick and Doc both had started building a temporary shelter for themselves for the night. When they arrived here they informed us that it would be {F4.32} impossible for the entire second transport to make this camp. One or 2, possibly the 2 Dyaks might make it by dark. We had camp well established when they arrived but not much food. Ate a can of hot potch and some tea. The Papuans built themselves a leanto in short order using the stone axes from our collection, which they promptly returned when they had finished. They used the Dyak style of leanto and covered the top with fern and palm leaves. They soon had a roaring fire going inside and were comfortable. Potatoes which they had brought along made up their entire meal. It was dark at six so we gave up hopes of seing [sic] even one carrier arriving even. At 7:30 or thereabouts we heard a cry yp [sic, = up] the trail. It was pitch dark. Dick took a candle and went up there in the darkness. It is a steep climb up and the trail is not so good. In fact it is the worst part of the going between Tombay and Aeimba. Lo and behold[,] here were Oompah, our faithful boy and Sain, Leroux[’s] convict. They had come thru. It was dark when they came to the top of the ridge and they had come down over that dangerous descent in the dark. One needs two good eyes to make it in daylite and not much bad. [sic] It was a splendid piece of work. They had left the rest at our camp above at 4 when the others decided it couldn’t be done, and came thru. It was a dangerous thing to do. We rewarded them with a bar of chocolate each and they were pleased. A misstep in the dark down that mountain would have meant plunging down to certain death, perhaps, a serious injury at least. They brought us the small amount of food we have left in our personal supply which is not much. It rained heavily during most of the night.



Thursday
October 14
1926


We are all due back in E.C. today but it is a good day[’]s trip from here and half of our luggage is a day behind us. Everybody is short {F4.33} of food. We decided the best thing to do was to leave Leroux and the Papuans go on in with as much of the collection as they could carry and we would wait here until the others came thru today. Leroux turned over to us all of the little supply of food he had for he expects to be in E.C. tonite. We are to send the others when they arrive on [sic] and they will go as far as possible today and make E.C. tomorrow. Leroux will send back some carriers and food for us if a transport is in E.C. and if not will send back our carriers with food as soon as they arrive. Igoone has promised to send back Papuans as soon as he and Leroux arrive, but we can’t be too certain of that as we have learned by experience. The two Dyaks were the first to arrive. They came four hours or so after Leroux had departed. We loaded them with the collection and left the load they had carried here with us. They too had little rice, enough for one day. They should be able to make E.C. by tonite. One by one the rest of the carriers arrived. The next to the last brought word that the soldier was ill and had to travel slowly. He was not so far behind[,] the convict stated. He had the fever. We were about to send someone to him when he arrived anda [sic] look at his face plainly indicated to us he was not well. Matt decided that he remain with us and Dick and Oompah return with the carriers[,] so they left at one o’clock. We have food for the 3 of us by going easy until they can return which should be in 2 days at the latest. It consists of a piece of pork, some oatmeal and a can of peas. We have coffee and tea and a little milk. So we sit here and wait. We were able to get all of the collection off with the exception of one large bundle of bows. All of our camera, films, and personal tins, one each, remain here with us. Will take about 9 carriers to get us back, which was the number we started with. They should have known we would need as many to return as we came with even if we had no collection and the collection was one of the main {F4.34} purposes of the trip. It was poor judgment on Lt. Jordans[’] part. We were lucky to get the 6 or 7 Papuans we did. All is quiet in camp except the never ceasing roar of the water as it tumbles over the rocks below us. Matt has taken the [.]22 and gone down the river to see if there are any birds or game but we have seen signs of none in this vicinity. Birds or [sic] Paradise only. Dick and the remaining carriers should be in E.C. some time tomorrow afternoon. It is very cool here and very little sun breaks thru the jungle clad mountain side. Also have much rain here so we will be confined to camp here for 2 days or possibly more. Matt returns and reports no birds but he has sighted several banana trees in the vicinity with 2 bunches of green bananas. We bake two of our green bananas in the fire, Papuan style, and they are really good. Personally I like them. Matt had them as a chief diet on his S.A. trip so can[’]t get enthused over them. We have tea and some of our pork and lunch is satisfactory. It is cloudy and rainy all afternoon and very cool. We have a good fire and a good supply of dry wood so we are not uncomfortable. The soldier is better, having taken pills and cooks our dinner. He shares his rice and pork with us and we have a good meal all around. We have pooled our food. It was real cold during the evening and rained heavily. I ran out of tobacco and the soldier has shared his with me. He has sufficient for us until the carriers can return. We all slept well under our heavy blankets. Nothing eventful happened during the nite, altho the soldier sat up long into the nite.



Friday
October 15
1926


We were awake at dawn brite and full of pep. I made coffee and oatmeal which we shared with the soldier. He didn[’]t want any coffee but ate his share of oatmeal. It tasted good for we were ravishingly hungry. The hot coffee had a pleasant warmth. The soldier is a wonder. He got the fire roaring hot and dried our {F4.35} shoes and socks so we are dry and warm. At 9:30[,] 4 of the 7 Papuans who had left with Leroux arrived from Tombay. They informed us they had slept in Tombay and left early this morning. They carried nothing and could therefore travel fast. They tried to get us to pay them again but we knew Leroux had paid them so we informed them we had no woos. One had two skirts worn by women which Matt was eager to get so he traded a P.A. tin for one of them. They left for Aeimba immediately and should be there this afternoon. They said they would sleep there tonight and return tomorrow with potatoes and go to Tombay with us to get more woos for stone axes, potatoes and other things they will bring. The sun is out this morning and is drying camp somewhat. Some of the carriers should be here tonight if they were available when Leroux arrived. If not, those who return today will arrive tomorrow nite and we will be able to get back Sunday. It will be good to get back. Our food will just about last until then with green bananas to help out. Our pork will be finished today and tomorrow will see the last of the outmeal [sic], our two chief supplies. Dick and his gang should arrive in E.C. late this afternoon. We had pork and boiled green bananas with tea for lunch. The soldier is a good cook. After lunch Matt and I went down to the river and shot some pictures of the gorge and waterfalls upstream. It is a beautiful place. At 3:00[,] 6 Dyaks and 2 convicts arrived with some food for us and the soldier. They were accompanied by 2 convicts. We will be able to leave tomorrow morning. Jordans[’] note said to come today if it was possible but they arrived too late. They had met Dick and his carriers 2 hours from E.C. and Dick wrote all was well but everyone was out of food. The Dyaks report no more rice or food in E.C. High water below is evidently playing hovac [sic] with the transport between Lower Head {F4.36} Camp and Upper Head Camp. It looks bad for there are many men to be fed at E.C. We will probably learn some interesting news when we arrive tomorrow. We had a luxurious dinner of green peas and hotch pot and it was delicious. Gave the remainder of our pork to the soldier for his supply of rice and fish was not abundant and with our new supply of tins we will have sufficient. We, of course, had rain early evening. Tomorrow we leave early for E.C.



Saturday
October 16
1926


We had a dandy breakfast consisting of a good portion of oatmeal and coffee. The soldier is an excellent cook. We broke camp and were packed and started on the trail before eight. We could just make it with eight carriers. Nine would have been better for a large bundle of bows had to be divided among all the carriers. Each one carried 2 or 3 bows in their hand which slowed them up somewhat. After about two hours of going we met 3 more Papuans returning. They were pleased with their payment but could not be induced to return and carry the bows because they were out of food and hungry. They would have liked to for Matt offered them 5 woos. They indicated by signs holding the stomach that they were hungry and had to return to Agentuwa. We did not know whether or not an additional transport had arrived.with [sic] food so we couldn’t promise them any if they came[,] so we let them go on and we continued with our load. Our Dyak carriers were good and made splendid time despite their heavy load. Four of them stepped right out and made extra fast time. It demonstrates what can be done with good men as carriers. We stopped for lunch where the trail cut off to Tombay over the short cut chich [sic, = which] we had failed to take when we left E.C. on the advise [sic] of Igoone. However[,] when Igoone accompanied Leroux he came that way not going to Damunaru as we had done. The {F4.37} place was full of these sweat flies. I have never seen so many. They swarmed about us and made it decidely [sic] uncomfortable as we ate. They are one of the most detestable pests in New Guinea and vie for equal honors with the leech. Matt and I climbed to a high point nearby and obtained an excellent view of the lake plain and both sides of the Doorman Top. The mountain peaks in all directions were without clouds while over the lake plain a heavy white blanket spread out in all directions. This would be a good point to get a good picture with a little clearing. However, we have no time so continue on. The short cut to E.C. was a good trail and we made excellent time. It was all down following the rather sharp ridge. After an hour of steep down going we could see how high we had been. In an hour and a half we were in camp. It was good to get back. We learned that the transport with food had arrived shortly after our carriers had left and some food was available. It was not much but we were well satisfied. We had made the return trip in about five hours not counting the half hour spent for lunch. Jordans had started up with the transport he had sent to us but his bad foot (he has an infected toe) kept him from going on so he came back. He has suffered a bad infection since he arrived here and it has made it impossible for him to make any trips. Shortly after we arrived Satchel had a conference with Matt over the captain’s letter and we learned that he had included us in the insult and Van wanted to know if Matt would let him handle the matter[,] to which Matt agreed. We also learned later from L.R. that Satchel had seen the telegram to his commandering [sic] chief in which Posthumus had said this was a film expedition, and knew all about it in Albatros Camp. He did not say anything to us about it despite the fact that he wired the committee that he had talked it over with the Americans and that they were not the least bit disturbed over the statement. L.R. made that statement in the presence of Dick, Matt and I. Satchel {F4.38} was very friendly and made noticeable efforts to be agreeable more than ever before. We were soon established in our leanto and everything was rosy. Some new Papuans, one a small pygmy type of woman, were present. They were good friends of Igoone and he greeted them exceedingly friendly when they arrived. They were from across the river and the Ratan Bridge.



Sunday
October 17
1926


We were tired out from our trip and used this Sunday as a day of real rest. Matt measured the newcomers and found the small woman the smallest he has yet measured. Shw [sic, = She] was 132 while the other was 138. She is more than 25 years of age and is not dwarfed but fully developed. The men folks were not of the Pygmy type but were rather tall as is the case in other villages, when the men are small[,] the women are large and vice-versa. The newcomers hung around the camp all day and were much interested in everything. They looked at our beds, blankets, tins, typewriter, camers [sic] and got a kick out of everything as all newcomers do when they get their first view of white men and their belongings. Dick and I shot some pictures of them looking at Liberty, Life and Aero Digest. The women folks[,] strange to say[,] were more intensely interested in cooking utensils pictured in the advertising pages. A coffee percolator held them spell bound for many minutes. The men on the other hand noticed pictures of men in the tooth powder adds and the pictures of tall buildings and automobiles. Dick also had a picture taken using his klim. The men tapped their penis cases vigorously all day long as they saw the new things which we had brought to their gaze from civilization. The typewriter and cameras interested them more than anything else. I believe the red prince albert tins are almost as good as cowries for they offer anything they have on them in exchange for one. The women folks have a method of expressing surprise. They use their left hand and wave it back and forth {F4.39} over one breast as one would stum [sic] a violin. As I sit and write now[,] three of them are watching me and the click click of their tapping on their penis cases almost drowns out the noise of the corona. They shake their heads back and forth and look at one another in amazement as they tap. Dick opens a film blick and the click click starts again. They watch everything. Nothing escapes their notice. My Dunhill is examined with great care by all hands and everyone wants it. They will trade anything they have but it is the only pipe I have so they have as much chance of getting it as they have of turning white. They are interesting people. The women, there are five of them all with children. Even the smallest one has two children. Matt is busy dividing the collection for another transport is due soon and it is will [sic] to get all of the heavy stuff down. It is a splendid collection all around and numbers more than that obtained all the time they were in Tombay. Matt works hard and gets it almost all divided and Leroux selects his part. The collection is then packed in tins and is ready for the returning transport just as it commences to rain. Only a few of the smaller lighter articles are not divided but he can do that tomorrow. The pigs cause a great deal of trouble for they find something edible in the bags. It may be the result of their putting their pig entrails and other portions of pork in them that makes the bags attractive to the pigs so we have a soldier on guard to route them when they get too close. It takes persistent efforts for the pigs are not easily scared and it generally takes a well directed kick or a well thrown stick to get them very far away. But they are back again just as quick, and the whole thing has to be gone through again. The soldier is alert though and the pigs are defeated and the collection saved. The rain is not of long duration and it illustrates forcefully that our canvass [sic] above our heads leaks and it is fixed. The beds got a little wet and we rearranged it so that it would be dry during the night. Van Leeuwen and Leroux are to leave tomorrow {F4.40} for a trip to a high mountain top to join Saleh who is now out of food. A transport of six carriers was dispatched early today and we loaned our two convicts to help out in the matter. We can get along with Oompah alone. In fact he works better without any assistance and they need the carriers for bringing foor [sic] to the mountain top. The issue of food to all hands for five days exhausted the visible supply in the magazine so we are waiting [for] the next transport with eagerness. It should be here tomorrow or the next day. We hadn’t done any reading for some time so we scraped the candle together and succeeded in getting some light for an hour or two to read by. Life and the Saturday Evening Post furnished the reading matter which was enjoyed. Dick developed a large bunch of pictures last night and was busy developing additional packs tonight. He has a good dark room established down by the small river adjacent to camp and has good clean running water. Some of the pictures were not so good while others were. The Graflex has gone on the fritz for some reason or other. Evidently warped by the dampness. Igoone came over with a large sack of potatoes which he donated free to all hands. His hospatility [sic] is different than that exhibited by the Old Fellow at Aeimba. We gave him a few beads and he was tickled but said the potatoes were for nothing so we told him the beads were a present from us. I have promised him another Prince Albert tin, and he is greatly pleased. Oompah was kept busy washing most of the day.



Monday
October 18
1926


Leroux and Van Leeuwen were off early. One of the carriers was sick and we loaned them Oompah as a carrier. The soldier who had cooked for Doc and I the last two nights below will cook for us here until he returns. The newcomers were on hand early and eager to trande [sic, = trade]. One could see that they had never had contact before for {F4.41} they were highly nervous and excited. They also did not haggle over prices. At first one did all the trading running back and forth from the village to our camp bringing one article at a time. Finally after a half hour of this the others came and traded. One went into a frenzy of excitement when Matt gave him four large cowries for a bag decorated with wild pig tusks. They are colorful with their head dress and bags and have many beautiful things which will be added to our already good collection. At nine thirty, four Dyaks arrived in a transport from Head Camp[,] so we will have additional food. Not all of them are here as yet. They reported they made the trip in four days. It is good to see the food unloaded. Matt is busy trading and between times sorting the remainder of the collection to go back with the transport tomorrow. One Dyak reported Hamer as being at Head Camp. We hope so for it will mean more film. We have only two thousand two hundred feet left and much to shoot here at Tombay[.] Dr. Van Leeuwen said he would write Matt a note if there was anything interesting to see from Saleh’s top and Dick will go up and shoot a picture of the snow mountains if they are visible. They gathered around again this morning watching the typewriter activities and one was dispatched to the village to bring some of the women who had not witnessed this sensational advent[,] so they came and brought their babies. They stand silently by and watch tapping their penis cases in unison while the women fan their breasts. The smallest pygmy woman picks up a spoon and admires it with interest and one by one the breakfast dishes are held up for inspection while a great conversation takes place among them. If we could only report what they are saying. They get a thrill from watching me jungle [sic, = juggle] three lemons and a few other tricks which we demonstrate to them get a good response. They are having as much fun out of it as we are. They like to have me strike a match and light their cigarettes. They are after us constantly for a light and like to try it themselves. At first they are {F4.42} rather clumsy and use several matches to get a light. They are also a little afraid of it. It is a great victory when after two or three attempts they finally get their cigarette lighted. The match trick with the handkerchief is always a good one, especially when you let them break the match into bits themselves. The bell on the typewriter causes a general discussion of which we can only surmise. They think the bell is inside somewhere and that there is something very mysterious about it. I show them pictures of American women and they gaze long and ernestly [sic] at them. Their hair and their head ornaments as well as the beads call for a long ernest [sic] discussion. The women are not so much interested as the men except in the clothes. They are like all women in that respect. They are expecially [sic] interested in the children’s pictures also and seem pleased when we lie and tell them they are ours. Another chap wants a lite so I have to stop again. He is one of the shy birds so I tell him to do it himself but he is too nervous. The other chap who has succeeded is disgusted plainly and shows it and then proceeds to show him how to do it. He has learned pretty well by this time and forgets that it took him three or four matches at the start. The remainder of the convicts arrived a half hour later and we have some more food. The soldier brings up in the rear and has the letters, with onr [sic] for Dick from Hamer I presume. All of the people we have met have from one, two to three of their fingers cut off at the first joint. The women usually have two, the index finger and the next one. Must be some religious ceremony. Hamer has sent a note full of interesting news. He evidently missed our telegram message. The army wireless is at Motor Camp and Hamer reports the army sergeant as saying he will send any of our messages. I am wondering if our message went. I hope it did but suppose the other went first. We also got an {F4.43} additional supply of some luxuries such as I forgot how to spell but one is butter, another is jam and some dried apples. Oh Boy, what festing [sic, = feasting] will be done now with the potatoes for we have butter and salt to make them more tasty, if that could be possible. In the afternoon we went to the village to see that [sic, = what] movies we could shoot. The sun was beating down and it was very warm with the result that the natives were all inside. We induced them to come out for a general picture for they had all of their ornaments on and it was a hard thing to refuse to trade for them for they were anxious to trade. We also got a good close up of Igoone’s small girl and the men folks drinking water out of a long bamboo pole they use to carry water in. Later a woman came in from the garden loaded with potatoes and greens for the evening meal. She was carrying two good sized pieces of log on top of her head. Dick got all of that. The best way to get them is to be set and shoot whenever they do their stuff for they are natural then and not so when you try to arrange or tell them how to do anything you want them to do. We were in Igoone’s house around the fire and they cooked potatoes. That interior scene will be good but we will have to remove one side of the house to get enough light in it so that it can be taken. Think it can be done, it will make an excellent picture. After we had returned and had our afternoon tea all of the women folks and the men folks of the village returned our call. They had their things to trade and kept Doc busy until almost dark. They are just like children and were pleased with anything he gave them. He treated them all the better and gave them more than usual because they did not haggle over prices as those folks above had done. One of the women was rather good looking and had a flapper twist and turn to her every movement. She was very bashful though. Matt wanted the ornament around her neck which consisted of cassowary bones and cacoons. She was not willing to part with it and her {F4.44} eyes flashed as her husband suggested that she trade it for a bunch of good cowries. The others laughed and she retired behind one of our Klamboos shyly as though he had tried to buy a shimmy or underskirt from a woman in the states. After a great deal of urging on her husband[’]s part[,] she tore off a few of the cassowary bones and blushing through the charcoal and greese [sic] on her face (they were all decorated for the occasion) she removed it and handed it over. One could see easily that she was doing it with much misgiving although the five large cowries should have given joy to her heart. It was something that was evidently dear to her heart. The men folks were pleased with the treatment Matt had given them in the trades and jumped up and down with glee as they got their cowries. One of them[,] after the trading was over[,] grabbed Matt around the waist and hugged him [in a] tight embrace to show his appreciation. The others gave him potatoes and other small gifts making it plain they were presents and expected mothing [sic] for them. These people are certainly much better to study and work with than those we were with above. We should get some good material here in the next week or so. Matt also decorated several of them up with yellow and red chalk and it pleased them immensely. Igoone’s [sic] even came over and asked to be decorated likewise. Matt finished packing the rest of the collection in tins and it is now ready to go down with the returning transport when it leaves day after tomorrow. Igoone’s house is one of the best I’ve been in. It is much larger than the others and has a dome roof.



Tuesday
October 19
1926


Oompah returned today for with the arrival of the transport from Head Camp, Jordans sent another convict and a Dyak after them. Van [Leeuwen] sent back a note saying they had seen nothing of interest as yet but were not far enough away. He reported finding a new and unknown specimen of orchid, he would write again. Matt finished {F4.45} packing the collection and it was all ready for the transport tomorrow. Igoone and the rest of the natives with one or two exceptions were not present. Later in the evening we learned that he had returned with the visiting women who had made a special trip down to see these strange people who were visiting Igoone. The little Pygmy woman is still here though. There was some trading done during the day and before the collection is even packed more comes in for another bunch. Matt divided it and Jordans selected for Leroux and that was added to the transport[’]s load going down. It goes quickly. In the evening, Dick, Matt and I went over to the village after Igoone and his little girl and several others had visited with us. Dick brought one of his movie flares and when it was dark enough he put a match to it. The entire village and tropical background made a beautifyl [sic] picture as the flare burned and made everything light as day. The people got a big thrill out of it. They were not afraid but intensely interested and talked excitedly as they came out of the houses to witness this unusual day time scene in the jungle blackness of night. It will make a good picture. The flash light also aroused them considerably. Dick returned to develop the remainder of his still pictures taken at Aeimba and Matt and I sat in the men[’]s house with Igoone and the rest of them. About twelve were present. They sang songs for us and it was a congenial atmosphere as we sat around the log fire in the center of the house and listened to their songs. The songs are very musical and are slow and soft. After they had sang [sic] several for us Matt and I gave them a few of ours. The corn in Ioway, Sweet Adaline [sic, = Sweet Adeline,] expecially [sic] the latter went over big. Excited tapping of the penis cases and a cry of who whoo after [the] college yell style greeted the finish of the well known American song which has become so famous as a result of prohibition. They are extremely {F4.46} fond of modulation and sat spell bound with interest as we with our poor attempt sang soft and low and then broke out loud and boisterously. The house of course was quite dark by [sic, = but] the glowing embers in the fire threw just enough light about to make the scene an interesting one. It was an interesting experience to sit around and watch them. Their singing is lead [sic] by one of them and the rest of them join in after taking a deep inhale similar to that of their smoking. Matt says their songs remind him of the Southern Negro revival meeting singing. After one of our spirit[ed] Sweet Adaline [sic] demonstrations the wife of Igoone shouted sonething [sic] from her house. He said she was pleased with the song, but it might also have been a regular wife’s retort to can the noise for the women folks wanted to sleep. We know not. It rained the usual amount during the evening.



Wednesday
October 20
1926


The transport was off to an early morning start and brought with it a tin of potatoes for Hamer as well as a reply to his note. We are going to be busy most of the day taking movies. Had a busy morning of it and got some good stuff. We induced Igoone to take out the side of his house for about six Cowries but he didn’t work any too fast doing it so we helped him. Then with the aid of two flares we shot a couple hundred feet of the interior, but I don’t know how it will turn out. If it is good it will be a knockout. Should we happen to strike it right it will be the first time an interior is shown. The women folks are not so eager to see the house town [sic, = torn] apart so it took a good deal of discussion on our part before it was accomplished. Then it was hard to get them to act natural. The flares scared them some at first but eventually it all went well. Igoone was fearful for his house and after the first attempt he indicated to us that he was afraid we were going to burn it down. As a result of the {F4.47} burning of the flares last night almost the entire village of Damunaro was present today. They brought potatoes and presents and had a large quantity of material to trade which kept Matt busy [in] the afternoon. Igoone and his wife and the small child furnished some good movie stuff. The prize of the outfit was a man from another village who got the ideas we were trying to put over to two others and without a word he jumped forward and executed them before we could think of what was happening. He did his stuff well so we used him thereafter and paid him well for his work. He did some real demonstrations of bow and arrow work and put on an arrow dance for us of his own free will and accord. Also got a small love making scene of Igoone’s daughter and a small youngster on a log. Eight hundred feet in all were shot this morning. It is hard to get them to act with the exception of the one man I spoke of. Otherwise it is best to get them just as they happen to be doing things coming or going and to wait for it to develop. After[wards] the whole tribe of them came over to trade and they all got a big kick out of the typewriter and a glance at our wives as illustrated in artists and models. Igoone’s [sic] had never seen the typewriter operated before and he was as intensely interested as the others had been. The women too were not at all sure of what it was all about and fanned their breasts frantically. The men tapped their penis cases. The typewriter always arouses their interest. It rained during the later afternoon and evening.



Thursday
October 21
1926


A busy morning of taking movies over to the village. We got out into the gardens and shot some good garden stuff with mountain scenery for background. No agricultural stuff though as yet. It was soon noon and we repaired to our camp for lunch. Oompah had it ready and we feasted on sweet potatoes, rice and a friend [sic] canned {F4.48} meat. As was the case yesterday the Papuans came to visit with us and trade in the afternoon. It rained slightly but the sun shone throughout the short shower and it was soon over. One of the pygmies who had been absent all day arrived in camp rather late in the afternoon and wanted Matt to make him some matches. He and his companion had spent the entire day cutting match sticks and they had them all tied up in a bundly [sic] and were very ernest [sic] in their request that we make them some matches. What to do[?] They had seen us do many miracles and if we couldn’t do that it would mean we would probably lose our prestiage [sic]. Matt was equal to the occasion however, and with a great deal of ceremony placed a new box of matches in an empty film pack tin without their seeing it and then exhibited another to them, empty. I took out one of the sticks and showed them they were too long so we measured one stick off carefully to the match box and after showing them the wood was not as good as our match wood because it wouldn’t burn[,] he placed the bundle of sticks they had made in the tin[,] covered it tight[,] and then placed it under his shirt which he had all folded up on the table. He lighted a match and past [sic] it over it back and forth [and] with a great deal of rubbing of hands and mismerizing [sic] gestures he finally extracted the tin. He opened it and took out the box of good matches. I lighted one and it burned brightly. They whoped [sic] it up and tapped their penis cases enthusiastically and the other chap immediately wanted Matt to make him a box. That was going too far so we had him donate something which he did, an elaborate arm ornament and soon he had a good box of matches for his bundle of sticks. Matt is now oppicial [sic, = official] match maker for the pygmies and he will probably be kept busy for they are in love with matches. The still pictures Dick developed last night turned out real well. Some were not so good but we have many good ones. Dick is kept busy working every night developing until midnight for we shot many {F4.49} packs while on our trip to Agentuwa. The movie test strips which he also develops are turning out all right. The film seems to be holding up well for being in New Guinea so long. That applies to both still and movies. The graphlex [sic, = graflex] is working once more. It was a beautiful clear moonlight [sic] night and failed to rain during the entire evening. Clear rainless nights are few and far between in New Guinea so when we have one it is enjoyed immensely.



Friday
October 22
1926


The squaking [sic] of a large group of hornbeeks [sic, = hornbills] and white cockadoos [sic] awoke camp at an early hour. They perched in the trees about camp and set up an awful racket for some reason or other. Birds of Paradise as a rule generally wake us up with their musical whistle calls but this racuasios [sic] noise was harsh compared to them and we all were soon out of bed. They flew away immediately before Dick could get a shot at them. Late yesterday afternoon we shot the twenty two for practice and the Pygmies all stood around in awe and admiration at the various shots made by Dick and Doc. A new group of Pygmies from up the Nogolow arrived in camp early and Matt immediately got their measurements. We also got some good movies and stills of them. The gang from Damoonarue left for their village early today after completing their trading operations yesterday. As soon as one gang departs another arrives to look us over. PoorIgoone [sic] is kept busy entertaining and feeding his hosts. Dick showed them how a magnifying glass could set fire to a film and paper and they jumped with excitement as [sic] this novel method of starting a fire. All wanted to buy it immediately, and offered all of their prize possessions, to no avail of course. All morning long the camp rang with their expressions of who who who and penis cases were tapped furiously while the women folks bit their fingers and fanned their breasts as they saw civilization for the {F4.50} first time. They always finger the blankets and Clamboos and cooking utensils with a longing look in their eyes. The large tins are fingered and each handle and corner is admired with envy. The new arrivals proved to be good folks to film and we succeeded in obtaining some good movies and stills[;] we got a close up of them building a fire and then showed them how we did it with a magnifying glass. Dick shot away while I illustrated a match to them and just as I lighted four of them at once, they all jumped in terror when they saw it ignite. We also got some good stuff of them watching the typewriter, another arrow war dance by another different bird with a large picturesque head dress and a corking good scene showing them shaving with a stone knife. In the fire scene one of the chaps with the headdress bit the small one with his mouth from a rather large stick while the other assisted. It was the best action stuff and more natural then [sic] any we have taken so far. All in all it was a good day[’]s work and the newcomers were amply rewarded for their assistance. They get a large laugh out of our desire to have them do their stuff for the camera and laugh heartily when we illustrate what we want them to do. These folks[,] with the assistance of our star of yesterday[,] were quick to grasp what we wanted and did splendidly. Our star actor of course instructed them of his own free will and accord, and was quick to tell them when they were not doing as they should or as he had instructed them. Igoone came just as we were finished and looked to see what we were doing. He is not good for some unknown reason and rather hesitates to get into the pictures. It was nearly one when we returned and Oompah had our lunch ready. Our Pygmy friends accompanied us and assisted willingly to carry the cameras and accessories. They are getting a big thrill out of the whole affair. The transport of four dyaks returned from the top and brought word that they had reached the range next to us and an altitude of twenty-five {F4.51} hundred meters from which they can see the snow of the Idenburg and Carsten[s]z top. The view in all directions except the west is excellent. A large range lies directly in front of them to the west and it will be impossible for them to go farther. It took three days to get there and a day for the Dyaks to return. Leroux is with Saleh while Van Leeuwen is stopped this side doing his botanical work. He has six cases of collection and needs three more cases which Jordans is going to send up to them. Leroux will be back the twenty-eighth while Van Leeuwen expects to return the twenty-fifth. Leroux asked for Peck to come up and make a film and Jordans says that it will be impossible when the Dyaks return, so we ought to be able to get a good view of the mountains country, and the snow and a general mountain top scene which will be fine. Matt took a walk down to the gardens below but found no women working there. Igoone was busy working with one of the large Parangs he had obtained from us. Matt also reported two Papuans taking a bath down in the creek having a great time laughing over the experience. They have seen us do it and I suppose are trying it out secretly to see what it is like for they never have bathed before. The newcomers were anxious to trade and the afternoon was devoted to bargaining for their bows and arrows and the other things they had brought to trade with. They had several good head dresses[,] one excellent Bird of Paradise one besides many good net bags excellently colored with yellow and red orchid bard woven into an artistic design. It takes a long time to make a bag of this nature[,] some of which are very large and contain many colored designs. As was the case with our last visitors[,] these folks were easy to trade with and were immensely pleased with the cowries they received for their possessions. The children generally wear one cowrie in their neck band ornaments and once in a while you see a man with one in his but that is rare. Dick had developed a small strip of movie {F4.52} film last night and it happened to be the star man with his bow and arrows, dan cing [sic] around and illustrating how he shot. He recognized himself immediately on the little strip and was pleased beyond words when Dick told him he could have it. He ran from one to the other exhibiting it very proudly. Our collection is growing and we will have another one to go down when the next transport arrives, in a few days. Yesterday one of the Pygmies brought us a seed or a nut of some kind which he had gathered. He placed a dozen or more of them on the table and told us they were mum which is their word for food. We broke it open and it tasted like an almond. They were delicous [sic] so we instructed him to bring us more and we would give him a cowrie for it. They bake them in the ashes but we found them good just as they were. They were sweet and crisp and diamond shaped. They called them Gweo. We had our dinner and they visited our camp in the evening, sitting around the fire. It was a good scene and we decided to try and get it with the movies and flares. They were singing their songs and the soldiers and Malay convicts were singing Hurrah Hurrah Chin Chin for them. It was a congenial group. Igoone was present with his little daughter. Dick shot two other scenes. The flares were somewhat damp though and all of them failed to ignite. However, with the close up scene he believes he has enough light and that it will be all right. It should be a good picture. The new Pygmies who were visiting got a big thrill out of the flares[;] each made everything in camp as light as day. After the fun was all over they took firebrands out of the fire and went back to the village talking long into the night over the strange things they had seen. Matt and I could hear them discussing the events of the day in our camp. It was another bright moonlight nite, full moon and a few stars to boot. No rain except a little sun shower during the afternoon. Dick developed until nearly midnight. {F4.53}



Saturday
October 23
1926


The pictures of yesterday turned out splendidly. We have some good negatives. That is the first thing on the programe [sic] after our breakfast of rice, java goula [sic, = gula (Malay, = “sugar”)] and coffee with a few friend [sic] spuds as dessert. We looked over the pictures and then Dick loaded the cameras and with our new friends were [sic] off to the village where we shot movies and stills all morning. Got some good close ups of a Pygmy making an arm bracelet, another playing his sort of jew[’]s harp, close ups of Igoone’s daughter in her new dress, a good close up showing the marriage ceremony of cutting off one of the bride’s fingers with a stone axe (not the actual cutting but an explanation of how and why it was done.) a demonstration of cutting down a tree with a stone axe and also showing a soldier chopping firewood with his sabre and a pygmy doing it for him with a stone axe. We also shot some pictures around camp of the new people this morning. This afternoon they came over and traded with Matt. They sit around our leanto and admire with open eyes and mouths everything over and over again. The typewriter gets their attention always. The large Elgin watch which we took from the aeroplane impressed them immensely and when they heard it tick they shrank back from it for it appeared to be living and mysterously [sic] unknown to them. One of the older chaps whom we call most excellent King Solomon had great difficulty in getting accustomed to a match box. He was shown how to open it a dozen times or more but despite that he could never seem to get the combination. The first time he tried to light his cigarette alone he almost put the match in his mouth instead of the cigarette. He dropped the box and let the cigarette fall from his mouth and jumped around not knowing exactly just what to do until it burned his fingers. The others who have accustomed themselves to using matches now and who have been around here for some time got a great laugh from his antics {F4.54} as did we. We spent considerable time with them over the magazines showing them the Saturday Evening Post, Liberty, Life and Aero Digest. The Post is the favorite and dogs and menfolks with women third are favorites in line in the publications. They have great discussions over the dogs, bullsunder sot being the most noticeable. When a terrior [sic] was pointed out or a shephard [sic] they recognize them more like their own dogs. Everytime a newcommer [sic] comes now he must be shown the dogs in the magazine and we have to put on a special shooting contest with the rifles. They are always afraid and run away to the laughter of the others who have been accustomed to the shooting but who take care to be a safe distance away from the person who is pulling the trigger. The camera tripod which can be extended more than an arm[’]s length is always good for intense interest but they won’t let you do any of the things we do with it such as running it into our foot or stomach by pressing the button. Nothing doing, one finally was brave enough to let me put it in his back but he stood trembling for fear I would hurt or I wouldn’t be able to get it out again. I was in the women’s house today for the first time. It is much smaller than the men’s house and is bare of everything but the fire place in the middle of the room. A short [sic] of a rack of some sort[,] evidently to hang their bags on[,] was the only difference. The babies are put in their large net bags in the morning and are carried around on the women’s backs with the strap part being hung across the top of the head. There they lay [sic] all day long and it isn’t very often one hears them cry. When they do the Mother pays no attention but just says Bur’rrup with her lips similar to the call used when they call the pigs. They are careful to keep them in the bags and out of the sun. When we had several of the women and their babies down in the garden yesterday taking pictures and they would [not] get in the sun with the babies or take them out in the sun for anything. [sic] Sun was bad for them[,] they indicated. {F4.55} The men folks stay out of the sun most of the day too and it is hard to get them from the shade of their houses or trees. The women work in the fields in the sun most of the day though and the children are always on their backs in their bags. They are always in the position though that the child does not get the full rays of the sun. These newcomers are all small people and we have been able to make some good movies of them. A new group of pygmies from Ocabu arrived at Dusk. They came over and paid their respects and then left.



Sunday
October 24
1926


The newcomers were over early to the village and we saw several more who did not appear on the scene last night. There were about a dozen or more and one woman[;] they acted like the other fellows over all of the new stuff and the old timers were anxious for us to show them all of our stuff. Our star actor was proud of the fact that all of this [sic] people were his people and from his village. He told us proudly that he had sent for them to come and see the wonders we perform. Matt measured all of them this morning. There were several interesting types among them. Also they were rather small[,] one of them especially. We shot movies of them towards noon. The first scene showed two of them cracking and opening a large yellow fruit like [a] tangerine in appearance but hard as stone. They cracked it open with a large piece of tree and took out two nuts which they proceeded to eat. Next came a scene showing two of them illustrating the use of everything they carry in their net bags[:] tobacco, beads, ornaments and everything. It was splendid action and they got the idea of what we wanted and when they ran out of doing the things we had told them to do they traded bags and stone knives, etc. all on their own initiative. One of them was especially good and the other was our star which we have used before and who has proven to be smarter than the rest. The new {F4.56} chap though was even better than he. It should be a corker. Dick shot two hundred feet without stopping and there wasn’t a dull moment in it. He also got seventy five feet on another role [sic]. The pictures of last night (one film pack[,] we are out of developer) were all good. The Pygmies from the villarge [sic] of Goolalew (Ocabu is the river) are clean[,] healthy looking folks. One had a sliver in this eye and wanted it fixed up while another had a stone bruise which he exhibited for treatment. They have the idea that we can cure all ills, and seem immensely proud when we wrap up a finger or dab some iodine on a cut or a scratch. They wear the bandage as long as possible and then show up with it as a decoration around the head or arm. Our star actor found a piece of tin from one of the film boxes[,] a long narrow strip[,] and made himself a penis holding strap from it which he is very proud of although from a practical standpoint his woven bark string decorated with orchid yellow is much more attractive and does not cut into the skin as the tin strap shows plainly it does. The decorations and the general appearance of these new people is similar to those of Tombe and they seem to be very friendly with them. When they arrived in the village last night the folks of Tombe set up a big howl of Whoo up Whoo up Whoo Whoo Whoo and it wasn’t until they came over a short time afterwards that we knew what it was all about. Two Dyaks from Van Leeuwen’s transport returned shortly before noon and brought a note from Van Leeuwen in which he said that he had a glimpse of the snow mountains through the trees but that it wasn’t much and said that he didn’t think it would be worth while for Dick to go up and shot [sic] movies of it. He also said it wasn’t scientific work and Leroux could get stills which would cover the typographical [sic, = topographical] end of it. He also said that if Stirling would take the responsibility of the trip[,] he (Dick) could make it, but he thought it would be more scientific for Matt to take a trip {F4.57} across the river. That is impossible in many ways for one man and the length of time it would take to reach a village is uncertain for no one has been over in that direction. Leroux was the one who suggested Dick follow, but the army doesn’t want Dick and Leroux to be on a trip together and that’s that. It is their old game of using us against one another in their well known squabble [of] army vs. science which has been the cause of most of the trouble. If they would agree among themselves there wouldn’t be any unpleasantness for us and I’m sure we could get along with both of them without taking any side in their small petty fights. After lunch the new arrivals traded fast and vigorously, they had a good quantity of interesting material and our collection is now almost as large as the one we sent down. As I write[,] Matt sits and hands out beads and cowries for pipes, head ornaments, net bags, arm bracelets, stone knives, axes and what not. They are nice to trade with and not a bit obnoxious in their demands. Theydo [sic] not go off to one corner and scheme up things like our friends at Agentuwa did but make a straight business like deal of it. If they are not satisfied with what is offered they say no and if Matt gives them their point they do not take advantage of it later. What to do about the trip to take pictures of the snow mountains is undecided. It would be a good picture to have but not good enough to give them something to use as critisism [sic] against us in Java. We will see what the dope is when they get back[.] The pygmies spent the entire afternoon with us visiting the camp and getting a thrill out of everything. It is peculiar the little insignificant things that appeal to them. For instance I was going through my personal tin and they all gathered around to see what was inside of it. One spied my large red covered note book and asked to see it. I took it out and ran my thumb through the pages. They all jumped with surprise and when I turned it over for inspection they fingered it and admired the red cover and fingered the clean white {F4.58} pages[,] shaking their heads in amazement. Of course they played a tune on their penis cases. A great discussion took place. What it was all about of course was impossible to tell. I tore one of the sheets out (they are perforated) and then put it back in the book again[,] all of which gave them as much surprise as shooting a gun or watching the typewriter in operation. The tooth brush and tooth paste and cardboard containers were all admired in turn and the comb and bruch [sic] brought many offers of headdress net bags, stone knives and even their shell ornaments which they value highly. It rained during the late afternoon and they all gathered under our shelter. Matt was kept busy trading. The collection is growing. Two or three more brought small sticks all wrapped in a bundle and cut to the size of the matches with the request that we manufacture some more matches for them. Matt is the official match maker and to discourage the practice he informed them that they would have to wait over night for them to be made. We were also critical about the size and length of those offered the day before so they were made perfect today. It must take them an entire day of hard labor to fashion a small bundle with their stone knives. The stone implements they have, however, are very efficient. Igoone was among the missing most of the day[;] he was busy working down in the garden clearing trees so that more light came in on his potatoe [sic] patch. He is the only Papuan male we have seen do any manual labor of any kind. He used the large parange [sic] that Matt traded him when the expedition first arrived, perhaps it is because he likes to use it that he consents to work as he has been doing the last few days. He appeared late in the afternoon all decked out in a soldier[’]s straw hat and was proud as a peacock under the brim. He looked extremely amusing. The rest looked at him with envious eyes. The visitors had not seen a demonstration of rifle shooting and they requested Dick to show them how it worked. Dick put a small tin up on a stump a hundred and fifty feet away and knocked it down[;] they howled with enthusiasm and ran {F4.59} around camp howling their whoo up whoo up. After he had shot several times they had had enough and asked that he stop. They always do for some reason or other pointing at their heads. The first three times or so are all right and they get a kick out of it but after that they don’t seem to enjoy it. Perhaps it is too realistic. The holes the bullets make in the tins are examined and passed around with great talking back and forth. The Lieut. fired his carbine and the extra amount of noise over the twenty twos set them running around and yelling once more. While we were eating dinner the women folks, children and all of the men came and sat around watching us eat. They had something to trade and Matt was trading all during the meal. Even the pigs were visiting in camp in full force. The Pygmies are quick to see when the pigs get bothersome and chase them away with sticks and when that hasn’t the desired effect they put the children on their trail. One small porker was so persistent that a child had to carry him back to the village. He was soon back again. Igoone and the women folks brought some potatoes with them and we were pleased to get them after being without for several meals. In the group of new visitors are two old chaps[;] old men are not numerous in the tribes here or in the lake plain. It is impossible to learn how they dispose of their dead. They do not like to talk about that. There are no signs of graves and in only one instance at Agentuawa did we see a skull. It was stuck up on a stick outside of a Pygmy house evidently to bleach white in the sun. We got several good pictures of it. Dick developed a few test strips of the movies we took today and they turned out splendid. We have no developer, however, for the stills we took and don’t know how they will stand up until we get back. Have three or four packs undeveloped.



Monday
October 25
1926


Today should prove to be an interesting day for Van Leeuwen is scheduled back and a transport is due from Head Camp. The transport {F4.60} might have the mail which arrived at Albatros Camp October first. The Pygmies were on hand early[,] eager for trading operations to commence and as soon as Matt had his breakfast he was engaged. The material is still running good. Our star actor was on hand early and informed us that he had used his shell neck ornament in the picture yesterday and had put it back in the bag with the material Matt had furnished him to use as illustrations and that it was his. We had not bought it. In fact he doesn’t want to sell it. We dug it up and returned the article which made a great hit with our friends for he was uncertain whether or not he could make us understand it was his and had not been traded. He was tickeled [sic] with it and quickly fastened it in its accustomed place about his neck. They seem to value those color ornaments highly. It must be a sentimental reason for most of them wear them and they are all old and show signs of having been worn for a considerable length of time. The pictures in the magazines were gone over again. The colors such as bright red and yellow or blue were [sic] they are solid always get a rise out of them no matter what the subject matter happens to be. They finger the borders with interest and use their fingers to feel of the solid colors. And how they talk about it. I was oiling the typewriter this morning and as some of it got on my fingers I wiped it off on my pants in the vicinity of my knees (one does those things in New Guinea) and immediately started to work pounding the keys. I wrote somewhat faster and they got the idea that the oil limbered up my fingers as well as the maching [sic] and all wanted some on their joints which I applied. They then worked their arms[,] legs[,] and fingers up and down[,] the older men being especially anxious to receive their allotment to limber up their aged bones. Their closely woven arm bracelets of rattan serve as their cigarettes holders. They always have a half smoked cigarette or two stuck in their arm bracelets and when traveling pick a green mint like smelling leaf and stick that {F4.61} in also. The red tin foil of the film pack wrapping is also carried in that manner. After trading with Matt and receiving a good quantity of cowries they always make him a present of either [of] their small arm ornaments, they have two sorts, one is a heavy large one which they wear four or five on each arm. They generally have one or two smaller ones finer woven on each arm above the elbow[;] in these they carry their cigaretts [sic] and mint leaves. The transport from Head Camp arrived at about ten thirty and shortly thereafter the first of Van Leeuwen’s came in from the Atas. There were thirteen in the transport from Head Camp. A note from Hamer said he was sending one thousand feet of moving picture film and some food. Sugar, jam, milk and some fruit salad sure did look good in the tins. The extra thousand feet of film came in handy also for we only had one thousand of panchromatic left. Prince said that he had learned from the doctor that he could come up on the next transport and we should see him in about three days. It will be good to see him again. He says he has entirely recovered from the fever and feels fine. We also received a large tin of trade goods including beads which were a bliss. A large bundle of red cloth caught the pygmies[’] eyes as Doc lifted it out of the tin and they gathered around[,] men and women[,] to admire its flaming red. Got several good stills of it and will get movies later. Anything red catches their eye immediately. Doc gave out a few shreads [sic] of it as presents to the women. Ten large parangs also arrived and the pygmies have promised to bring a large pig for one. Since we have been out of them there have been several requests for parangs. We could not fill these and now that they are here they will bring anything for one. They have been scarce. Anything that is scarce and useable is valuable in their eyes. Matt declared we have enough trade goods now to buy the Nassau Mountains and we have. We are smacking our lips in anticipation of the lunch, we are to have with milk and sugar in tea {F4.62} and some jam on the potatoes (Igoone came over with another small bundle this morning) tomatoe [sic] soup and rice. That’s food fit for a king. It was a busy morning and more excitement in camp than we have seen for a few days. Igoone and the regulars greeted the transport affectionately while the new folks stood back looking on with interest, but a little uncertain as to the advisability of getting too close to the big husky Dyaks, with their knives strapped around their waists. They set their heavy loads down and a few of them ventured over to lift or try to lift the load would be better. They couldn’t of course and the look of amazement and surprise that they registered was interesting to see. The natives are not very strong and cannot carry anything heavy. The women folks, however, are used to carrying heavy loads of potatoes and firewood with the result that the men are not in training. The trive [sic, = tribe] from Agentuawa has not appeared since our visit and I don’t suppose they will for our relations on both sides was not anything friendly when we left. They probably know that we resented their threat and are afraid to come down, then too[,] they and Igoone do not seem to be exceedingly friendly either. Those who acted as carriers for us left early the next morning after their arrival late in the afternoon the day before. We had a good lunch. Van [Leeuwen] arrived and we had a short discussion with him. It turned out that he didn’t have any objection to the trip of Peck’s to the mountain when we told him it was at the request of Mr. Leroux. He said he had no objections when it was put up to him direct[ly]. After lunch we got Igoone and two women and a baby and Igoone’s daughter and most of the men folks and went into the garden to get a garden scene. The women did their work gathering potatoes and potatoe [sic] greens while the men sat by and watched. Good several hundred feet of garden stuff, with a close of [sic, = up] of two pygmy men chewing bettle [sic] nut, lime and cinnamon bark as the women worked. {F4.63} It was a hot afternoon and difficult to get them to move out of the shade. The women, however, are used to working and they were rewarded for their efforts by two good knives. That got the men folks interested and they also wanted to get into the pictures. They are a funny lot. When we returned to the village we caught an old woman coming in under a heavy load of chord [sic] wood for the evening’s fire. We got some movies and stills of her[;] it was a heavy load for we lifted it. She was exceedingly old too but carried it over her head very well once she got it off the ground. It was necessary for her to do it several times but she did it without any protest. The men stood around and talked loudly as we changed her from this spot to that to get the best lighting effects. Their laughing made her laugh so it had to be done over again especially when Igoone insisted in walking into the picture wearing the new hat the soldier had given him. The best of the afternoon was spent when we returned and they arrived just before dinner to do some more trading. Late in the afternoon seems to be the best trading time and early in the morning second. They stay out of the heat of the sun most of the day. It rained towards dusk and they all gathered under our leanto. I have been teaching Igoone the Please play for me Toodle Dee Doo song and he has picked it up remarkably well. They brought their rations of potatoes with them and received their beads. During the evening meal they stand around and watch us eat with interest. Sometimes they almost crowd us off the table[,] so interested are they in watching us eat and the various things we do eat. It is all strange and funny to them. It is interesting to watch them watch us with interest (if that makes any sinse [sic])[.] Dick and Jordans are to leave tomorrow morning for a six or seven day trip to the top of the range where Leroux and Saleh are to get a picture (movie of the snow mountains)[.] {F4.64}



Tuesday
October 26
1926


The transport returned to Head Camp early this morning. Shortly thereafter Dick and Jordans left for top side. The camp was virtually deserted. Van [Leeuwen], Matt and I with two soldiers and two convicts remain. Van has been very friendly since his return. He visits us quite regularly now and discusses everything. Matt and I visited the men folks in the village this morning and spent a couple of interesting hours. We learned that the women cut off their finger at the first joint when they marry and a man cuts his off when his wife dies. One man, the first we had seen with his finger off similar to the women, brought it to our attention, and after a lot of signs and discussion with Igoone we got the deft [sic] of it as related. They were very enthusiastic when we finally got the idea and a roar of laughter went up on all sides. We also visited in the women’s house. It is not a strictly men’s house and Women’s house for the women occasionally can be found in the men’s house but not often. The men also visit in the women’s house. A large bench or rack is contained in one end of the room near the fire which contains the fire wood. The entrance to the interior is not as good underfoot either for I slipped and fell through the rough boards which have been hewn out with stone axes. The entrance and general finish of the other house is better in all respects. Matt and I walked down the trail a short distance to the other garden and shot some pictures. It is an exceedingly pretty spot and will make a good place for movies. The mountain background is excellent and a level surface stage is available with a solid wall of rock in the background some fifty feet in height. Shortly after we had returned we experienced a distinct earthquake. The natives in the village set up their cry of whoo whoo whoo. Oompah was scared stiff as our lean[-]to rocked back and forth. It was not long though, it is the third one Matt says since he has been here, the first being the hardest. The pygmies noticed {F4.65} that Oompah and the soldiers were somewhat concerned and motioned that there was nothing to be uneasy about. They evidently are used to them, and they are of frequent occurance [sic]. They didn’t seem to have a name for them for we were unable to bring it out[;] they must have a name though for they name every small creket [sic, = cragged] ridge, mountain top and what not. About four[,] shortly after the women returned from the fields[,] they arrived in full force and Matt secured some good material. One was an arm ornament decorated with white cockadoo [sic] feathers. They bring their prized possessions one by one and the last is always the best. As we sat eating tonight the women and children sat around on the ground. They know fish despite the fact there are no fish anywhere near here. They will not eat it however, for some unknown reason but have a name for it. They call fish mino. We gave them some sugar which they thought was salt (muja) and when Igoone first tasted it he made a face which I thought was because he thought it was salt. Later, however, when he gave a small boy some he spat it out and made a bad face as if he had taken something sour. They do not know sugar and consequently the taste of sweets is distasteful to them. I gave a little girl a piece of chocolate (a generous offer on my part for it is a treasure here and we have but little left)[.] She bit into it and quickly spat it out making a face that showed plainly her distaste for chocolate. The baby started to cry and was promptly taken out of the bag and fed. We had received some milk and were putting it into our tea. One of them asked what it was[;] we gave him a taste and when he told them it was the same as from the women’s breasts[,] they all had to have a taste. Some liked it while others did not. The smaller children appreciated it while the older ones would not touch it at all. Then we informed them that it came from a large pig. They know nothing of cows. We were having quite a lot of fun experimenting with our various foods. {F4.66} Matt poured out a small drop or two of scotch. The chap refused it but one of the women stepped forward and tasted it. She registered satisfaction so I gave her a good shot of it and it made the tears come to her eyes. She smiled through it all though and said it was excellent. Some of my friends in the States would probably call this a waste of good scotch, but when I told her it was medicine (which it is, for that is the purpose for which it was brought) and that it would make her strong she was well pleased. I illustrated by lifting up one of the heavy tins a dozen times or more. Then I told one of the men who had turned it down previously to try and lift it but he couldn’t get it off the ground. He immediately wanted to sample it so I gave him a drop or two after he had pleaded for some time, during which I reminded him he had turned it down at first. It was amusing to see him illustrate why he wanted it now that it proved to be medicine to make one strong. The mantre [sic] of Van Leeuwen’s went through some acrobatic stunts and the pygmie[s] got a big kick out of it as did the rest of us. He is extremely funny. It was laughable to see the Papuans try to go through the stunts he did. They are not the least bit acrobatic and were clumsy which made it all the more laughable. They performed their antics until long after dark and we sat and watched them with much amusement. After dinner I visited with the soldiers in their leanto and learned that the view from the bivauc of Saleh was an excellent one. It is rather strenuous going and a trip which is full of hardships for there is no water and when it fails to rain up there the explorers have to squeeze water from the moist underground growth of moss ferns and from the moss and ferns on the trees. This gives a brown chocolate colored water which is not very tasty but better than none. The view of the snow mountains is excellent and one can see in all direction[s]. Many people are inside from the many villages which have been observed. {F4.67}



Wednesday
October 27
1928 [sic, = 1926]


The first of Leroux’[s] transport dribbled in shortly before noon and at one o’clock Leroux appeared and then came Saleh. They had wonderful reports of great success in mapping large sections of the unknown territory from the top of the next ridge to which they had gone. The niew [sic] from this top of the Snow Mountains was an excellent one. It was about seven miles from here and from that point about fifty kilometers to the Snow but four large ranges had to be crossed[;] it would be at least a two months trip. The view Leroux reported was excellent in all directions. They could see the Lake Plane [sic] and the houses at Motor Camp and at night the lights at Motor Camp were visible. It will be a good view for the telephoto lens of the moving picture camera and if Dick is lucky to get it clear it will make an excellent view in all directions. The snow is in a large area and the Carsten[s]z top is for miles a perpendicular wall of solid rock for some distance which makes it almost impossible to climb without Alpine equipment. It is the same on both sides for Wallaston reports that it was the same on the south side. The coloring of the various shades of sunlight on the snow tops is excellent to view[,] Leroux reports, and many people can be seen in the vicinity of Agentuawa and other ranges, for the gardens are quite numerous. This is especially true of the Doorman top. Leroux had two pygmies for guides which he brought from Damoonrau and he not only get [sic] the names of all the tops as named by the people in this vicinity, but the names of the villages which were observed as well. It is strange that this is the first time such Data has been recorded for on the maps of New Guinea there is not one native name. It is names supplies [sic] by the Dutch. Leroux also said that he had met Dick and Jordans at Damanoorue. Leroux escaped very luckily from serious injury when he was coming down from the top for he had followed a pygmy who had jumped down on {F4.68} some moss and fallen twigs and leaves. The pygmy made it successfully but when Leroux had followed[,] the footing gave way and he fell about eight meters landing on the trail below which circled downward. He caught a few small roots and held on. If he had not caught hold there he would have tumbled on down to certain death. He turned three complete somersaults in his nose dive and came out of it with only a few strained ligaments in his neck and shoulders. It was miraculously a narrow escape from death and how he kept from breaking a few bones will long remain among the unexplained mysteries of New Guinea of which they are a few. After Saleh arrived he got out his sketches and maps and a glance showed that they had done some real typographical [sic, = topographical] work and that it would mean considerable to the results of this expedition, for up to this time nothing startling has been accomplished in mapping a large section of unexplored country and that is what shows when the final results of an expedition is [sic] checked up. Of course one flight in the plane would have given more than could be seen from four or five expeditions of a year duration each but they overlooked that important factor in the beginning of the expedition. We had quite a reunion during the afternoon and sat and listened to the wonders of the view which Leroux was anxious that we too see before leaving. It would be nice if we could but the time if [sic, = is] getting short and we are hoping that Dick will get a good movie of it which will be next best. I also had discussed the radio censorship with Van Leeuwen in the morning. He admitted he had given the order and that it was merely for control as nothing would be changed and that everything would be sent. I told him it was insulting for I had never sent a message without first showing it to either him or Leroux. He as usual could not agree that it was insulting and said that I always took the wrong viewpoint of such matters. We will leave that {F4.69} to the committee to decide. It was a friendly discussion. Van [Leeuwen] is very friendly and anxious to please now and has visited with us more since his return than all during the expedition. He also has commenced to order Capt. P. [Captain Posthumus] to do this and that and is taking his perogative [sic] as a leader, which has been sadly lacking up to date. Leroux also said that when Matt had sent his telegram re leadership, the committee wired Van [Leeuwen] immediately asking to know the whys and wherefors [sic]. Of course Van colored it to suit himself so the committee had nothing to do. Van also admitted he had seen the telegram of P. to his commander in chief[,] in which he said it was a comouflage [sic] expedition and a film humbug. That’s interesting to note for he said nothing to us about it until now. If he had been fair he would have informed us about it so we could also wire somebody to the [sic] counteract the harm it would do. That is why he put in his censorship order but he couldn’t give us the same opportunity earlier in the game which certainly is not representing the attitude of the Indian committee whom he represents. Van has many interesting pictures which he has taken of the vegetation at higher altitudes and showed them to us. We can get copies he says. He is a good photographer and develops his films exceedingly well. We worked with the pygmies late in the afternoon and learned many things regarding their relations. Leroux also has many things down in this note book [sic, = his notebook] regarding them. One of Leroux’[s] chaps who is a native of Tombe and who accompanied him when he came to visit us at Agentuawa (the chap who stayed behind to bring potatoes according to Igoone) is according to Leroux quite a ladies man. He confided to us confidentially he wanted a wife but needed a large parange [sic] and some cowries before he could get her. He also confessed to having had a girl friend at Agentuawa and stayed with her instead of coming back when we left. He has another girl {F4.70} in Ohaboo and has a boy by her. As soon as he gets a knive [sic] and cowries he is going to marry her. He is somewhat of a rounder and goes all over the mountains here. He proved to be a very good guide for Leroux. Igoone came around with a piece [sic] offering of potatoes because he felt Leroux was angry with him for not going. He said it was too cold on top and that he stayed behind with us. They know this country well for he told of how to get to the Swartz Valley which is a long way from here but they know it to the most minute detail. He also described accurately the snow and what Leroux saw from the top he had visited. A moo go meg a way is the shiek [sic] of the pygmies (Leroux guide)[;] when they came through damoonarue Leroux induced him to show him where the graves of the pygmies were located and he took him a short distance outside the village. He is the only man who has consented to do that. The burial place is entirely neglected and not the least bit noticeable. They evidently neglect it from the appearances and after burial pay no more attention to the dead. It might be possible to collect a few skulls.



Thursday
October 28
1926


We rather expected to see Prince today but when the transport had not put in their appearance by ten we knew it would not arrive until tomorrow. It is doubtful whether Prince will be with it but we are hoping he will. Shortly before noon about twelve of the natives from Agentoowah arrived. Somony and his father, old skinflint[,] were in the party. They were evidently nervous from their actions as they approached for they had not reconed [sic] with the large numbers of visitors who were here from Goolaloo. They were not too quick to come up and exchange friendly greetings altho the kid came up and in his friendly manner snapped fingers and said wha wha. Several others followed suit when they saw we were all right even after the way they had treated us just before we left. {F4.71} Old skin flint sat down on a log near the soldiers[’] leanto while the others came up to trade. They all carried their bows and arrows and kept looking in back of them towards the village as if fearful of an attack. They were plainly nervous and didn’t haggle over prices but took whatever Matt offered the,. [sic, = them.] This was in vivid contrast to the way they acted when we were along with them at Agentuwa. Old skinflint finally approached and smiled a weak guilty sort of smile and snapped fingers with Matt. In just a few minutes Matt had another large collection. They wouldn’t trade their bows and arrows for they indicated they might need them. Relations have never been very friendly between Agentuwa and Tombe and they have always dominated the Tombe folks who are smaller then them when every [sic] they appeared. The tables were turned now for the pygmies had a large number of their friends from Goulaloo and dominated the situation. It was interesting to watch them. They made presents of potatoes, lemons and other little things they had brought with them. It was evidently their purpose to trade their stuff and be on their way back. When Skinflint tried his old stuff of refusing a good offer Matt promptly pocketed his cowries and refused to dicker with him. He soon came back and accepted what he offered and tried it no more. They traded fast and furiously[;] as soon as one had finished offering his wares another stepped up and brought out his. While this was in progress they had several of their tribe stationed in various advantageous positions around camp watching the paths of the village. Igoone failed to put in his appearance but several of the old chaps from Goulaloo with their whiskers walked about unconcerned without any bows or arrows and seemed not to pay any attention to the new visitors who generally worried Igoone and his people here. Several of the larger fellows [from] Goulaloo came over and as they approached the others stopped trading and stood by in readiness. They walked over to us and we greeted {F4.72} them as old friends and the Agentuwa folks disappeared one by one. One chap who looks as though he might be the missing link stuck around. I got several pictures of him. Matt says he would like to take his skull back for it is of the ________ type. Old Skinflint is evidently having a heavy conference with Igoone. He is a shrewd old cuss and I don’t trust him very far. Igoone was afraid of him and his tribe at Agentuwa so I’m pleased he has a large humber [sic] of friends here so he can be more independent. Whether he will be or not remains to be seen. Matt had great difficulty finding time to finish his lunch and they wanted to trade. Several new chaps from Goulaloo arrived at this time and the competition to get knives was great. Matt refused the Agentuwa folks to teach them a lesson and to remind them that we had not forgotten they [sic, = the] way they had acted when we were at their village. The newcomers from Goulaloo had the best bows and arrows we have seen to date[;] their other possessions were good also, so they received the preference in the trading. Old skinflint had never seen the typewriter work before and he was afraid of it at first. Shortly after lunch two of the Goulaloo folks, a man and his wife came over and said Goodbye[;] they were going back. The woman carried a load of potatoes and empty tins and what not they had received from members of the camp while the man carried his bow and arrows. They had announced yesterday that as soon as they had seen Leroux they were going back but would return with many more men and women with a large quantily [sic] of things to trade for knives and woos. Shortly afterwards a half dozen more came to say Goodbye[,] including the chief[,] and announced they too were coming back, with women loaded with things to trade for knives and woos. They seem to have taken a strong desire for the large parangs and small knives. Matt presented the Head Bird and another chap each with a small knife as a present because they had been such nice traders and didn’t {F4.73} haggle over things. They were pleased beyond words and left camp on the run in order to be back quickly. It will take them four days to reach their village from what we understood of their sign language[,] and three or four to return. It is a long way. They have to cross ten rivers. Four days of Papuan travelling [sic] is about seven or eight for us with carriers for they can travel through very quickly. It is phenominal [sic] the speed they can show in the jungle. Of course they travel light and carry nothing but their net bag over their shoulder and a few arrows and a bow. Igoone evidently wanted to getin [sic] on the fast and furious trading which was going on so he dispatched two of his sons to our camp with several stone axes and bags. One of the other chaps from Tombe brought us a big sack of lemons as a present. Matt gave the Tombe folks a little better of the trading for we are staying here and he [Igoone] is contributing much potatoes and as a result of our being here has to feed the large number of people who come. It is a serious drain on his gardens but he remains the same friendly Igoone he has been since the first arrival although he is getting a little sophisticated which is of course inevitable considering all the attention he receives. The new arrivals from Goulaloo[,] three at least[,] were interested in all the things about camp with the same degree of interest exhibited by their fellows who have been here four or five days now and are used to matches, typewriter and the magazines. Shortly after two o’clock, all but the newcomers, the old chap, a boy and two of Igoone’s sons were all that was [sic] left in camp. Old skinflint and his tribe have not put in their appearance. Whether they are in conference with Igoone or have departed is unknown to us. Old skinflint is clever enough to make some sort of deal with Igoone so I suppose he will stay. After the way he treated Igoone when he visited us at Agentoowa[,] Igoone should tell him to be on his way. He probably will not though for he is not always aided by so many friends and the old chap could {F4.74} prove troublesome to him later on. Van [Leeuwen] was busy packing most of the day but the non arrival of the transport made his future movements uncertain. He succeeded in securing a large banana tree to take back to Java, for classification. It is possible that the transport will arrive tomorrow. In that event he will leave with them the day after on their return. Dick should reach the top of the ridge[,] which is 2,500 meters high[,] tonight and get his first view of the snow early tomorrow morning. Leroux came over and asked Matt if he had the note Jordans had written to him when we were at Agentuwa and which he (Leroux) brought to us when he came up. Matt happened to have it in his pocket but it was in three pieces. Leroux said there was something politic in it and asked if he could have it. He brought it over to Van and they laughed in glee as they pieced it together. Whatever it was it was not funny to us for they didn’t explain. Van has not much of a collection from these parts. The most famous flower is the one known as the Mamberamo flower and is a vine with a bright red flower at the end. He has found several up here at this altitude. One vine which he planted in a bark basket grew six meters in one day and he is afraid that it will be wound all about the trail from here to Albatros Camp on the way back. It grows very rapidly. I shot a picture of his bark baskets and the banana tree he purchased with the Papuans carrying it into our camp. It rained last night for the first time in about a week. We have had an excellent long period without rain although a little falls in the later afternoon and some in the night, but not as much as we have been accustomed to. It is about time for the rainy season to commence also. Hope it delays its coming a few weeks longer until we get down to Motor Camp at least for it will make it difficult to cross the various streams between here and Head Camp if they are high. It will also make the going along the Rouffaer River difficult. Igoone came around shortly after four and visited {F4.75} all parties concerned, soldiers, Matt and I, dyaks and then Leroux and Van Leeuwen. He informed us that the Agentuwa visitors had departed. He said they were bah. One chap (our missing link friend whose name is Paree) evidently is thought O.K. for he remained behind. He and Leroux’[s] guide friend are friendly and later informed us that they were going to Damoonarus. Probably for more things. I notice that today is October 28, Alvor’s birthday. I send him birthday greetings from Pygmy Land. Van Leeuwen donated a bottle of developer and a bottle of fixer which should develop the stills we have on hand as yet undeveloped. It was nice of him and we are grateful. One of the Dyaks is sick (blood in the urine) and after trying unsuccessfully to obtain some whickey [sic] or alcohol from us and Leroux and Van Leeuwen we found the others tapping his vien [sic] to let out some blood for they believed that he had too much blood in him. It was a funny idea and brought back to us the fact that our Dyak carriers are as primitive in their ways as the people we are studying here. They are as much interested in the typewriter and the things we used to open the eyes of the pygmies as are the natives here themselves. Being with them sonstantly [sic] it is an easy matter to overlook that fact. The soldier finished dressing the bird of paradise which one of the Dyaks fave [sic] us and did a good job of it. It is a young one though and hasn’t very many feathers in the tail which is the most beautiful part of the bird. The colors in his neck, back and wings are very brilliant, however. It is the only one we have so we are keeping it in case none happens to come our way. At five-thirty Lieut. Jordans arrived in camp. He and Dick had made the three [day] trip up in two days and Jordans had come back in one day making it three days up and back. He reported it an excellent view. Dick, however, did not have enough light to make a photo, so had to stay over. Perhaps he will get it today. He will probably stay until he gets it. Jordans reported he had no {F4.76} water to drink for twenty hours for they had no rain. It was not until he reached water at two o’clock this afternoon that he had a drink. They were able to aqueeze [sic] out a little from the moss[,] enough to cook with and enough to wet their lips with. He left the carriers at two o’clock and has not seen them since. They will probably get in tomorrow morning. Jordans[’] foot was all right and he was able to make the trip in good style with the exception of it being a little hard going the first day because of his lack of training for two months. His foot has confined him to camp ever since he has arrived here. Leroux visited the village late this afternoon to take some stills of the new arrivals and the camp was deserted until almost dusk when Igoone and a few of the others came over to trade. It was evident at once that ole skinflint had been talking to them about holding out for more woos for they demanded exoribitant [sic] prices for their rather plain offerings. Previously before his visit here they were very good to trade with. Matt turned them down to illustrate that he knew the value and they soon came back and accepted the market price which Matt had fixed for various articles since he arrived. Old skinflint is a bad influence[,] no question about that. I doubt whether he has returned as Igoone said he had. If he has he certainly passed out the word to hold out and demand more woose [sic] than we have been giving. It isn’t a question of cowries but a question of keeping the cowrie value high as it has been[;] if Matt starts to increase his number of cowries for an article those who traded in the beginning all of their fine things will be dissatisfied and rightly so. He has all objects well classified and up to the visit of old Skinflint they knew just what each bag and stone axe[,] knife or bunch of arrows was worth. If he can keep that value established it will be well. It will be an easy thing to do for we have a large {F4.77} collection now and can afford to turn things down. They will offer them in time especially when they realize it is close to our time for departure for they will want to get every cowrie possible before we go away.



Friday
October 29
1926


The transport from Head Camp arrived at nine this morning. Prince had received Dick’s note and a note from him said that he had decided to stay and look out for the film as he had been instructed to do. He sent up three tins[,] chiefly food. One was lost in the river coming on the transport when the convict carrying it fell into the river. One package of print paper from Van Wingen’s was in it. It[’]s the first loss we have suffered so far and hope it[’]s the last. We can get along without food all right but the print paper was valuable for printing pictures. Everybody is out. Prince sent up considerable luxuries so we are well stocked again in that line. Lieut. Jordans also received word that the transport had been attacked one day out of Motor Camp and four Papuans were killed. The Dyaks, Soldiers and convicts on the transport all had to jump into the river to keep from getting shot. Luckily the first barrage of arrows didn’t hit anyone and the rifles and shot guns brought into use scattered them quickly. Four were killed[;] one being riddgled [sic] with sot [sic] gun bullets which evidences the fact that they were close. The transport put back to Motor Camp and the Sergeant in charge there came up with it the next day himself. They came thru without any difficulty. Doctor Hoffman also wrote that the Papuans were coming back in the vicinity of Lower Head Camp where the first attack and killing occurred. So far they have not staged another attack but they are watching them close. There are only a few men at Lower Head Camp when the transport is not there and the camp is established to be used when the water is high and it is impossible to go to {F4.78} Head Camp by canoe. Overland transport is then used which is slow and doesn’t get much food up the line for the carriers cannot carry much. The trail is a difficult one, so it seems that there has been considerable trouble on our transportation line. The Papuans have demonstrated that they cannot be trusted on the Rouffaer [River]. They will probably get wrose [sic] as time goes on. The use of the rifles however always scatters them without any further argument. Still it is not a pleasant feeling to have the thought that they are lying in ambush on the jungle shores ready to release a bunch of arrows at you as you pass by. It is possible that the Dyaks on the transport have done something to displease them on the many trips the transports have made since the line was established. With the transport also came another insulting note from Posthumus to Van Leeuwen according to the Rev. Doc. He brought it over and translated it for us. It said that he was a lot of things and that Posthumus didn’t want to have anything further to do with him and wound up by saying he was no gentleman as the Americans had said. Van was furious of course. It seems he addressed him in one of the two languages they use when they want to insult anybody. He tried to argue with me about it but I told him I had not changed my ideas of things since I had that talk with him at A.C. and why argue with me for it didn’t say anything about me saying he was no gentleman in that note but said Americans. He was evidently eager to get me to say something so he could see what I had in line of arguments against him but I didn’t enter into his argument at all. He repeated he had warned me but I didn’t have any warning or knew what he meant or of whom he had warned me. He was thick with P. in the beginning when he deserted the scientific ranks when he wanted to get the leadership and now that he has it again he is anxious to get back on the side of the fence he rightfully belongs. I think he stirred up P. for that reason. P. is dis-{F4.79} pleased over the newspaper’s printing his nasty digs in the journal which Doorman has published about the Army. He also received a wireless from the Governor General which settles the collection business once and for all. The Gov. wirelessed strick [sic] orders that no one was to be allowed to collect anything except the scientiests [sic]. I pointed out to him that was nice but why didn’t it come in the beginning. He didn’t ask for it until M.C. and P. and the rest of them commenced collecting the first transport up and probably have all they want now and in Java. That’s the way they play and think we are dumb enough to fall for their clever acting. Leroux was pleased with the wireless for he had won the battle he started in Java and which the Army failed to recognize. They sure are a funny bunch. Van [Leeuwen] Plans on going down with the transport which leaves tomorrow morning. The mail arrived with the transport with letters and magazines.



Saturday
October 30
1926


Van Leeuwen and the transport were off at nine. We sent a note to Prince telling him to come up on the next transport. It was raining and the outlook was for a nasty day. Dick evidently isn’t having good weather to take his picture up above for the last two days have not been clear. We spent most of the day reading. At five Dick came into camp. He had left the top at eleven and had made it back in a little more than a half a day. The carriers arrived just after dark. It was bad all the time he was there and he didn’t get a good shot at the snow. He took some but the lite wasn’t good. It rained heavily the night before and he got drenched. He was away five days. He had come down very quickly for the others had taken most of a day to make the return trip. Leroux developed some of the pictures he had made of the Snow Mountains and they turned out well. Some not so good but he thinks that he will have {F4.80} enough good ones to show the view splendidly. Dick was all enthused over the view from the top of the ridge. He said that the afternoon they arrived it was excellend [sic] but that the next morning and until he left not once was it possible to make a general picture although at times they could see portions of the snow.



Sunday
October 31
1926


Sunday today, so we made it a day of rest and reading. It was very warm and clear. The sky was a deep blue and not many clouds were in the sky. Those that were visible were way up yonder. It was the first good day for some days. The day was exceedingly warm. During the evening we sat around and sang songs with the Papuans. One of them was good at repeating Sweet Adeline and the rest joined in the Chorus and made for fair harmony. They get a big thrill out of trying to follow us in singing. After we sing several songs for them they always follow with several of their specialties.



Monday
November 1
1926


A dull drab rainy morning greeted us and as we have had several lately it appears that the regular rain which has been coming late in the afternoon and early evening is going to change over to morning now. It rained steadily until almost noon and it took several hours for the sun to break through, consequently no pictures could be taken. It is just a month since Dick and I arrived in Explorators Camp. The time has past [sic] very quickly. As there wasn’t anything else to do we read most of the morning. Shortly after lunch the sheik appeared with his woman. She was not [as] bad as Papuan women go but like most of them [she] had a goiter on her neck. A good percentage of the women have goiters here. The sheik was very proud of his “gene” and paraded her in front of us. He also watched {F4.81} her with a watchful eye whenever he was away from her. We measured her and she proved to be the first of any so far measured who had trouble with the width and heighth [sic] of skull measurements. It tickled her and she couldn’t hold still. None of the others were so affected which has been exceptionally unusual for that measurement is a nasty one to make and even civilized folks squirm about when the instrument[’]s points are injected into the ears. The pygmies however don’t seem to mind it in the least[,] with the exception I have stated. There were also several new men folks and Matt measured them. The chap with _____ type skull Matt admired evidently ______ is the girl[’]s brother for he was in the party. The sheik[,] after spending over an hour with us watching the newcomers trade, informed us that he was about to depart for Damoonaru with his girl. He did so shortly afterwards and the brother of the girl departed with him. Matt put on a jungling [sic] demonstration with three lemons which interested the new folks immensely. We followed this by playing catch, Matt, Dick and I and they enjoyed our demonstration of baseball. Dick was throwing them rather swiftly at Matt’s suggestion and those in the rear hurriedly departed out of range. Oompah got into the game and some one threw him a soft lemon which spattered all over him. Then one of the Dyaks wanted to try a catch and when he was successful in receiving it he squeezed the lemon tight and the juice squirted into his eyes[,] causing a general laughter on all sides[;] the pygmies laughing most heartily for they had seen us catch it back and forth hundreds of times and very swift at that. Jordans came over after dinner and we sat and sang and visited until rather late. Leroux was busy developing his films, so could not join us. It was the first get together we have had since we’ve been here and all enjoyed it.



Tuesday
November 2
1926


Another rainy morning which appears as though the rainy {F4.82} season is about to set in. It cleared shortly after noon after raining all morning. Not so good. At about two o’clock there was a great commotion in the village and it continued for some time. Evidently some new tribe had arrived and they were not being so enthusiastically received. The few who were hanging around camp departed hurriedly to see what the excitement was all about. We learned later a dozen or more chaps from Imba arrived all dressed up in there [sic] best. The argument evidently was settled without difficulties for the Tombe men were with them. A rather strained atmosphere could be detected. Igoone told us that the new chaps who were all of small stature, more so than any other tribe which had been here, were from Towasi but the chaps themselves insisted they were from Imba. They wanted a demonstratioin of shooting and Dick favored them by demonstrating the colt automatic. One of the small chaps insisted on dropping to the ground and hiding his face in his hands every time Dick pulled the trigger. The others ran away the first time but gradually became accustomed to it. Igoone was anxious to try it and Dick let him shoot it once. He got it all ready and then handed it over to Igoone who held it up with one hand and pointed the other right in front of the muzzle as he pointed to the tree he was going to aim and fire at. Everybody thought he was going to blow a finger off but he didn’t and shot and hit the tree although higher than the place he had aimed. It was not a dangerous weapon to him for some reason and he didn’t seem to get a thrill out of firing it but took it as a matter of fact. The pygmy who was so scared insisted on falling to the ground and by this time the others laughed at his actions. Dick[,] on returning to the house[,] pointed his finger at him and made a clicking noise with his mouth and the chap almost jumped out of his black skin which brought a big laugh from his companions. He was just a boy. Leroux shot some pictures of them and when he finished they lined up to trade. {F4.83} They are trading with Matt as I write this. Matt sits on a high seat opposite me and in front of him is piled up the colorful ornaments and other possessions. One by one they approach and hand over a head dress, net bag, lime container, penis shell, neck ornament or what not. Matt inspects it critically and after a short inspection passes over the amount of cowries which is the market value he has established. They take it and offer something else. When one has finished another steps forward and as fast as Matt handles the articles another steps up with more. They say not a word nor look at the cowries. Their material is excellent also. One just handed over an extraordinarily large potato which would take a prize at a state fair. It was a foot long and about six inches in diameter. They are trading fast and so far not one has rejected an offer. They are pleasant folks and more uniform in size than any we have seen. Another bag is offered[;] it is beautifully colored with yellow and orchid bark which is woven into the bag in an ingenious fashion. The chap is pleased with the four large cowries Matt hands him and smiles a pleasant smile. Next come a large bunch of well carved arrows, which is followed by a small boy offering his penis case holder. He too is pleased with his not so large cowrie. After the trading they make presents to Matt and then sit around in groups showing each other their wealth. They examine the cowries minutely and talk back and forth excitedly. Matt starts to pack away the excellent material he has obtained and another smiling faced chap helps him out by putting the smaller articles in a big bag. He collects the arrows and bows and puts them together in a neat bundle. They still have more and a large string of black beads made from seeds. It is an excellent string. Then comes a sharp stone knife. As Matt takes out a handful of good cowries to select a few from, their eyes open with amazement and a few tap their penis cases. I wonder what they would do if they {F4.84} saw the large tin which is full of them. Probably whould [sic] make a good picture. They watch his every move and when the beads or cowries come out they all lean closer to see what the article is going to bring. It is interesting to watch the expression on their faces when Matt hands out the number for the article. They remain mationless [sic] until he decides and then their eyes shine with pleasure and they tap their penis cases.



Wednesday
Nov 3
1926


Another dreary rainy morning. Dick went out to see if he could get the cassowary he had seen on an early morning hunt yesterday while Doc and I were down having our morning bath in the small river adjacent to camp. When [sic, = Then] Dick came down the high bank [going] a hundred miles an hour. He had run into a batch of bees. He evidently had stirred them up going through the jungle and they attacked him. He had had a similar experience yesterday morning but only one had bit him, and when he returned to camp he had suffered slight cramps in his stomach. This morning however, he was bitten in a dozen or more places and complained of another stomach acke [sic]. It continued to get worse so I came up to get Oompah to make a hot cup of tea for him. Matt came running up a short time later and said Dick was in terrible pain. We secured some pills in our medicine kit for stomach ache and hurried down. Dick was doubled up on the ground and in terrible agony. Gave him one of the pills. You could see he was suffering untold agony for he couldn’t straighten out and it brought tears to his eyes. We got the doctor’s assistant who had just arrived on the last transport and with the help of Matt they helped him back to camp. He was all in and could just about make it without being carried, although once of [sic, = or] twice his feet did give way on him entirely. He felt better when he walked so they walked him around camp and then put him to bed against his {F4.85} protests. He had become thoroughly soaked in the rain of the morning and the Doc’s assistant dried him out[,] put on heavy dry underwear and wrapped him up in warm blankets. By this time it just started to perculate [sic] through our heads that it was a poisoning from the bees that had affected his entire system. Yesterday’s one bee bite had raised a large lump on his head just behind the ear. A dozen or more had surely injected considerable poison and was responsible for his cramps. The Malay Doctor’s assistant rubbed ammonia on the bites and gave him several sniffs of it as a bracer and an hour or so later he was feeling better. The attack of course left him unusually weak. Matt said the bees were somewhat similar to the yellow jackes [sic] he and Perry had had expreience [sic] with in S.A. We saw one of the bees which had been inside Dick’s shirt[;] it was a small yellow one and from its appearance did not appear as dangerous as one of our honey bees. Shortly before noon about a dozen of new Pygmies arrived from Imabaa, according to them, but according to Igoone they were from Towasse. Why they both declared this difference and stuck to it diligently we were unable to determine. They had brought many prize possessions and Matt was kept busy most of the afternoon trading. They were all consistently small[,] more so than any others we’ve seen to date. The transport which [we] had rather expected with Prince did not arrive. It rained again later in the afternoon so we were unable to shoot any pictures. Jordans visited us and we had an interesting conversation on matrimonial subjects[,] he being in the frame of mind to take unto himself a wife when he returns and was open to advise [sic]. The advice he received was the customary advice which he will not follow. Never-the-less it was an interesting discussion.



Thursday
Nov 4
1926


The transport arrived at eight thirty. Prince was not with them {F4.86} and anote [sic] from him said he had decided to remain at Head Camp because he feared complications might result in his coming up and he wasn't so strong for coming anyway. We will leave here the day after tomorrow. Leroux and Jordans will leave tomorrow for a trip to the top to join Saleh and when they return everyone will go down and E.C. will be deserted. It looks like the beginning of the end. It is another cloudy sunless day altho no rain as yet. Matt spent most of the morning sorting the ethnological collection which is already large in size, for the third time since we arrived. They were as much interested as the other new folks we had seen and all got the same thrills in practically the same manner. Just as darkness set in[,] four or five of our friends who had left to go to Goulaloo returned last night but so far this morning we have seen nothing of them. They are probably discussing their trades. One of the Dyaks has been sick for the last several days with the fever and is still confined to his bed. We learned from Jordans that the transport from M.C. to Head Camp is two days late despite the fact that the water is low. It may be that they are having more trouble with the natives at Splitingscamp. When the natives here learned we were leaving they informed us a pig was coming and they will kill it for us before we left. We shall see. They have been saying that all along so we put little stock in it now. Igoone will be rather pleased to see us go I believe for we have been hard on his potatoe [sic] gardens and also he has been host to more people than he ever has been before who come here to see what we look like. He has been very nice though through it all (Note kid has finger cut when mother dies, add to marriage dope) – Fifteen of the hard boiled natives from Agentuwa arrived with bows[,] arrows, net bags, stone axes and everything else to trade. They came strong enough this time and were extra large. They kept their bows and arrows in readiness while they traded. They had one woman with them {F4.87} who carried their bag of potatoes for food and most of the trade material. Igoone and his tribe did not like to see them but despite the fact that there was [a] strained feeling in the air everything was all right. They traded with Matt all afternoon. Many new folks were in the crowd. They tried to get us to go back with them but we refused. One tall fellow who looked like old Skin Flint and acted like him in many respects asked to see some shooting. He had heard of it evidently. Dick got out the twenty-two and shot at a tin on a tree. The fellow trembled all over and you could see his heart beating express speed under his hide. He was literally scared to death and when Dick shot again and he witnessed it again he trembled all over. The tin was brought up and his eyes opened in amazement when he saw the bullet holes through it. Shaking his head that he didn’t want to see any more of it. He had been rather hardboiled but was somewhat subdued thereafter. Matt measured the woman and the new men. When he got out a bolt of red cheese cloth they all went wild and offered everything they had left. They all kept from trading their bows and arrows in case they might need them, but even these were offered for a small bit of the red cheese cloth. They left at about four. They don’t dare stay so they run in, do their trading, and beat it again. Igoone doesn’t like them and they evidently don’t like Igoone’s tribe. Leroux and Jordans are leaving tomorrow. We leave the day after.



Friday
Nov 5
1926


A nice morning. The first one we have had now for some time. No rain during the night which was also unusual. The sun broke thru the trees[,] early forecasting a good day for our last day here and for our pictures. Igoone and all of the pygmies including the women folks were on hand early with the large pig which they had promised to slaughter just before we departed. Many new visitors arrived {F4.88} during the day. At nine thirty they were rather impatient for the pig killing ceremony so we all adjourned to their village and they started the farewell ceremonies. The pig was troussed [sic, = trussed] up on a long pole and set in the middle of the village on two posts in the ground. It was a little too close to the camera so we had them move back some and two of the pygmies held the pole on their shoulders. Igoone then stepped forward with a great deal of ceremony and shot the pig. It was a large one however, and it took about five arrows to end it all. Dick shot away with the movie and I got stills. After the pig was dead and before the dogs were on hand eager for the warm blood which spurted out. They were kidked [sic] and chased away. As the pig was struggling for the last few breaths Igoone’s Mother came out of the house and with a great deal of pomp and ceremony waved a green sprig back and forth over the dying pig. She was evidently saying a prayer of some sort. One of the visitors – a chieftain from another village – made some sort of protest but Igoone said it was all right and stood his ground. From the little we could learn of what it was all about – and they worked themselves up into a high pitch of excitement immediately after the pig died – the pig was a sacred one and belonged to Igoone’s Mother and should not have been killed. Igoone was anxious to keep our friendship for he motioned and waved his arms as he spoke to the others and then came over and snapped fingers with us. He was doing it for us and therefore it was O.K. was his argument as far as I could learn. Leroux who understands the language very well got the whole story he says and will tell us about it when we come in Java. It was finally settled and with all of the natives shouting and whooping it up the pig was carried back to our camp with everybody following. Dick had gone ahead and set up and was ready when they marched into the camp. During the day visitors from all sections of the mountains here kept arriving. Some brought some good material {F4.89} and traded it, so Matt was kept rather busy. Igoone is going down to Head Camp with us. Many others want to follow with us and carry for cowries but we refused. There will be several who will go with us though I’m sure. Shortly after lunch we heard the call drum being sounded down the hill[;] another transport was arriving. It was Tonalinda [sic, = Tomalinda] and a large number of Dyaks. He brought a note to Leroux from Van Leeuwen saying the boat will leave Albatros Camp December 3rd for the return. That was good news. Lieut. Kosteman arrived at three o’clock and was all tired out, and was the last one in camp. The pig was promptly dressed by the soldiers, the Papuans watching the operations very closely[,] and we will have some of it for dinner tonite. We also bought a small one but did not have him killed for Lieut. wants to bring him back with him when he comes. It begins to look like the beginning of the end now for there are many carriers here and everybody will be able to go down Laccass [sic, = lekas (Malay, “quickly or soon”)]. Dick was busy most of the afternoon packing the film and sealing it in the large tins. He had some red dope from the plane and when he was finished decorated the pygmies at their request. When the dope started to dry it drew up the skin and some of them tried to wash it off without success. It worried them and one of the head men came and asked if it was all right. Matt assured them that it was and would make them strong so they were all pleased. We learned from Kortemanthat [sic] another boat with mail arrived October 24th so we will have more mail when we get back to Motor Camp. No note from Hamer so he evidently decided not to come up for some reason or other. If Korteman could come up Hamer most certainly should have been given the opportunity of coming also. Everybody is busy packing up and getting ready to leave.



Saturday
November 6
1926


We were up early and after breakfast everything was packed {F4.90} and we bid goodbye to the pygmies. Leroux decided he would leave tomorrow morning so we are alone but have a big transport of carriers for all of the ethnological collection is with us. Jordans was to leave today to go to Saleh with food and then come down. Leroux and Korteman were to break camp tomorrow and with their departure E.C. will be deserted. A large number of the natives were present to bid us farewell. Igoone and 4 or 5 others are to come with Leroux to H.C. when he leaves. We gave the pygmies a parting gift and were off. Dick went on ahead with the cameras for we plan to get some movies showing how the transport line functions[.] Half way down the mountain side we came upon one convict who was sick and could go no farther, so Matt sent him back with a note to Jordans. Going down was much easier than coming up and we were soon at the river and the suspansion [sic] bridge. The Dyaks had worked on it and put it in good shape. We were on the homeward stretch now for with the leaving of E.C. is the first step on our long journey back to America for the expedition is now returning. We will leave A.C. December 3rd according to the latest advice. The Rouffaer was very low so we made excellent progress especially when following the river. The trail itself, however, was not in as good shape as when we came up. Many of the log bridges which were built over the ravines and gullies having had much traffic on them were not as stable as they could have been. Many of the hand rails were broken and we had to be careful for the logs were small and slippery. A misstep in many cases would be disastrous. One Dyak did fall off the trail later in the day and injured his leg and arm and head severely. We made camp at the first river. Five Dyaks did not show up. One of them had hurt his leg and the others were staying with him[,] going slow. Did not feel well today, had lite touch of fever and going tough in afternoon as result. {F4.91}



Sunday
November 7
1926


Took big shot of quinine last night and this morning feel better. Broke camp and were off at 7:30. Water low so we had no difficulty crossing small stream. Made movies several times along the way and got some good river scenes with transport going along rocky bank. Had another accident. Another Dyak slipped on rocks and fell cutting bad hole in his forehead. Soldier bound it up and when we made our camp by second large river Dick cut hair away and washed and dressed it for him. It is a large and deep gash. Matt also wrenched or strained his knee and had hot and cold applications to dope it up. We have 2 more days. When we stopped at this camp coming up [the] water [in] both rivers [was] 10 to 15 feet higher. We did not need to use the raft as we did coming up. It was good to get into camp early for it gave us an opportunity of drying our bedding and clothes. It started to rain about four but we were all established in camp.



Notes to the Journal of Stanley Hedberg

Date of Note Keyword(s) Note

May 22, 1926 FRAGMENT

Portions of Stanley Hedberg’s journal are missing; thus it appears here in four fragments. Each fragment is individually numbered and the pagination given here for the entire surviving journal indicates the fragment number as well as the page number for the original typewritten page within that Fragment. Thus “{F1.1}” and “{F1.2}” indicate respectively the first and second page of Fragment 1; while “{F2.1}” and “{F2.2}” indicate the first and second pages of Fragment 2, and so on. Each fragment consists of the following journal entries:
FRAGMENT 1: End of May 22, 1926 through June 29, 1926.
FRAGMENT 2: July 18, 1926 through July 22, 1926.
FRAGMENT 3: End of July 31, 1926 through September 24, 1926.
FRAGMENT 4: September 25, 1926 through November 7, 1926.

 
May 22, 1926 Dyaks

Stirling and Hedberg both use this older English spelling for “Dayak,” a general name given to a large number of ethnic groups of interior Borneo. The term, which means “interior or inland person” in some Borneo languages, was originally used in a derogatory sense by Muslim coastal groups. Generally denoting the agricultural peoples of Borneo, it excludes the Malay or Muslim coastal groups, who were first converted to Islam in the sixteenth century. See Chapter 5: “Dayak” (pp. 146-171) in Beyond the Java Sea: Art of Indonesia’s Outer Islands by Paul Michael Taylor & Lorraine V. Aragon. (New York & Washington D.C., Harry N. Abrams & National Museum of Natural History, 1991).

 
May 22, 1926 Leroux

Correctly spelled “le Roux,” but Hedberg usually spells as “Leroux” or occasionally, “leRoux” without using a space.

 
May 23, 1926 Albatros

Correctly spelled “Albatross” in English, but Hedberg writes “Albatros” throughout this journal when writing about both the steam ship (as in this case) and the base camp of the expedition (Albatross Camp). Presumably, since the Dutch word albatros has one “s,” that was the name of the Dutch ship and the Dutch name of the camp; and Hedberg (unlike Stirling) spells it this way.

 
May 23, 1926 Posthumus

Stirling generally misspells his name as “Posthumous” while Hedberg always correctly spells it “Posthumus” or abbreviates it as “P.”

 
May 23, 1926 paits

Malay, pahit “bitter”; thus “bitter drink” – usually referring to a gin (or Dutch jenever) drink.

 
May 23, 1926 the

Errors and inconsistencies in capitalization are frequent throughout the text, and because the meaning is clear, they are not noted with a “[sic]” everytime they occur.

 
May 23, 1926 Splitsings Camp

Also spelled “Splitzings” Camp or “Splitingscamp” (in Dutch, “Splitsingsbivak” means “split/junction [in the river] camp”) this camp site, pre-dating the 1926 expedition, was located near the junction of River “A” and the Rouffaer River.

 
May 23, 1926 Fomalhaut

The Fomalhaut was one of the Dutch coastguard steam ships used to transport expedition members and supplies, including the airplane (See Matthew Striling’s journal entries for April 1926). Photos of this ship show the correct spelling to be “Fomalhaut” which is the name of the brightest star in the constellation Piscis Austrinus. However, it is spelled as “Fomalhout” in Stirling’s journal and in handwritten photo captions on the backs of several photos (See photos of ship at Ambon).

 
May 23, 1926 Wollaston

Alexander Frederick Richmond Wollaston (1875-1930) participated in two expeditions to West New Guinea (1910-1913) which attempted to climb to the peak of Mount Carstensz (now Mount Jaya) in the Nassau (now Sudirman) Mountains. The second of these expeditions, led by Wollaston himself, departed from the southern coast of the island. The expedition moved upstream along the Setakwa and Otakwa (aka Utakwa) as far as they were navigable, collecting anthropological, ornithological, and entomological specimens on the way. A party of the explorers almost reached the peak of Mount Carstensz, but was forced to turn back short of the summit. See Wollaston’s Pygmies and Papuans (New York: Sturgis and Walton, 1912), a book Stirling and other American 1926 expedition members often cited. See also C. Ballard, “A.F.R. Wollaston and the ‘Utakwa River Mountain Papuan’ Skulls” in Journal of Pacific History 36(1):117-126 (2001).

 
May 24, 1926 Doc

Hedberg refers to Dr. Matthew Stirling as either “Matt” or “Doc.”

 
May 24, 1926 macon
[sic, = makan (Malay)]

“Makan” is a Malay verb meaning “to eat”; the noun “makanan” means “food.”

 
May 24, 1926 graflex

Graflex was the name of a Rochester, New York camera producer. It manufactured the dominant portable professional camera in the United States from the 1930s through the end of the 1950s. Its camera was engineered for general purpose photography, such as wedding, portraiture, product, documentary, advertising, and landscape shots.

 
May 25, 1926 godowns

The Anglo-Indian term “godown,” meaning “warehouse, storage place,” may be derived from Malay gudang “store-room, warehouse.” See Henry Yule’s Hobson-Jobson: A glossary of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases, and of kindred terms, etymological, historical, geographical and discursive (Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1903), entry under “Godown” (p. 381-2).

 
May 25, 1926 "deng deng"
[sic, = dendeng (Malay)]

The Malay word dendeng (consistently misspelled by Hedberg) means “jerked or dried meat.”

 
May 26, 1926 prows

Though in standard English “prow” refers to the bow or forward part of a ship's hull, Hedberg, like many English-speakers in the Malay-speaking world, uses the word to mean the Malay perahu (alternatively spelled prau) “boat” (especially a relatively small boat, in contrast to Malay kapal meaning “ship”).

 
May 26, 1926 Manlkwari
[sic, = Manokwari]

Manokwari lies in a bay near the northern coast of the Bird’s Head (Dutch: Vogelkop; Indonesian: Kepala Burung) Peninsula of western New Guinea (See Matthew Stirling’s journal entries for April 26 and 27, and expedition photos from Manokwari).

 
May 26, 1926 Aneta

ANETA (Algemeen Nieuws en Telegraaf Agentschap) was the news agency of the Dutch East Indies at the time of the Stirling Expedition. In late 1928 it was renamed NIROM, Nederland-Indische Radio Omroep Maatschappi.

 
May 27, 1926 “Hutfor dumah” [sic]

Sic, = God verdoemen (Dutch) “God-damned”

 
May 28, 1926 Head Camp

Head Camp, also abbreviated as “H.C.” by Hedberg, was later broken into two separate camps along the Rouffaer river, a “Lower” and an “Upper” Head Camp. Stirling and le Roux would arrive at Lower Head Camp on August 12th, while Stanley Hedberg and Richard Peck would first arrive there on Sept 5th.

 
May 28, 1926 Bandoeng

Bandoeng, now spelled Bandung, is located in western Java.

 
May 28, 1926 adapt [sic, = atap (Malay)]

Atap (in Malay/Indonesian) refers to palm or pandanus leaves folded onto crosspieces, commonly used for roofing material (like large shingles) throughout Indonesia.

 
May 29, 1926 ratan

Spelled rotan in Malay, it is one of a number of species of climbing palms with tough, pliable stems (such as Calamus) used in wickerwork, furniture, or, in this case, as a whip for punishment. Hedberg uses two spellings (both found in English dictionaries): “ratan” and “rattan.”

 
June 1, 1926 Hollandia

Hollandia, now renamed Jayapura, served as the regional capital of northern (and later all of) Netherlands New Guinea and later became the capital of the province of Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia. See Schoorl, Pim (editor): Nederlands-Nieuw-Guinea 1945-1962: Ontwikkelingswerk in een periode van politieke onrust. (Leiden: KITLV Press, 1996; 658 pp., photographs, index).

 
June 2, 1926 Soerabaia

“Surabaya” in current spelling, located in East Java.

 
June 3, 1926 mandoer

A Malay word meaning “overseer or foreman”; correctly spelled mandoer in 1926 prior to later spelling reforms and today spelled mandur.

 
June 5, 1926 Motor Camp

The third major camp set up on the expedition, Hedberg frequently abbreviates this as “M.C.”

 
June 5, 1926 Swartz Valley

Likely referring to the 1920 Dutch expedition led by A.A.J. van Overeem. Stirling refers to this as the “Swart Valley,” but it is also known today as the Toli River/Valley.

 
June 6, 1926 Bryan

Perhaps intended to refer to the English poet, Lord Byron (George Gordon Byron, 1788-1824).

 
June 6, 1926 Boramese

Hedberg refers to this tribe as either “Boramese,” “Boremesa,” or, “Boromesa,” while Stirling spells it “Boromesa” or “Boromeso.”

 
June 7, 1926 Eddie

Elsewhere Hedberg spells this as “Eddy.” Stirling spells it “Edi” in his journal.

 
June 8, 1926 mantrie
[sic, = mantri (Malay)]

The Malay word mantri can mean a “low-ranking government employee, usually a tecnician” (J. Echols and H. Shadily, Indonesian-English Dictionary, 3rd edition, Jakarta: Gramedia, 1990); but in both the Stirling and Hedberg journals, the word seems to indicate the personal assistant of a Dutch or American expedition member. Hedberg misspells this word throughout the text, e.g.: matrie, mantrie, mantrai.

 
June 8, 1926 Hurrah Hurrah, Chin Chin

Hedberg clearly enjoyed this Ambonese song and refers to it many times in his journal. See his August 29th journal entry {F3.59}.

 
June 9, 1926 “Wild Men From Borneo”

The “Wild Men From Borneo” were made famous by the American showman P.T. Barnum (1810-1891) and other circus and sideshow managers during the mid to late 19th century. They were two brothers of very small stature (approximately 40 inches tall and weighing 40 pounds each) under the stage names, “Plutano and Waino.” Their real names were Hiram and Barney Davis and they were not from Borneo, nor did they at all physically resemble the Dayaks. Hiram was born in England (1825) and Barney was born in Long Island, N.Y. (1827). See Robert Bogdan’s Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988; pp. 121-127).

 
June 11, 1926 storm king

The brand name of a type of lamp or lantern that was used during the expedition. Hedberg later refers to it only by the name “Storm King.”

 
June 11, 1926 Kampong

Kampong or kampung (Malay) means “village”; sometimes spelled campung by Hedberg.

 
June 12, 1926 Davidson’s
[sic, = Davidsons]

The Davidsons are also mentioned by Stirling and are refered to in his April 7th journal entry {p. 1} as “our two friendliest friends, Captain Davidson, the British war aviator, and his wife.”

 
June 13, 1926 “In White Rainment” [sic]

Le Queux, William F. In White Raiment. London: F.V. White, 1900.

 
June 14, 1926 telegram

When Hedberg quotes a telegram only the spelling errors have been noted with a “[sic].”

 
June 16, 1926 Prince Albert

A brand of pipe tobacco sold by John Middleton, Inc., named after Queen Victoria’s consort, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Prince Albert tobacco is still available today in its distinctive red packaging.

 
June 19, 1926 clambo
[sic, = kelambu (Malay)]

Kelambu (Malay) means “mosquito net”; Hedberg misspells this word (sometimes as an English plural form by adding "s") throughout the text, e.g.: clambo, clamboos, klambo, klamboos, klambus, klambas.

 
June 21, 1926 bivauc

Hedberg incorrectly spells bivouac as “bivauc” throughout. This French (and English) word for “encampment in the open” is still frequently used in western New Guinea in the form bifak, from Dutch bivak. It is not marked with a “[sic]” in the text.

 
June 22, 1926 Summons

Mason, A. E. W. The summons. New York: George H. Doran Co., 1920.

 
June 28, 1926 Corona

This was the typewriter that Hedberg used in the field to type this journal and, as mentioned here, to copy portions of Stirling’s journal as well.

 
July 18, 1926 B.C. [Batavia Camp]

Hedberg frequently abbreviates camp names such as A.C. (Albatross Camp), M.C. (Motor Camp), H.C. (Head Camp) and E.C. (Explorators Camp).

See film footage of Batavia Camp: Film Selection #15

 
July 18, 1926 delite

Hedberg sometimes replaces “-ight” with “-ite” such as in delite, rite, brite, lite, daylite, nite, and tonite. These words are not noted with a “[sic]” except for the word site when it is used to mean sight, and the one occurrence of the word mite when it is used to mean might.

 
July 19, 1926 roofs

The word “roofs” is underlined in the original journal.

 
July 20, 1926 Ompah

Hedberg refers to Oompah as “our personal convict” and spells his name either as “Ompah,” “Umpah,” or “Oompah.” Stirling uses the spelling “Oompah.”

 
July 20, 1926 Kalongs

Keluang (Malay) or, dialectally (especially in Eastern Indonesia) kalong refers to the “flying fox” (Pteropus sp.), a large fruit-eating bat (not a bird, though many Indonesian folk classification systems consider bats types of birds).

 
July 20, 1926 Beos

Beo (Malay) “a myna bird.”

 
July 20, 1926 bagoose macan
[sic, = bagus makan]

Bagus makan (rather ungrammatical Malay) means “eat well; good food.”

 
July 20, 1926 Torakai tribe

Hedberg is probably referring to the Kaiy (alternatively called “Taori-kaiy” or “Taori-Kei”) ethnolinguistic group. See: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition (Raymond G. Gordon, editor; Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 2005, p. 416.), which estimates the 2005 population of this group as 220 persons.

 
July 20, 1926 pass along [sic]

Hedberg either means to say “We pass a long mud flat” or, “We pass along a mud flat”

 
July 20, 1926 thot

Hedberg frequently spells “thought” and “brought” as “thot” and “brot.”

 
July 21, 1926 Briggs

Hedberg is likely referring to the comic strip by Clare Briggs entitled, “Ain’t It a Grand and Glorious Feelin’?” which ran in American newspapers in the early 1920s. “Ain’t that a Grand and Glorious Feeling?” is also the title of a song recorded in 1928 (after the time of Hedberg’s writing) by Arthur Briggs, a trumpeter and band leader of the Savoy Syncopators Orchestra.

 
July 22, 1926 P.A.

Henceforth, when Hedberg writes, “P.A.” he is referring to Prince Albert tobacco.

 
August 1, 1926 River D

Probably a reference to the van Daalen River.

 
August 1, 1926 Browne [sic]

Kodak Brownie Camera.

 
August 1, 1926 Gentlemen of the Science River

Hedberg will also just refer to this as the “unknown river,” while Stirling refers to this as the "Brown River."
See photos from "Brown River"
See Film Selection #18

 
August 4, 1926 bali bali [sic]

Sic, = balai-balai (Malay) “wooden or bamboo sleeping platform.” Hedberg also mispells this in his October 8th journal entry {F4.19}.

 
August 5, 1926 Dr. Wetmore

Dr. Alexander Wetmore, an ornithologist, was the Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 1925 to 1945 and Secretary from 1945 to 1952.

 
August 5, 1926 Hoover

Chas. L. Hoover worked as an American consul in Batavia, Java. He had written a letter to Alexander Wetmore (dated February 3, 1926) informing him of the party’s arrival on January 3, 1926. He was highly skeptical of the purpose of the expedition and who was paying the expenses. He writes to Wetmore, “I am of the opinion that a syndicate has been formed to take moving pictures in this country, and that the scientific aspect of the expedition has been featured for the purpose of enlisting aid which would not otherwise be forthcoming.” Hedberg adamantly denies this in his August 5th journal entry {F3.17}.

 
August 8, 1926 K.P.M.

K.P.M. is an abbreviation of Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij (“Royal Packet Steam Navigation Company”).

 
August 9, 1926 Explorators

Explorators camp is also spelled as, “Exploritors,” “exploratuers,” or, abbreviated as “E.C.” by Hedberg. Refered to as “Exploration Camp” on the “Map of The Mamberamo River Netherlands New Guinea” it was located near the village of Tombe and was the last main camp on the expedition. Stirling does not specifically name the camp in his journal but refers to it as, “our camp by the gorge to Tombe.”

 
August 16, 1926 a talk with Doc Hoffman

The remaining text in this August 16 journal entry {F3.30} is clearly different in syntax and grammar indicating perhaps that Hedberg was taking quick notes or even typing while he was listening to Doc Hoffman.

 
August 20, 1926 Red

The Papuan named “Red” is first described in Hedberg’s June 6th journal entry {F1.56}.

 
August 24, 1926 Ackley

The Ackley was a specialized camera that could be angled in many directions – analogous to today’s Steadicam. In a 1924 article in the Los Angeles Times, Dorothy Calhoun describes the Ackley: “a camera arranged on ball bearings and steered in any conceivable direction by a lever so that it can lie down, roll over and over and lie on its head. It is panoramic and also telescopic, making it possible to get the close-ups of Rod la Rocque’s face in the tossing motor boat from the top of a breakwater half a mile away.” (Calhoun, Dorothy. “A Camel Through a Needle’s Eye.” Los Angeles Times. April 20, 1924, p. B11) Photographer Paul Strand took a well known photograph of an Ackley camera in 1922, titled “The Ackley Camera.”

 
August 24, 1926 universal

This universal camera referenced here was a motion picture camera made by Universal Camera Co., a division of Burke & James, Inc., of Chicago. Burke & James distributed a book describing their camera: Motion Photography with the Universal Camera. A Description of Methods and the Machine. (Chicago: undated). This is not to be confused with another company with a very similar name, the Universal Camera Corporation, which was incorporated in 1933 in New York. Cynthia A. Repinski’s The Univex Story: Universal Camera Corporation (privately published by C.A. Repinski, 1991, ISBN 0931838177), describes that later company from its beginnings. Universal Camera Corporation produced low-priced cameras, and was especially successful selling low-priced still and motion picture cameras in the 1940s.

 
September 2, 1926 September 2nd

This date is also the only day for which substantial text from the journal of a Dutch member of the expedition has been published. C.C.F.M. le Roux included within his later book De Bergpapoua’s van Nieuw Guinea en hun woongebied (Le Roux 1948, vol. 1, p. 94-95) “a few passages regarding our trek into the little settlement of Tombe, among the Dem tribe,” quoting his own field journal about this contact.

 
October 2, 1926 Damoonarue

Matthew Stirling spells this “Damunaru,” or “Damuneru.” Hedberg also spells this “Damunaro,” “Damoonrau,” “Damanoorue,” “Damoonarus,” or “Damoonaru.”

 
October 2, 1926 flambosia
[sic, = framboesia]

Framboesia, (or, frambesia) known more commonly as yaws, is an infectious tropical disease caused by a spirochete bacterium, and characterized by bumps on the face, hands, feet and genital areas.

 
October 3, 1926 Aguintawa

Hedberg uses different spellings throughout: “Agentuwa,” “Agentuawa,” “Agentoowa,” or “Agentoowah.” Matthew Stirling spells this “Agintawa,” and in his journal on Oct. 5th he ascertains that this “is the name of a district or tribe comprising the territory south of the Aeijabu, comprising a number of separate small villages…”{p. 280}

 
October 4, 1926 Aermba

Hedberg is likely referring to what he and Stirling later spell as the “Aeimba” village.

 
October 8, 1926 Abegs [sic]

The Malay word for “sweet potato or edible tubers” is ubi.

 
October 8, 1926 Shirts

A name of one of the Papuans.

 
October 9, 1926 Egoon

Hedberg also spells his name “Igoone” elsewhere in the journal. Stirling spells it “Igoon”

 
October 9, 1926 Tombay

Hedberg alternates the spelling of this village between “Tombay” and “Tombe.”

 
October 9, 1926 Phootwee

Spelled “Phootewee” everywhere else in the journal.

 
October 11, 1926 Bigiciga

Hedberg also spells this as “Bigicia”

 
October 13, 1926 hot potch

This is an anglicization of the Dutch word “hutspot” meaning a stew, usually with vegetables and meat. By a separate route, the same word “hutspot” (etymologically, “a pot from a hut or village/rural house”) also came to mean, figuratively, a mish-mash or mixture of things, thus the English word “hodge-podge.”

 
October 13, 1926 Sain

Matthew Stirling spells his name “Sian”

 
October 15, 1926 hotch pot

See previous annotation for “hot potch.” (October 13 Journal Entry {F4.32})

 
October 16, 1926 Van

For the remaining journal entries Hedberg often refers to Dr. van Leeuwen as just “Van.”

 
October 18, 1926 ceremony

See Stirling’s Oct 25 journal entry, in which Stirling associates the custom with marriage. The custom of cutting off joints of fingers during times of mourning for the recently deceased has been widely reported from highland western New Guinea. See photographs in Plate LXXX, vol. 3 of De Bergpapoea’s van Nieuw-Guinea en hun woongebied by C.C.F.M. le Roux (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1950). Also see illustration of Dani woman in mourning, for example, in Hampton’s Culture of Stone: Sacred and Profane Uses of Sone among the Dani (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1999) plate 2 and fig. 1.15 on p. 22; and discussion, pp. 21-22. More discussion of this practice is in Gardner and Heider’s Gardens of War: Life and Death in the New Guinea Stone Age (New York: Random House, 1968), p. 96.

 
October 22, 1926 Nogolow

Matthew Stirling spells this “Nogullo.”

 
October 23, 1926 Elgin

Elgin National Watch Company (of Elgin, Illinois).

 
October 23, 1926 Ocabu

Stirling spells this river as “Ooabu,” and he describes it in his Oct. 22 journal entry as, “a tributary of the Nogullo south of the Delo.”

 
October 24, 1926 Goolalew

Hedberg also spells this “Goolaloo” and “Goulaloo.” Stirling spells it “Gulalalu,” or “Gulalu.”

 
October 25, 1926 Atas

Atas is a Malay word meaning “upper or above.” In this case, Hedberg is likely referring to Upper Head Camp.

 
November 2, 1926 Towasi and Imba

Hedberg mentions these names (Towasi and Imba) again in his November 3rd journal entry but spells them as “Towasse” and “Imabaa.” Stirling uses the spelling “Towase” in his journal.

 
November 3, 1926 Nov. 3

Hedberg originally incorrectly typed “October” then someone, perhaps Hedberg himself, crossed that out and wrote in “Nov.” by hand.

 
November 4, 1926 Nov. 4

Hedberg originally incorrectly typed “October” then someone, perhaps Hedberg himself, crossed that out and wrote in “Nov.” by hand.

 
November 5, 1926 Nov. 5

Hedberg originally incorrectly typed “October” then someone, perhaps Hedberg himself, crossed that out and wrote in “Nov.” by hand.

 
November 5, 1926 red dope

A lacquer used to protect, waterproof, and tauten the cloth surfaces of airplane wings.

 

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