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Bibliography

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General World's Fair Materials

Articles

  • Journal of the American Art Pottery Association. 18:3 (2002) [Special Issue “Art Pottery of the World's Fairs]
  • Astley, Stephen. "Fountains as Spectacle at International Expositions 1851-1915." Fountains: Splash and Spectacle Eds. Marilyn F. Symmes and Kenneth A. Breisch. New York: Rizzoli in association with the Smithsonian Institution,1998.
  • Denson, Andrew. "Muskogee's Indian International Fairs: Tribal Autonomy and the Indian Image in the late 19th Century." Western Historical Quarterly 34:3 (2003): 332-345.
    Describes the Indian International Fairs, an annual multitribal event held in Muskogee, Oklahoma from 1874 through the 1890's. Native Americans were among its organizers, judges, speakers, competitors, and attendees.
  • Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol. "As Demadas Cientificas E A Particpaçäo Do Brasil Nas Exposiçöes Internacionais Do Secuco XIX." Quipu [Mexico] 12:2 (1999): 203-215.
  • Driggs, Christopher G. "Nevada at the World's Fair." Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 42:3 (1999): 91-139.
    Nevada's participation in a series of World's Fairs from 1862 in London to San Francisco in 1940. The article discusses the effort to lure permanent residents fading in favor of a drive to attract tourists with money to the state.
  • Ekström, Anders. "International Exhibitions and the Struggle for Cultural Hegemony." Uppsala Newsletter 12 (Fall 1989): 6-7.
    This article summarizes Swedish participation in various nineteenth-century world's fairs. Ekström discusses Swedish exhibitions in light of national consciousness, industrial development, and the establishment of cultural hegemony. Applying Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony, the author argues that the Swedish exhibition at the world's fair at Stockholm in 1897 represented a "manifestation of hegemony" which legitimized the social dominancy of industrialists.
  • Ferguson, Eugene S. " Expositions of Technology, 1851-1900." Technology in Western Civilization. Eds. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll Jr. Pursell. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. 706-726.
  • Gilbert, Anne. "Fair Souvenirs Offer Memories and History." Antiques and Collecting Magazine 107:4 ( June 2002): 28-30,63-65.
  • Harris, Moira F. "Breweries, Medals and Three World's Fairs." American Breweriana Journal 102 (Jan.-Feb. 2000): 12-17.
    A look at three World's Fairs: the Philadelphia Centennial Fair (1876), the World's Columbian Exposition (1893), and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904), and the brewery involvement in each.
  • Harris, Neil. "Expository Expositions: Preparing for the Theme Parks." Designing Disney's Theme Parks. Ed. Karal Ann Marling. Paris: Flammarion, 1997. 19-28.
  • Harrison, Alfred C. Jr. "John Ross Key's World's Fair Paintings." Antiques 165:3 (2004): 78-87.
    The painter was the best source for color renditions of the fairs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a descriptive article about not only the paintings but art at the various fairs.
  • Holliday, Laura Scott. "Kitchen Technologies: Promises and Alibis, 1944-1966." Camera Obscura 47 (2001): 79-131.
  • Kosmider, Alexia. "Refracting the Imperial Gaze onto the Colonizers: Geronimo Poses for the Empire." ATQ 15: 4(Dec. 2001): 317-32.
    Information on the proliferation of world's fairs during the 19th and 20th centuries in which fairs served as vehicles that enabled the masses to consume the ideology of imperialism
  • LeCroy, Hoyt. "Music of the Atlanta Expositions: 1881, 1887, 1895." Journal of Band Research 30: 1 (1994): 53-68.
  • Marchand, Roland. "The Designers Go to the Fair, I: Walter Dorwin Teague and the Professionalization of Corporate Industrial Exhibits, 1933-1940." Design History: An Anthology. Ed. Dennis P. Doordan. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995: 89-102.
  • Mills, Stephen F. "The Contemporary Theme Park and its Victorian Pedigree." European Contributions to American Studies 24 (1992): 78-96.
    Mills argues that today's Disney theme parks originated from the earliest Victorian world's fairs. What follows is an in depth comparison, with special attention to their economic and social impact, between early world's fairs and the Disney theme parks. Mills looks in particular at the common elements found in the Chicago 1893 exposition and the Centennial exposition of 1876. Includes a short bibliography.
  • Mitchell, Timothy. "Orientalism and the Exhibitionary Order." Colonialism and Culture.Ed. Nicholas Dirks. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.
  • Morgensen, Margit. "Technology and the World Exhibitions: Experiences of Danish Military Officers 1870-1900." ICON: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology 5 (1999): 100-121.
  • Murray, Stuart. "Canadian Participation and National representation at the 1851 London Great Exhibition and the 1855 Paris Exposition Universelle." Historie Sociale [Canada] 32:63(2001):1-22.
    Canada's participation in London and Paris showed the progress Canada was making in its evolution from colony to nation at a time when Canada was rethinking its ties with Britain.
  • Nelson, Steve. "Walt Disney's EPCOT and the World's Fair Performance Tradition." TDR-The Drama Review 30:4 (1986): 106.
  • Ogata, Amy F. "Viewing Souvenirs: Peepshows and the International Expositions." Journal of Design History 15:2(2002): 69-82.
    Considers how 19th and early 20th c. international expositions were represented in peepshow souvenirs: folding paper devices that gave a three dimensional view and its implications for popular consumerism and collective memory.
  • Peck, Steven W. "From Paris to Hannover." Alternatives Journal 26:1 (2000): 1-2.
  • Peters, Tom F. "Patterns of Technological Thought: Buildings from the Sayn Foundry to the Galerie des Machines." Building the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge.: MIT Press, 1996. 205-280.
    This chapter illustrates the use of cast iron, wrought iron and steel including examples of the Crystal Palace of 1851, and the Eiffel Tower and the Galerie des Machines from the 1889 Paris Exhibition.
  • Pinot de Villechenon, Florence. "L'Amerique Latine dans les Expositions Universelles." Revue Historique (France) 289: 2 (1993): 511-20.
  • Reinhardt, Richard. "World's Fair." American Heritage 52: 6(Sept. 2001): 37.
    Evaluates the condition of the world's fair in the U.S., and the failure of fairs to fulfill promises.
  • Schiele, Bernard. "Creative Interaction of Visitor and Exhibition." Visitor Studies: Theory, Research, and Practice. Vol. 5. Jacksonville, Ala.: The Visitor Studies Association, 1993.
    Mentions briefly the Chicago World's Fair of 1934 and the New York World's Fair of 1939-1940 as turning points in the evaluation of exhibitions. The 1934 World's Fair was the "first large-scale exhibition to highlight the message content of the objects and artifacts being presented" thus putting the objects displayed into context for the public.
  • Vaughan, C. "Ogling Igorots:The Politics and Commerce of Exhibiting Cultural Otherness, 1898-1913."Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. Ed. Rosemarie Garland Thomson. New York: New York University Press, 1996:219-233.
  • Vennman, Barbara. "Dragons, Dummies, and Royals: China at American World's Fairs, 1876-1904." Gateway Heritage 17:2 (1996): 16-31.
    The images of China that were presented at these early world's fairs was determined not by the Chinese people, but by the Chinese Customs Service under the direction of British officials. The images that were constructed and the restrictions placed by fair organizers on Chinese participation served the purpose of justifying and affirming exclusionary international and domestic policies and imperialism by Western powers. This article looks at the changes that occurred in Chinese exhibitions during this time and how this related to American perceptions of China. Includes photographs and a brief bibliography.
  • Weeks, Jim. "Gettysburg: Display Window for Popular Memory." Journal of American Culture. 21:4 (1998): 41-56.
    Gettysburg exhibits were displayed from the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition to the 1939 World's Fair in New York, showing everything from photographs of the battle to collections of relics and dioramas.
  • Winner, Langdon. "An Alternative World's Fair Could Playfully Debunk Myths About Technological Progress," Technology Review 94 (February 1991): 94.
    Winner argues that the idea of unlimited progress through technological change has been debunked by 200 years of such "progress," and is no longer a fitting theme for international exhibitions. He offers instead the theme of "Humanity in a Postmodern World," with exhibits to illustrate the ironies and unkept promises of technological progress.

Paris Industrial Exposition of 1806

Articles

  • Hafter, Daryl M. "The Business of Invention in the Paris Industrial Exposition of 1806." Business History Review 58 (1984): 317-35.
    The infusion of inexpensive English goods into the French market signaled the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. French work traditions and the work force hindered the development of a similar movement in France. The Paris Industrial Exposition was launched in an effort to encourage French businesses to modernize. Hafter concludes that the exposition lead to the beginning of modern light industry in France.

Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, London 1851

Articles

  • Briggs, Asa. "Exhibiting the Nation." History Today 50:1 (2000):16-25.
    Compares the social contexts and the goals of Britain's three modern international exhibitions: the 1851 Great Exhibition, the 1951 Festival of Britain, and the 2000 Millenium Dome.
  • Buchanan, Angus, Stephen K. Jones and Ken Kiss. "Brunel and the Crystal Palace." Industrial Archaeology Review 17 (Autumn 1994): 7-21.
    This article focuses on the structure of the Crystal Palace and the process that its key engineers underwent to construct it and then relocate it. It looks in particular at the role of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Includes diagrams, photographs, and other illustrations.
  • Carriere, Marius. "Dr. Samuel Bond and the Crystal Palace Medal." West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 41 (1987): 1-3.
    Carriere provides a brief description of the rise of cotton production in West Tennessee, and Samuel Bond's receipt of a prize medal for cotton at the London exhibition.
  • Coleman, Earle E. "The Exhibition in the Palace: A Bibliographical Essay." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 65 (September 1960): 459-75.
  • Colvin, Peter. "Muhammad Ali Pasha, the Great Exhibition of 1851, and the School of Oriental and African Studies Library." Libraries and Culture 33:3 (1998): 249-259.
  • Fuchs, Eckhardt. "Räume und Mechanismen der Internationalen Wissenschftskommunikation und Ideenzirkulation vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg." Internaltionales Archiv Für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur [German] 27:1 (2002): 125-43.
  • Hassam, Andrew."Portable iron Structures and Uncertain Colonial Spaces and the Sydenham Crystal Palace." Imperial Cities:Landscape, Display and Identity. Ed.Felix Driver and David Gilbert.Manchester:Manchester University Press,1999.
  • Hopkins, David. "Art and Industry: Coalbrookdale Co. and the Great Exhibition." History Today [Great Britain] 52:2(2002): 19-25.
    Transformation of the Coalbrookdale Company from a mass producer of iron to a supplier of decorative art objects illustrates how Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 influenced the union of art and industry.
  • Mainardi, Patricia. "The Unbuilt Picture Gallery at the 1851 Great Exhibition." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 45: 3 (1986): 294-99.
    Presents documents related to a plan to build a specially designed gallery for the exhibition of paintings. Adds new dimensions to traditional history which states that the French were the first to exhibit fine arts as part of the 1855 Universal Exposition. The intended design of the gallery suggests that the fine arts were considered a part of tradition and not something to be featured in the Crystal Palace alongside other forms of modern industry.
  • Morson, A.F.P. "The Great Exhibition of 1851." Pharmaceutical Historian 27:3 (1997): 27-30.
    Describes the chemical, raw materials and pharmaceutical exhibits at the Fair, both British and foreign, the prizes won, and their importance in later years.
  • Oliver, Richard. "The Ordnance Survey and the Great Exhibition of 1851." Map Collector 50 (1990): 24-28.
    Only certain sections of the Ordnance Survey map were completed by the time they were to be exhibited at the world's fair. The maps that were initially displayed did not include Scotland. Discussion of survey styles and the subsequent incorrect mapping of Scotland are included.
  • Peters, Tom F. "How Creative Engineers Think." Civil Engineering 68:3 (1998): 58-51.
    Discusses the building of the Crystal Palace, including the relationship between architect Joseph Paxton and builder Charles Fox.
  • Peterson, M.J. "The Emergence of a Mass Market for Fax Machines." Technology in Society 17: 4 (1995): 469-82.
    Author mentions briefly the development of fax machines in the 1840's and their being exhibited at the Crystal Palace.
  • Purbrick, Louise. "Knowledge is Property: Looking at Exhibits and Patents in 1851 (Henry Cole's Great Exhibition at London's South Kensington Museum)." Oxford Art Journal 20:2 (1997):53-60.
  • Reynolds, Diana J. "The Great Exhibition of 1851." Events that Changed Great Britain Since 1869. Frank W. Thackery and John E. Findling, eds. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Shifman, B. "The Fourdinois Sideboard at the 1851 Great Exhibition (Second Empire Furniture)." Apollo- The Magazine of the Arts 156: 491 (Jan. 2003): 14-21.
  • Smithhurst, Peter. "Observations on the Crystal Palace Exhibition." Tools & Technology 19:1 (2001): 9-10.
    Manufacturing centers throughout England and the world saw the 1851 Exhibit as an opportunity to show their achievements to the world and included several pioneers in manufacturing techniques.
  • The Society's History Study Group. "Symposium on 'Exhibition and Celebration': the RSA and the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Festival of Britain of 1951 and plans for the Millennium." RSA Journal 143 (May 1995): 43-59.
    See specifically the first three speeches: Allan, D.G.C. "The Society of Arts and the National Repository" Bonython, Elizabeth. "The Planning of the Great Exhibition of 1851" Hobhouse, Hermione. "The Legacy of the Great Exhibition" Allan's speech sheds light on the connection between the Great Exhibition and the Society. Bonython introduces the key individuals who took part in organizing the Great Exhibition and the process that they went through. Hobhouse delves into the lasting impact of that first world exposition: tourism, successor exhibitions, and the South Kensington estate of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851.
  • Zaitsev, Valentin Pavlovich. "Pervye Vsemirnye Promyshlennye vystavki V Londone." Novaia I Noveishaia Istoriia [Russia] 4(2001): 188-193.

Expositions Universelles, Paris 1855

Articles

  • Vincente, Filipa Lowndes. "The Future is a Foreign Country: The Visit of the King of Portugal, Dom Pedro V, to the Parisian Exposition Universelle of 1855." Journal of Romance Studies 3:2 (2003): 31-48.

London International Exhibition on Industry and Art, 1862

Articles

  • Gregory, Martin. "Sewing Machines at the London Exhibition of 1862." ISMACS News: Journal of the International Sewing Machine Collectors' Society 72 (2001): 4-9.

Expositions Universelles, Paris 1867

Articles

  • Troyen, Carol. "Innocents Abroad: American Painters at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, Paris." American Art Journal 16 (Autumn 1984): 3-29.
    Wanting to present the best examples of American art in Paris to show that America's artistic skill matched its industrial prowess, a committee of the nation's leading artistic minds were gathered to select pieces to present as a part of its fine art exhibit. American cultural confidence was shattered, however, when only one medal was awarded to an American work, placing them below the French and English. This article includes discussion of individual works that were part of this exhibition, illustrations and reproductions of some of the artwork, and an index of all the works that comprised the exhibition.

Weltausstellung Vienna, Austria 1873

Articles

  • Lackner, Mónika."Pasture Romance:Installation, National Self-Representation at the Vienna World Fair 1873."Making and Breaking of Borders:Ethnological Interpretations, Presentations: 303-309.Helsinki:Finnish Literature Society,2003.

United States Centennial International Exhibition, Philadelphia 1876

Articles

  • Bonnell, Andrew. "Cheap and Nasty: German Goods, Socialism, and the 1876 Philadelphia World Fair." International Review of Social History 46: 2 (2001): 207-226.
  • Donnelly, Max. "British Furniture at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876." Furniture History 36 (2001): 91-120.
  • Fischer, Felice. "The Centennial Exhibition, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Hector Tyndale." Antiques 163:3 (2002): 97-107.
  • Halen, Widar. "Christopher Dresser, the Centennial Exhibition and the Anglo-American Dialogue." Antiques 160 (Sept. 2001): 354-60.
  • Howe, Jeffrey. "A Monster Ediface: Ambivalence, Appropriation, and the Forging of Cultural identity at the Centennial Exhibition." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 126:4 (2002): 635-650.
  • Myers, Susan and Susan Padwee. Special issue of Tile Heritage devoted to tiles at the Centennial Exhibition. Tile Heritage 6:2 (2002).
  • Nolan, Marianne. "A Century of Industrial Progress: Lighting Products at the Centennial Exhibition 1876." The Rushlight 65:3 (1999): 2-11.
    Describes the exhibiting and awarding of gas and glassware lighting fixtures at the fair. Includes listings of manufacturers and short descriptions of lighting fixtures as well as discussion of how exhibits were judged. Illustrations are also included.
  • Pitman, Jennifer. "China's Presence at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876." Studies in the Decorative Arts. 10: 1 (2002-2003): 35-73.
    Details the national exhibit by the Chinese government at the Exhibition: China displayed and sold a wide variety of decorative arts, increasing the influence of Chinese styles in the U.S..
  • Remberger, Sebastian. "Billig and Schlecht: Franz Reuleaux zu den Weltausstellungen in Philadelphia 1876 und Chicago 1893." Kultur & Technik (July-Sept. 2000): 42-51.
  • Winpenny, Thomas R. "The Phoenix Tower and the Struggling Centennial Exhibition of 1876: A Tale of What Might Have Been." The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 124:4 (October 2000): 547-555.
  • Yount, Sylvia. "A ‘New Century' for Women: Philadelphia's Centennial Exhibition and Domestic Reform." Philadelphia's Cultural Landscape. Ed. Katharine Martinez and Page Talbott. Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 2000.

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1878

Articles

  • Davis, Shane Alder. "'Fine Clothes on the Alter': The Commodification of Late Nineteenth-Century France." Art Journal 48 (Spring 1989): 85-89.
    French department stores and exhibitions conspired to change the French vision of womanhood from that of the thrifty republican housewife to the well-adorned Parisian fashion plate. Davis draws examples from the popular women's press to demonstrate this shift, and argues that these visions were incompatible and ultimately harmful to female identity.

Exposition International d'Electricite, Paris 1881

Articles

  • Fox, Robert. "Thomas Edison's Parisian Campaign: Incandescent Lighting and the Hidden Face of Technology Transfer." Annals of Science 53 (1996): 157-93
  • Segreto, Luciano. "Financing the Electric Industry Worldwide: Strategy and Structure of the Swiss Electric Holding Companies, 1895-1945." Business and Economic History 23: 1 (1994): 162-75.
    Makes reference to Thomas Edison's demonstration of incandescent lighting at the 1881 exposition as the start of the electric industry in Europe. He focuses primarily on the electric industry in Switzerland.

International Cotton Exposition, Atlanta 1881

Articles

  • Funderburke, Richard. "An Architect for the New South: The Atlanta Years of Edmund G. Lind, 1882-1893." Georgia Historical Quarterly 81: 1 (1997): 25-51.
    The Cotton Exposition was the event that drew national attention to Atlanta and gave new life to the New South movement. The exposition is also known for drawing talented and enterprising individuals to Atlanta including Edmund Lind. This article focuses primarily on the professional development of Edmund Lind while living in Atlanta after the exposition. Includes drawings.
  • Newman, Harvey K. "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." Georgia Historical Quarterly 80: 1 (1996): 53-76.
    Discusses primarily early hotels such as the Kimball House and businesses like traveling circuses. The impact of prohibition is also addressed. Mention is made of the 1881 Cotton Exposition while the 1895 Cotton Exposition is dealt with in more detail.

North Carolina Exposition, 1884

Articles

  • Sumner, Jim L. "Let Us Have a Big Fair: The North Carolina Exposition of 1884." North Carolina Historical Review 69 (1992): 57-81.
    The North Carolina Exposition represented an effort by the state's citizens to show the nation that it adhered to the industrial message of the New South. Men who represented the industrial goals which North Carolina endeavored to achieve comprised the committee that organized this fair. North Carolina's participation in early world's fairs is discussed briefly. The planning, organizing, and attendance at the exposition are also addressed. Includes photographs.

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889

Articles

  • Aubain, Laurence. "La Russie a l'Exposition Universelle de 1889." Cahiers du Monde Russe (France) 37: 3 (1996): 349-67.
  • Ducrey, Guy. "L'Andalouse et l'almée: Quelques danseuses "sauvages" aux Expositions Universelles." Sociopoetique de la Danse[Paris]: Anthropos (1998): 461-475.
  • Fey, Ingrid E. "Peddling the Pampas: Argentina at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889." Latin American Popular Culture: an Introduction. Ed. William H. Beezley and Linda A. Curcio-Nagy. Wilmington, DE.: SR Books, 2000.
  • Fey, Ingrid E. "Zwischen Zivilisation und Barbarei: Latin Amerika auf der Pariser Weltausstellung von 1889." Comparitiv [Germany] 1999 9(5-6): 15-28.
  • Fink, Lois. "American Art at the 1889 Paris Exposition: The Paintings They Love to Hate." American Art 5 (1991): 34-53.
    Fink examines the American art work that was presented at the 1889 Exposition Universelle and again at a recent exhibition entitled "Paris 1889: American Artists at the Universal Exposition" in the context of the criticism that it received in the past and in the present day. She discusses the role of science as well as the ideological changes of the time that formed the basis of American artistic styles. Includes photographs and reproductions of some of the exhibited art.
  • Levin, Miriam R. "The City as a Museum of Technology." Industrial Society and its Museums 1890-1990: Social Aspirations and Cultural Politics, ed. Brigitte Schroeder-Gudehus, Philadelphia: Harwood Academic, 1992. 27-36
    Levin looks at the city of Paris as a living museum of technology. She includes a brief history of the Exposition Universelle of 1889 as one instance in which Republican reformers in the Third Republic transformed Paris into a museum. Includes drawings and photographs.
  • Lombard, Denys. "Le Kampong Javanais a L'Exposition Universelle de Paris en 1889." Archipel [France] 43(1992): 115-129.
  • Oudoire, Jean-Marie. "Le Palais des Machines, un palais de la republique." Revue du Nord 71 (Juillet - Decembre 1989): 1031-35.
  • Stamper, John W. and Robert Mark. "Structure of the Galerie Des Machines, Paris, 1889." History and Technology 10: 3 (1993): 127-38.
    Analyzes the structure of the Galerie Des Machines. Reveals through photo elastic modelling that although this historic building was the one of most impressive of its time, it was not as structurally efficient. Includes a description of the building, photographs and diagrams, and a mathematical analysis.
  • Yasuda, Kyo. "1889 Nen Pari Bankoku Hakurankai Ni Okeru Jawa Buyo To Ongaku Ni Tsuite." Tonan Ajia Kenkyu [Japan] 36:4(1999): 505-524.

World's Columbian Exhibition, Chicago 1893

Articles

  • Adams, Judith A. "The Promotion of New Technology through Fun and Spectacle: Electricity at the World's Columbian Exposition." Journal of American Culture 18: 2 (1995): 45-55.
    Although electricity was debuted at the 1876 exposition, it was not generally accepted and considered safe until its uses were promoted at the 1893 exposition. Adams asserts that amusement parks and fairs have successfully promoted new technology because they are presented in a way that is "fun." Venues such as the Electricity Building and mechanisms like the moveable sidewalk and the Ferris wheel were some ways in which the benefits of electricity were demonstrated. Includes a short bibliography.
  • Bank, Rosemarie K. "Representing History: Performing the Columbian Exposition." Theatre Journal 54:4 (2002):589-606.
    Examines the 1893 Exposition, and particularly at performances of "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" show.
  • Brown, Julie K. "Recovering Representations: U.S. Government Photographers at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893." Prologue 29:3 (1997): 218-31.
    Instead of relying on commercial sources for documentation, the government decided to photograph its own exhibitions at the Chicago world's fair. The author asserts that this decision indicates the great amount of importance placed by the government on its representation at this type of venue.
  • Brown, Julie K. "The Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad Displays: Chicago World's Columbian Exposition, 1893." History of Photography 24:2 (Summer 2000): 155-162.
    The article focuses on the use of photography for corporate display at the Exposition in order to show some of the complexities of the corporate image making process.
  • Burton, Shirley J. "Obscene, Lewd, and Lascivious: Ida Craddock and the Criminally Obscene Women of Chicago, 1873-1913." Michigan Historical Review 19: 1 (1993): 1-16.
    Burton addresses the prosecution of women during this period under the federal obscenity law. Ida Craddock was one such woman who spoke in defense of Fahreda Mahzar, also known as "Little Egypt," a belly dancer who performed at the "A Street in Cairo" exhibit at the world's fair. Although her performance was one of the most popular, conservative critics attempted to censor it by demanding its closure.
  • Carr, Carolyn Kinder and Sally Webster. "Mary Cassatt and Mary Fairchild MacMonnies: The Search for Their 1893 Murals." American Art 8:1 (1994): 52-69.
    The murals painted by the two artists along with the building in which they were housed celebrated women and their progress. Unfortunately, the two murals, Modern Woman by Cassatt and Primitive Woman by MacMonnies, cannot be found. Feminist scholarship and interest in "The White City" have recently uncovered clues that may lead to their recovery. Photographs of the murals are included.
  • Carriere, Marius. "Samuel Bond and the Crystal Palace Model." West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 41 (1987): 1-3.
  • Casey, Constance K. "Culture and Commerce." Chicago History 22: 3 (1993): 4-19.
  • Clarke, Jane H. "The Art Institute's Guardian Lions." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 14 (1988): 46-55.
    Clarke's brief history of the lions designed by Edward L. Kemeys for the Art Institute of Chicago also contains information on the design of the sculptural decoration of the World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Cressman, Jodi. "Helen Keller and the Mind's Eyewitness." Western Humanities Review 54:2 (Fall 2000): 108-23.
    The psychologist Joseph Jastrow's pavilion at the 1893 Fair put Helen Keller and all of her struggles on display. In her performances with Sullivan, the audience of the fair were rendered witnesses of Keller's consciousness.
  • Davis, Merle. "Sundays at the Fair: Iowa and the Sunday Closing of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." Palimpsest 74: 4 (1993): 156-9.
    Many states, including Iowa, had "blue laws" which made certain activities on the Christian Sabbath illegal. A debate arose over whether or not the World's Columbian Exposition should remain open on Sundays. Iowa and several other states decided to close their exhibits on Sundays, while the rest of the fair remained open.
  • Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer. "Revisiting the White City." Historical Preservation 45: 2 (1993): 42-49, 97-98.
    Although the fair was lauded by critics of the day as a wonder of urban planning and architecture, in retrospect it can be seen as halting the development of modern and functional American architecture. Dean delves into this debate by bringing to light its historical context and by analyzing the design of several key buildings. Includes photographs.
  • Dillon Diane. "Mapping Enterprise: Cartography and Commodification at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition."Nineteenth Century Geographies Ed. Helena Michie and Ronald Thomas. New Brunswick: Rutgers University, 2003.
  • Ebling, Charles W. "You Call That Damn Thing a Boat? More Than a Century Ago, Ships that Looked Like Nuclear Submarines were Everywhere on the Great Lakes." American Heritage of Invention and Technology. 17:2 (2001): 25-27.
    Examines the history of shipbuilding around the Great Lakes including ships that were used for the 1893 Columbian Exposition as ferryboats to carry visitors between downtown Chicago and the fairgrounds.
  • Garfinkle, Charlene G. "Lucia Fairchild Fuller's 'Lost' Woman's Building Mural." American Art 7: 1 (1993): 2-7.
    Up until recently, all of the murals of the Woman's Building were thought to be lost or destroyed. Only one, Fuller's The Women of Plymouth, has been located in New Hampshire. Includes photographs of the mural.
  • Gilbert, Emily. "Naturalist Metaphors in the Literatures of Chicago, 1893-1925." Journal of Historical Geography (Great Britain) 20:3 (1994): 283-304.
    Gilbert analyzes the use by turn of the century writers of organic metaphors to describe the modern city. She contextualizes this discussion by also looking at "other cultural projects of the period," one of which was the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Gilbert, James. "A Contest of Cultures." History Today 42 (July 1992): 33-39.
    The author asserts that the exposition's designers constructed the fair in a way that would promote "high culture," or the "superiority of European art and architecture and American Victorian moral sensibilities." This metaphor is explored by comparing and contrasting the manifestation of high culture, the White City, and its opposite as embodied in the Midway.
  • Gullett, Gayle. "'Our Great Opportunity': Organized Women Advanced Women's Work at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893." Illinois Historical Journal 87 (1994): 259-76.
    Organized women saw the Columbian Exposition as a chance to promote "organized womanhood" and the advancement of women. They also wanted to promote women's work, believing that all work was valuable if it remained faithful to women's "moral responsibilities to wards home and society." The efforts made at the exposition strengthened the women's movement and expanded the notion of women's politics.
  • Harris, Leo. "Wrecking to Save: The Chicago House Wrecking Company." Journal of the West 38:4(October 1999):65-74.
    Russian immigrant Moses Harris established a successful salvage business that reused materials from world's fairs. His companies included the Chicago House Wrecking Company and the Columbia Exposition Salvage Company in which he pioneered techniques for preserving historical materials by reusing them.
  • Harris, Moira F. "Curt Teich Postcards of Minnesota." Minnesota History 54: 7 (1995): 304-15.
    Harris expounds the historical value of studying postcards, specifically those of the Curt Teich Printing Company. The debut of the postcard at the 1893 world's fair is mentioned briefly.
  • Harris, Neil. "Dream Making." Chicago History 23: 2 (1994): 44-57.
  • Hinsley,Curtis M."The World as Marketplace: Commodification of the Exotic at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893." Exhibiting Cultures:The Poetics and Politics of Museum DisplayWashington>:Smithsonian Press,1991.344-65.
  • Hunt, Sylvia. "'Throw Aside the Veil of Helplessness': A Southern Feminist at the 1893 World's Fair." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 100: 1 (1996): 48-62.
    Hunt looks at the life and philosophy of Sue Huffman Brady, a woman representing the South who delivered a speech to the Congress of Women. By examining her life and the participation of other women at the fair, an assessment can be made about the extent to which southern women experienced concepts such as "separate spheres" and "feminism" in the context of the contemporary women's movement.
  • Hutton, John. "Picking Fruit: Mary Cassatt's Modern Woman and the Woman's Building of 1893." Feminist Studies 20: 2 (1994): 318-48.
    Although Cassatt's mural, Modern Woman, was derided by critics of the time, their criticisms are testament to the way in which her depiction of women broke boundaries in the late nineteenth century. Her nontraditional use of Eve and Eden imagery has been the subject of contemporary feminist discussion.
  • Kasson, Joy S. "At the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Buffalo Bill's Wild West: Celebrity, Memory, and Popular Culture. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000: 93-122.
  • Kennedy, Charles A. "When Cairo Met Main Street: Little Egypt, Salome Dancers, and the World's Fairs of 1893 and 1904."Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918. Ed. Michael Saffle. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. 271-298.
  • Klasey, Jack. "Who Invented the Ferris Wheel?" American History Illustrated 28: 4 (1993): 60-63.
    Klasey contemplates the true origin of the Ferris wheel asserting that although George Washington Gale Ferris is credited with its invention, its conceptual beginnings can be traced to earlier sources. He also touches upon the patent difficulties that Ferris encountered soon after the wheel's debut.
  • Madsen, Carol Cornwall. "Decade of Detente: The Mormon-Gentile Female Relationship in Nineteenth-Century Utah." Utah Historical Quarterly 63: 4 (1995): 298-319.
  • Madsen, Carol Cornwall."The Power of Combination': Emmeline B. Wells and the National and International Councils of Women." Brigham Young University Studies 33: 4 (1993): 646-73.
    Mentions the convening of the first meeting of the International Council of Women at the 1893 exposition and the impact this had on women's activism worldwide. Wells' participation in this meeting provided the impetus for her work in further developing women's networks.
  • Massa, Ann. "'The Columbian Ode' and Poetry, A Magazine of Verse: Harriet Monroe's Entrepreneurial Triumphs." Journal of American Studies 20: 1 (1986): 51-69.
    Massa discusses the performing of Harriet Monroe's "The Columbian Ode" at the opening ceremonies of Dedication Day at the 1893 exposition as well as the establishment of the first journal dedicated to the publication and criticism of poetry.
  • McCarthy, Michael P. "Should We Drink the Water?: Typhoid Fever Worries at the Columbian Exposition." Illinois Historical Journal 86: 1 (1993): 2-14.
    Polluted drinking water from Lake Michigan caused a typhoid fever epidemic in Chicago from 1890-1892. The British raised concerns about the Columbian Exposition because of the typhoid fear. The movement to rid Chicago of this disease provides a historical look at solving public health problems and improving sanitation and water supply mechanisms.
  • Meister, Chris. "The Texas State Building: J. Reily Gordon's Contribution to the World's Columbian Exposition." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 98: 1 (1994):1-24.
    Meister recounts the story of Texan participation in the fair and the process of selecting and then modifying Gordon's building design. The building's stylistic affect on subsequent architectural designs is also discussed.
  • Miller, Daniel T. "The Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the American National Character." Journal of American Culture 10 (Summer 1987): 17-22.
    Miller relies on contemporary published accounts of the fair to identify three "national traits": insecurity, discord and optimism.
  • Miller, Donald L. "The White City." American Heritage 44:4 (1993): 70-87.
    Although the World's Columbian Exposition was an amazing and historic event for the nation, it was even more so for the city of Chicago. Rising out of the ashes of the Great Fire of 1871, this world's fair marked a moment in time when Chicago was at its greatest and most dynamic. Miller traces both its rise and its fall in the shadow of economic depression.
  • Mills, Stephen F. "The Presentation of Foreigners in the Land of Immigrants: Paradox and Stereotype at the Chicago World Exposition." European Contributions to American Studies 34 (1996): 251-65.
    Mills is concerned primarily with the presentation of the Irish by the British at the Chicago world's fair. The Irish, he argues, were presented as the "modern," "after" product of Great Britain's civilization processes.
  • Nathan, Marvin. "Visiting the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in July 1893: A Personal View." Journal of American Culture 19: 2 (1996): 79-102.
    Analyzes a letter written by an "ordinary" visitor, Annie Finette Lynch, about her experiences at the Chicago world's fair. Includes the text of the letter, which was written to her younger sister, as well as numerous photographs.
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl. "In Search of Regional Expression: The Washington State Building at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 86: 4 (1995): 165-77.
    Although the Washington State building was commended for its uniqueness and beauty, its design was ultimately determined not by the state, but by D.H. Burnham, the fair's chief of construction. Burnham's choice for the building's design is indicative of eastern civic and business leaders' preconceived notion of western states as rural and primitive.
  • Paddon, Anna R. and Sally Turner. "African Americans and the World's Columbian Exposition." Illinois Historical Journal 88:1 (1995): 19-36.
    African American community leaders gathered in Chicago to deliberate how they should react to their exclusion from the fair's planning and exhibitions. The authors argue that their exclusion and the consequential process of responding to it helped to the lay the groundwork for twentieth century black political, social, and artistic movements.
  • Paddon, Anna R. and Sally Turner."Douglass's Triumphant Days at the World's Columbian Exposition." Proteus 12:1 (1995): 43-47.
    Paddon and Turner trace the change of heart that Frederick Douglass had for the Chicago world's fair, having first denounced it along with Ida B. Wells before its opening and then using his appointed position as commissioner from Haiti to champion the causes of African Americans within fair venues. They also include discussion of his address, "Honor to Their Race."
  • Palmer, Richard F. "Postcard Craze Engulfs the Great Lakes." Inland Seas 50: 1 (1994): 39-45.
    Discusses the origin and popularity of the postcard, mentioning the issuing of numerous souvenir postcards at the Chicago world's fair. Collecting and care and handling of postcards is also addressed.
  • Patton, Phil. "Mammy: Her Life and Times." American Heritage 44: 5 (1993): 78-87.
    Patton traces the evolution of the multi-faceted American icon, Mammy. He looks closely at Aunt Jemima, the commercial image used to sell baking goods, who made her debut at the World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Patton, Phil. "Sell the Cookstove if Necessary, but Come to the Fair." Smithsonian 24: 3 (1993): 38-51.
    Patton provides a general yet comprehensive overview of the World's Columbian Exposition phenomenon which encompasses the public's reaction, its architecture and splendor, and its commercialism. Patton also discusses aspects of racism and sexism at the fair including the segregation and exclusion of African Americans and the condescending nature with which Asians, Native Americans, and women were treated.
  • Phipps, Linda S. "The 1893 Art Institute Building and the ‘Paris of America': Aspirations of Patrons and Architects in Late Nineteenth-Century Chicago," Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 14: 1 (1988): 28-45.
  • Rabinovitz, Laura."The Fair View: The 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition." For the Love of Pleasure: Women, Movies, and Culture in Turn of the Century Chicago. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998: 47-67.
  • Raibmon, Paige."Theatres of Contact: The Kwakwak'wakw Meet Colonialism in British Columbia and the Chicago World's Fair." Canadian Historical Review 81: 2(June 2000):157-191.
    Focuses on the reaction of spectators to the performers from Vancouver Island during the Fair. Description of the version of the hamasta, or cannibal dance, a spiritually and politically important tribal initiation rite, and assertion of their cultural persistence.
  • Reinhart, Richard. "The Midway Plaisance--Notorious Ancestor of Today's Amusement Parks." World's Fair 12 (April-June 1993): 15-19.
    Reinhart captures the lasciviousness of the Midway, the first amusement area officially part of an American fair.
  • Ridge, Martin. "Turner the Historian: A Long Shadow." Journal of the Early Republic 13: 2 (1993): 132-44.
    Mentions briefly Frederick Jackson Turner's address, "The Significance of the American Frontier in American History," given at the 1893 world's fair.
  • Rudwick, Elliot and August Meier. "Black Man in the ‘White City': Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Phylon 26 (Winter 1965): 354-61.
  • Rydell, Robert. "The Chicago World's Columbian Exposition of 1893: ‘And was Jerusalem Builded Here?'" Representing the Nation: A Reader: Histories, Heritage, and Museums. Ed. D. Boswell and Jessica Evans. London: Routledge, 1999.
  • Savory, Jerold J. "Cartoon Commentary." Chicago History 23: 1 (1994): 32-57.
  • Shaw, Marian. "The Fair in Black and White." Chicago History 22: 2 (1993): 54-72.
  • Steiner, Michael. "Parables of Stone and Steel: Architectural Images of Progress and Nostalgia at the Columbian Exposition and Disneyland." American Studies 42:1 (2001): 39-67.
    As a way to gauge changing perceptions of technological progress, compares public attitudes toward Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition to those toward Disneyland since its 1955 opening. Fairgoers of 1893 were fascinated and overwhelmed by the technological features offered at the Chicago exposition, while early visitors to Disneyland longed for the Old West, while also marveling at what tomorrow could bring.
  • Swaim, Ginalie, Becky Hawbaker, Lisa Moran, and Bill Silag. "Iowans at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition: What They Took to the Fair, What They Did There, and What They Brought Home." Palimpsest 74: 4 (1993): 161-87.
  • Tehranian, Katherine Kia. "The Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1893: A Symbol of Modernism." Proceedings of the National Conference on American Planning History 5 (1993): 500-511.
    Traces the development of urban planning in America as well as the significance of it at the Chicago world's fair. The planning of this exposition was one of the first large scale projects in which a group of experts was brought together to work collaboratively.
  • Vaillant, Derek."Preludes of Reform:the Chicago Jubilee,Thomas 'summer nights' concerts,and the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." Sounds of Reform:Progressivism and Music in Chicago,1873-1935.Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2003.
  • Valis, Noël. "Women's Culture in 1893: Spanish Nationalism and the Chicago World's Fair." Letras Peninsulares 13:2-3(2001):633-64.
  • Vendl, Karen and Mark Vendl. "The Mines and Mining Building of the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893: A Photographic Essay." Mining History Journal 8 (2001): 30-41.
    The architecture and internal design of the Mines and Mining Building, one of 14 primary exhibit halls constructed for Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, recognized the industry's importance to America's economy, workforce, and culture by showcasing mineral samples, new technology, and production methods from mines in Colorado, Montana, Michigan, and other states, as well as several other nations.
  • Weimann, Jeanne Madeline. "The Great 1893 Woman's Building: Can We Measure up in 1992." MS Magazine 41(March 1983): 65-67.
  • Wills, Garry. "Sons and Daughters of Chicago." New York Review of Books 61: 11 (June 1994): 52-59.
    A review of several books on Chicago and the World's Columbian Exposition, principally on the architecture of the fair, the Women's Pavilion, and Chicago architects including Daniel Burnham, H.H. Richardson and Frank Lloyd Wright.
  • Wilmerding, John. "Essential Reading." American Art 11: 2 (1997): 28-35.
    This piece primarily discusses the life of Henry Adams and his autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams. Adams' philosophy on learning was changed by his visit to the 1893 world's fair and what he saw as "an image of American unity."
  • Wilson, Matthew. "The Advent of the 'Nigger': The Careers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Henry O. Tanner, and Charles W. Chesnutt." American Studies 43:1 (2002): 5-50.
  • Wilson, William H. "The World's Columbian Exposition and the City Beautiful Movement: What Really Happened?" Proceedings of the National Conference on American Planning History 5 (1993): 487-99.
    Asserts that the "White City" influenced the City Beautiful movement in terms of design, collaboration, and the use of experts, but did not begin or lead the movement of "comprehensive city planning." Architects of the City Beautiful movement purposely tied their efforts to the world's fair in order to advance their own agendas.
  • Zimmerman, Karen P. "Promoting the Prairie Cornucopia: South Dakota at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." South Dakota History 23: 4 (1993): 281-300.
    Considering the difficulties of South Dakota's first years of statehood, Governor Mellette saw the fair as an opportunity to bolster the state's image and encourage immigration. Zimmerman discusses the effort to appropriate funds for the state's participation, the role of citizens in garnering the needed support, and the agricultural theme of the state building. Includes photographs.
  • Ziolkowski, Eric J. "Waking Up From Akbar's Dream: The Literary Profiguration of Chicago's 1893 World's Parliament of Religions." The Journal of Religion 73 (January 1993): 42-60.
    The author brings together the worlds of religion and literature by arguing that the Parliament of Religions traces its origins to "a concurrent maverick theme of religious tolerance that had been emergent in Western literature since the Middle Ages." The author asserts that these themes influenced the parliament's chairman through the "poetry of Alfred Tennyson."

California Midwinter International Exposition, San Francisco 1894

Articles

  • Berglund, Barbara. "The Days of Old, the Days of Gold, the Days of '49: Identity, History, and memory at the California Midwinter International Exposition, 1894." Public Historian 25:4 (Fall 2003): 25-49.

Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta 1895

Articles

  • Lorini,Alessandra."International Expositions in Chicago and Atlanta:Rituals of Progress and Reconciliation."Rituals of Race:American Public Culture and the Search for Racial Democracy.Charlottesville:U.of Virginia Press,1999:33-75.
  • Newman, Harvey K. "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." Georgia Historical Quarterly 80: 1 (1996): 53-76.
    Discusses primarily early hotels such as the Kimball House and businesses like traveling circuses. The impact of prohibition is also addressed. Mention is made of the 1881 Cotton Exposition while the 1895 Cotton Exposition is dealt with in more detail.

Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 Omaha, Nebraska

Articles

  • Beam, Patrice K. "The Last Victorian Fair: The Trans-Mississippi International Exposition." Journal of the West 33: 1 (1994): 10-23.
    Provides a general overview of different aspects of the fair and places the fair within an American historical context. Includes photographs as well as a table of attendance figures from world's fairs from 1851 to 1904.
  • Moore, Sarah J. "Mapping Empire in Omaha and Buffalo: World's Fairs and the Spanish American War." Bilingual Review/ La Revista Bilingüe 25:1 (2000): 111-126.

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1900

Articles

  • Mogensen, Margit."New Technology for Social Health: the Finsen Lamp at the World Exhibition in Paris,1900." ICON: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology. 7(2001):35-48.
  • Robinson, Joyce Henri. "M Exhibits: Exposing Art in 2000." Museum News (Sept/Oct. 2000): 39-63.
    Review of two traveling exhibits based on the 1900 Exposition, and their attempt to recreate the ambiance of the original exhibition. Did the art of the time belong to the Post-Impressionist giants in the 1880s or to the early twentieth century artists?
  • Smeds, Kerstin. "A Paradise Called Finland." Scandinavian Journal of Design History (Denmark): 6 (1996): 62-77.
    Amidst a tumultuous history of war between Sweden and Russia, one way in which Finland attempted to establish its distinctive national identity was through architecture. The Finnish Pavilion at the 1900 world's fair was a key example of "nation-building" during a period of imposed Russification. The pavilion is discussed in the early portion of the article. Photographs are also included.
  • Trocme, Helen. "1900: Les Americains a l'Exposition Universelle de Paris." Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines 59 (1994): 35-44.

1901 Pan-American Exposition Buffalo, New York

Articles

  • Bamford, Heidi. "A Century Ago: Behind the Scenes with 'Uncle Hank': The 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo." Nineteenth Century 21:2 (2002):44-47.
    Looks back on the 1901 Exposition, how it came into being, and a book that was written by Thomas Fleming, Around the ‘Pan' with Uncle Hank: His Trip Through the Pan-American Exposition.
  • Bewley, Michele Ryan. "The New World in Unity: Pan-America Visualized at Buffalo in 1901." New York History 84:2 (2003): 179-203.

Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, South Carolina 1901-1902

Articles

  • Bland, Sidney R. "Women and World's Fairs: The Charleston Story." South Carolina Historical Magazine 94: 3 (1993): 166-84.
    World's fairs at the turn of the century began to celebrate the accomplishments of women. Women's pavilions and activities from previous world's fairs set the precedent for following women's forums, including that of the West Indian Exposition. The Woman's Department formed the backbone of organizing efforts and in the process created an image of the southern woman as having aspects of both "traditional womanhood and new womanhood."
  • Harvey, Bruce. "'Struggles and Triumphs' Revisited: Charleston's West Indian Exposition and the Development of Urban Progressivism" Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1988): 85-93.
    Despite ending up bankrupt by the end of the fair, the West Indian Exposition can be seen, according to Harvey, as a success for the city of Charleston. The fair was an effort to establish Progressivism in the southern business community and revive the southern economy.
  • Smyth, William. "Blacks and the South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition." South Carolina Historical Magazine 88: 4 (1987): 211-219.
    Smyth looks specifically at the Negro Building as well as the Negro Department which had Booker T. Washington as its chief commissioner. The organizers of the building wanted to showcase black progress in industry, education, and agriculture. Smyth asserts that the building was well received by visitors and helped to unite blacks in the South.

Esposizione Internazionale de Disegno, Turin 1902

Articles

  • Weisberg, Gabriel P. "The Turin Exposition of International Design 1902: The Mystery of the Stile Floreale and the Palazzina of Augostino Lauro." Arts Magazine 62 (April 1988): 32-36.
    During a period in which Italian design was considered "weak," the Turin Exposition was designed to stimulate the creative forces of Italian artistry in buildings and furniture by placing their works in direct competition with foreign designs. The exposition marked the debut of a new, original Italian style called Stile Floreale. The Palazzina was built to demonstrate this modern style.

Louisiana Purchase International Exposition, St. Louis 1904

Articles

  • Afable, Patricia O. "The Exhibition of Cordillerans in the United States during the Early 1900's." The Igorot Quarterly 6: 2 (1997): 19-22.
    A large Philippine exhibit which included an estimated 800 to 1000 Filipinos was created for the fair in order to display the United States' recently acquired colonial spoils and justify its imperial presence in the Philippines. Afable discusses some of the key features of the exhibit, its popularity, and the present day effort to unearth more information about its Igorot participants. Includes references.
  • Armstrong, Agnes. "The Organ in the Iowa State Building at the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition." The Tracker: Journal of the Organ Historical Society. 36:4 (1992): 25-30.
  • Barr, Bernadine Courtright. "Entertaining and Instructing the Public: John Zahorsky's 1904 Incubator Institute." Social History of Medicine (Great Britain) 8: 1 (1995): 17-36.
  • Blumentritt, Mia. "Bontoc Eulogy, History and the Craft of Memory: An Extended Conversation with Marlon E. Fuentes." Amerasia Journal 24: 3(1998): 75-91.
    Concerned with the Filipino experience at the St. Louis Fair, and the historical importance of the fair to Filipinos as well as the conditions of the indigineous Filipinos who were brought to the Fair.
  • Book, Jeff. "Return of a Giant." Smithsonian 34:12 (2004): 27-28.Book, Jeff. “Return of a Giant.” Smithsonian 34:12 (2004): 27-28.
    Birmingham, Alabama was a major iron-making center at the beginning of the 20th century: to prove this to the world, they built a colossal iron statue of Vulcan, Roman God of the forge for the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. The statue has been restored, and now sits in Vulcan Park.
  • Christ, Carol. "Japan's Seven Acres: Politics and Aesthetics at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 2-15.
    For Japan, the 1904 world's fair was the opportunity to present two images to the world. In the midst of Western imperial encroachment into Asia, Japan wanted to project an image of military strength equal to that of the United States and Great Britain. On the other hand, Japan provided fair goers with an image of uniqueness based on ancient culture and tradition that resisted the imposition of Western standards. Some of the areas covered by the article are Japanese participation in earlier world's fairs, Japanese collaboration with American anthropologists to exhibit the indigenous Ainu, the Russo-Japanese War, and Japanese aesthetics. Includes photographs and a brief bibliography of primary and secondary resources.
  • Christ, Carol. "The Sole Guardians of the Art Inheritance of Asia: Japan and China at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 8:3 (2000): 675-709.
    Describes Japanese participation in the 1904 World's Fair, and Japan's use of the Exposition to claim the status of colonial power. Distinctions between the Japanese and Chinese, and how they were viewed by the world.
  • Clevenger, Martha R. "Through Western Eyes: Americans Encounter Asians at the Fair." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 42-51.
    The world's fairs showcased what organizers believed was "progress" according to Western standards. These standards were used to judge non-Western cultures and deem them uncivilized and backward. Organizers juxtaposed these cultural exhibitions in order to educate attendees of the "benefits" of Western progress. Clevenger discusses the impact that the Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino exhibits had on audiences based on the personal accounts of four fair attendees. She also delves into greater detail about each country's exhibit. This piece was adapted from an excerpt from Clevenger's "Indescribably Grand": Diaries and Letters from the 1904 World's Fair. Includes photographs and short bibliography.
  • Cody, Davis C. "Henry Adams and the City of Brass." New England Quarterly 60 (1987): 89-91.
    Adams used the phrase "the city of brass" to describe the night time illumination of the St. Louis fairgrounds. Cody traces its history and reveals the more ominous meanings of the phrase in noting that Kipling and the tales of Scheherazade used the "city of brass" as a metaphor for "a ghastly monument of spiritual starvation in the midst of material plenty."
  • Crets, Jennifer. "What the Carnival is at Rome, the Fair is at St. Louis: the Nascent Years of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair." Gateway Heritage 22:4 (2002): 22-33.
  • Dyreson, Mark. "The Playing Fields of Progress: American Athletic Nationalism and the 1904 Olympics." Gateway Heritage 16: 2 (1995): 18-37.
    The 1904 Olympic Games were held in conjunction with the world's fair. The games were incorporated into the fair as an example of "social technology," a theme that coincided with the touting of human progress at all world's fairs. Photographs are included.
  • Edwards, Sue Bradford. "Imperial East Meets Democratic West: The St. Louis Press and the Fair's Chinese Delegation." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 32-41.
    Despite being invited to the world's fair by fair officials, the majority of the Chinese delegation was subjected to negative treatment, harassment, and curfews. Only high ranking Chinese officials like Prince Pu Lun and Wong Kai Kah were treated better, but only after initially being portrayed by the media as "backwards and bizarre." Discussion focuses around Chinese and Western commercial relations, stereotypes held by Americans of Chinese, Chinese laborers in the U.S., and the experiences of the Chinese delegation at the fair. Photographs and a short bibliography are included.
  • Everdell, William R. "Meet Me in Saint Louis: Modernism Comes to Middle America, 1904." The First Moderns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. 206-226.
  • Feldman, Richard D. "The Golden Hill Totem Pole of Indianapolis: The Missing Totem Pole from the Brady Collection of Sitka National Historical Park." American Indian Art Magazine 21: 2 (1996): 58-71.
    Delineates Feldman's search for the Alaskan totem pole that was once displayed at the 1904 fair and then found its way to the Indianapolis, Indiana neighborhood of Golden Hill.
  • Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. "The Early Artistic Jewelry of Louis C. Tiffany." The Magazine Antiques (1971) 162: 1 (July 2002): 90-5.
    Louis Comfort Tiffany's earliest jewelry was exhibited at the 1904 Exhibition, and received more attention from art critics than did Tiffany and Company's displays.
  • Grindstaff, Beverly K. "Creating Identity: Exhibiting the Philippines at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition." National Identities 1 : 3 (Nov. 1999): 245-264.
    Focuses on the Philippine culture exhibit at the fair and the importance of the Exhibition in creating Philippine identity.
  • Gunning, Tom. "The World as Object Lesson: Cinema Audiences, Visual Culture, and the St. Louis World's Fair, 1904." Film History 6 (1994): 422-44.
  • Gustaitis, Joseph. "Who Invented the Ice Cream Cone?" American History Illustrated 23 (1988): 42-44.
    This brief article describes the convergence of rolled waffles and ice cream at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and names the contenders for the title of inventor of the ice cream cone.
  • Kierstead, Matthew A. "Vulcan: Birmingham's Industrial Colossus." IA: the Journal of the Society of Industrial Archaeology 28:1 (2002):59-74.
    Vulcan, the largest cast-iron statue in the world was conceived by a Birmingham, Alabama, businessman as a dramatic booster for the industry of the city and the South for display at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition…the statue was a sensation at the fair.
  • Kramer, Paul. "Making Concessions: Race and Empire Revisited at the Philippine Exposition, 1901-1905." Radical History Review 73 (1999): 74-114.
    Justifying overseas colonies and the American presence in the Philippines was difficult for those who worked to establish American imperialism abroad at the turn of the century. One way of promoting imperialism was through expositions. Kramer explores these efforts and their outcomes by closely examining the Philippine Exposition at the 1904 world's fair.
  • Laurie, Clayton D. "An Oddity of Empire: The Philippine Scouts and the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 15: 3 (1994-95): 44-55.
    The Philippine Exhibit, designed to showcase American imperialism was one of the largest and most frequently visited displays at the fair. Within the exhibit, the most popular native group featured was the US Army Philippine Scouts, "Filipino soldiers who served the American military establishment in the archipelago." These soldiers were used to quell popular rebellions against the Americans during the colonization process. Photographs are included.
  • Lerner, Michael. "Hoping for a Splendid Summer: African-American St. Louis, Ragtime, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition." Gateway Heritage 19:3 (1998-99): 28-41.
    By supporting and participating in the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, African Americans hoped to promote the economic advancement of the black community. The Exposition never welcomed African American artists like ragtime musicians and some groups did boycott the fair.
  • Long, Burke O. "Lakeside at Chautauqua's Holy Land." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 92 (March 2001): 1-26.
    Presents information on the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the idea of the holy land in the American Republic, with background on the Palestine Park.
  • Miyatake, Kimio. "Jinruigaku to Orinpikku: Ainu to 1904 nen Sentoruisu Orinpikku." Hokkaido Daigaku Bungaku-bu Kiyo [Japan] 108 (2002): 1-22.
  • Moenster, Kathleen. "Jessie Beals: Official Photographer of the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 3:2 (1982): 22-29.
  • Mullen, Robert. "The First Monument to the Third President: The World's Fair Comes to an End." Gateway Heritage 16: 1 (1995): 14-19.
    After the closing of the 1904 fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company (LPEC) had a surplus of profit. The LPEC, as its final act, decided to erect a monument to Thomas Jefferson with the excess funds. The Jefferson Memorial Building was finally built in 1913. Includes photographs.
  • Parezo, Nancy, and John Troutman."The Shy Cocopa Go to the Fair."Selling the Indian: Commercializing & Appropriating American Indian Cultures.Ed. Carter Jones Meyer and Diana Royer.Tucson, AZ.:University of Arizona Press,2001. 3-43.
  • Paul, Andrea I. "Nebraska's Home Movies: The Nebraska Exhibit at the 1904 World's Fair." Nebraska History 76: 1 (1995): 22-27.
  • Peavy, Linda and Ursula Smith. "World Champions: the 1904 Girl's Basketball Team from Fort Shaw Indian Boarding School." Montana 51:4(2001): 2-25.
  • Sanger, Chesley W. and Anthony B. Dickenson. "The Construction and Display of the First Full-Scale Model of a Blue Whale: The Newfoundland Connection." Acadiensis (Canada) 27:1 (1997): 67-84.
  • Scott, Catherine. "Pygmy in the Zoo: the Story of Ota Benga." Bronx County Historical Society Journal 38:2 (2001): 84-95.
    In 1904, an American explorer brought a number of pygmies to America whom he exhibited at the World's Fair. One of them, Ota Benga ended up on display in the Bronx Zoo, which outraged the African American community.
  • Shapiro-Shapin, Carolyn G. "Filtering the City's Image: Progressivism, Local Control, and the St. Louis Water Supply, 1890-1906." Journal of the History of Medicine 54 (July 1999): 387-412.
    St. Louisans realized that a successful fair depended on the world perceiving their city as a healthy locale, despite the increase in typhoid fever. The article discusses the advances towards “pure water,” and the need for visitors to see the improvements.
  • Simpson, Pamela. "Meet Me in St. Louis: Lexingtonians Go to the Fair." Proceedings of the Rockbridge Historical Society (Lexington, Va.) 10 (1980-1989): 355-64.
    This address presented a general overview of the fair covering features such as its planning, exhibitions, and architecture. It includes discussion of how Lexingtonians reacted to the fair. Photographs are also included.
  • Smith, Jeffrey E. "A Mirror Held to St. Louis: William Marion Reedy and the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 19:1(1998): 32-39.
  • Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid. "'Classic Serenity' or 'Oriental Splendor': Cass Gilbert's Designs for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904." Nineteenth Century 19:2 (1999): 35-43.
  • Trennert, Robert A. "A Resurrection of Native Arts and Crafts: The St. Louis World's Fair, 1904." Missouri Historical Review 87: 3 (1993): 274-92.
  • VanStone, James W. "The Ainu Group at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904." Arctic Anthropology 30: 2 (1993): 77-91.
  • Vostral, Sharra L. "Imperialism on Display: The Philippine Exhibition at the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 13: 4 (1993): 18-31.
    The Philippine Exhibition left fair goers with the image of Filipinos as savage, barbaric dog-eaters. The exhibition was constructed as propaganda to justify US imperialism in the Philippines. The US was portrayed as "benevolent" and civilizing and economic investment in the islands was encouraged. Discussion of US involvement in the Spanish-American War and the consequent annexation of the Philippines is included. Photographs are included as well.
  • Watkins, W. Merle and Bill Watkins. "The World's Fair in a Rowboat." Goldenseal 27:2 (2001): 66-71.

Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, Jamestown, VA. 1907

Articles

  • Gleach, Frederic W. "Pocahontas at the Fair: Crafting Identities at the 1907 Jamestown Exposition." Ethnohistory 50:3(Summer 2003): 419-446.
    The 1907 Exposition was held to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the English settlement. The Powhatan Indians were seeking ways to improve their conditions – this article explores the ways in which their performances were intertwined with identity construction.

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco 1915

Articles

  • Eggener, Keith L. "Maybeck's Melancholy: Architecture, Empathy, Empire, and Mental Illness at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition." Winterthur Portfolio 29: 4 (1994): 211-26.
    This article examines the Palace of Fine Arts and its creator, Bernard Maybeck. Through architecture, he tried to build an environment where the structure, viewer, and artworks would be linked, conveying to the visitor the feeling of "melancholy," or sadness and seriousness, that the artworks evoked. The mental disorder "melancholia" in the early 1900s and its relation to Maybeck's structure is also addressed. Illustrations and photographs are included.
  • Ewald, Donna and Peter Clute. "America in Photographs: The Enchanted City." American History Illustrated 27: 3 (1992): 46-57.
    In the aftermath of the 1906 earthquake, businessman Reuben Hale spearheaded the formation of a committee to create an exposition that would celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal. This article includes numerous photographs documenting various aspects of the fair such as its construction and the "Zone," the fair's amusement district.
  • Lundberg, Robert. "The Art Room in the Oregon Building: Oregon Arts and Crafts in 1915." Oregon Historical Quarterly 102:2 (2000): 214-227.
    Surveys the artistic holdings in the Oregon Building Art Room at the Exposition including basketry, books, furniture, music, paintings, and photography.
  • Reinhardt, Richard. "Day of the Daredevil." American Heritage of Invention and Technology 11:2 (1995): 10-21.
    Tells the story of Lincoln Beachey, a thrill seeking aviator who plunged to his death as spectators watched from the shores of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, and Art Smith, an aviator who flew successfully at the same fair. Photographs are included.
  • Shields, Scott A. "The Panama Pacific International Exposition Silver Spade." Silver Magazine March/April (2000):24-25.
    In 1911, President William Taft went to San Francisco to break ground for the Pan-Pacific Exposition of 1915. During the groundbreaking, he used a sterling silver spade created especially for the occasion; one of the few sterling silver shovels ever made in the U.S..
  • Williams, Reba White. "Prints in the United States, 1900-1918." Prints Quarterly (Great Britain) 14: 2 (1997): 151-73.
    This article focuses on the history prints in the early part of the twentieth century and makes mention of the Panama-Pacific Exposition as the host of the first large exhibition of American prints. Appendix D includes a list of American prize winners at the fair.

Panama California Exhibition, San Diego 1915-1916

Articles

  • Amero, Richard. "The Southwest on Display at the Panama-California Exposition." Journal of San Diego History 36 (1990): 183-220.
    Amero presents a detailed history of the Panama California Exhibition. He discusses the planning process as well as many of the buildings and their distinctive use of Southwestern motifs. Includes numerous photographs.
  • Bokovoy, Matthew F. "Peers of Their White Conquerors: The San Diego Expositions and Modern Spanish Heritage in the Southwest 1880-1940." New Mexico Historical Review 78:4 (2003): 387-418.
    The 1915 Exhibition focused on the southwest and it's cultures with an extensive section devoted to Native Americans including displaying Hopi, Navajo, and Pueblo Indians in “their natural state.” The author also discusses the 1935 Exposition and the relationship between Whites and Mexicans.
  • Kropp, Phoebe. "There is a Little Sermon in That:Constructing the Native Southwest at the San Diego Panama-California Exposition of 1915." The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company. Ed. Marta Weigle. Phoenix:Heard Museum, 1996.

British Empire Exhibition, Wembly 1924

Articles

  • August, Tom. "Art and Empire -- Wembley 1924." History Today 43 (1993): 38-44.
  • Walthew, K. "The British Empire Exhibition of 1924." History Today 31 (1981): 34-39.

Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, Paris 1925

Articles

  • Gura, Judith B. "Modernism and the 1925 Paris Exposition." Magazine Antiques 158 (2000): 194-200.
  • Hillier, Bevis and Stephen Escritt. "Strictly Modern: The 1925 Paris Exposition and the State of European Decoration." Art Deco Style. London: Phaidon, 1997.Articles

Sesquicentennial International Exposition, Philadelphia 1926

Articles

  • Lucas, J. "The Greatest Gathering of Olympians: an Historical Flashback." Olympian 9:2 (Jul/Aug. 1984): 6-8.

Exposition Coloniale Internationale, Paris 1931

Articles

  • Evans, Martin. "Projecting a Greater France: Martin Evans contrasts the Triumphalism of France's 1931 Colonial Exhibition in Paris with the Rotten Reality of its Ramshackle Empire." History Today 50:2 (2000): 18-32.
  • Hodeir, Catherine. "La ‘Fee Electricite' a L' Exposition Coloniale Internationale de Paris (1931)." Outre-Mers: Revue d'Historie [France] 89:1(2002):55-69.

Century of Progress, Chicago 1933-1934

Articles

  • Boehm, Lisa Krisoff. "The Fair and the Fan Dancer: A Century of Progress and Chicago's Image." Chicago History 27:2(1998): 42-55.
    Chicago's second World's Fair was supposed to transform Chicago's image from that of a frontier, vice-ridden town to one of sophisticated metropolis supporting the finest cultural events: this was not the case.
  • Havlik, Robert J. "The Chicago Century of Progress Sky-Ride 1932-1935." Image File: A Journal from the Curt Teich Postcard Archives 7: 1 (1992): 3-6.
    A commercial success rather than an engineering wonder, the Sky Ride's design, construction and demolition are the subject of this article.
  • Kay, Gwen. "Seeing the Fair the FDA Way: the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition." Journal of Illinois History 5:3(2002):197-212.
    Details how the Food and Drug Administration used its exhibit space in the Government building at the Exposition to further its agenda of revising the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in order to better protect the consumer.
  • Kegl, Rosemary. "Wrapping Togas over Elizabethan Garb: Tabloid Shakespeare at the 1934 Chicago World's Fair." Renaissance Drama 28 (1999): 73-97.
    Examines the popularity of the 1934 Chicago World's Fair and focuses on the reconstruction of England's Globe Theater which presented forty minute productions of Shakespeare's plays.
  • Ohman, Marian. "Major N. Clark Smith in Chicago." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 96:1(2003): 49-79.
    Chronicles the career of N. Clark Smith, a leading African American composer and his role in "Negro Day" at the fair.
  • Sherman, Jane. "Ruth St. Denis: the Lost Ballet." Dance Chronicle 20:1 (1997): 49-62.
    Ruth St. Denis was appointed dance director for the 1933-34 Century of Progress International Exposition. She produced a detailed plan for the ambitious project called the Ballet of the States, but it was not produced as it was declared too expensive.
  • Talbot-Stanaway, Susan. "The Giant Jewel." Chicago History 22: 2 (1993): 4-23.
    Evaluates the architecture of Chicago's Century of Progress Exposition of the summers of 1933 and 1934, paying special attention to the color scheme assigned to fair buildings designed by Joseph Urban.

California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego 1935-1936

Articles

  • Bokovoy, Matthew F. "The FHA and the Culture of Abundance at the 1935 San Diego World's Fair." Journal of the American Planning Association 68: 4 (Autumn 2002): 371-387.
    Explores the debate about modern housing in the history of Southern California with an examination of the Federal Housing Administration's participation in the Fair.

Empire Exhibition, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1936

Articles

  • Robinson, Jennifer. "Johannesburg's 1936 Empire Exhibition: Interaction, Segregation and Modernity in a South African City." Journal of Southern African Studies 29: 3 (Sept. 2003): 759-790.
    The article explores the implications of the encounters and juxtapositions that took place there for understanding the meanings of interaction and segregation in South African cities at this time.

Exposition International des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris 1937

Articles

  • Barker, Michael. "International Exhibitions at Paris Culminating with the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la vie moderne - Paris 1937." Decorative Arts Society 27 (2003): 7-21.
    Discusses a number of expositions in Paris, but focuses on 1937 and the pavilions and architecture from the various participating countries.
  • Chipp, Herschel. "The First Step Towards Guernica." Arts Magazine 64 (1988): 62-67.
    Chipp studies Picasso's plans for his 1937 Paris World's Fair mural and their relationship with Guernica.
  • da Costa Meyer, Esther. "Cruel Metonymies: Lilly Reich's Designs for the 1937 World's Fair." New German Critique 76 (Winter 1999): 161-190.
  • Ryckelynek, Xavier. "L'Expo de 1937." Gavroche 35 (Sept.-Oct. 1987):17-21.

Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco 1939-1940

Articles

  • Rubens, Lisa. "Re-Presenting the Nation: The Golden Gate International Exposition." European Contributions to American Studies [Netherlands] 27 (1994): 121-139.
    Traces the development of the GGIE and analyzes its content. The fair departed from tradition in its eclectic organization of exhibits which included productions, displays, lectures, films, demonstrations, and bazaars.

New York World's Fair, 1939-1940

Articles

  • Becker, Ron. "Hear - and -See Radio: In the World of Tomorrow: RCA and the Presentation of Television at the World's Fair, 1939-40." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 21:4 (2001): 361-378.
    "Building the World of Tomorrow" marked the first public presentation of television. Fairgoers viewed news broadcasts and boxing matches, but with the U.S. entry into W.W. II, television was not brought into most American homes until the 1950's.
  • Cogdell, Christina. "The Futurama Recontextualized: Norman Bel Geddes's Eugenic World of Tomorrow." American Quarterly 52: 2 (2000): 193-245.
    Norman Bel Geddes, a designer known for his innovations in lighting, set, and theater design, developed 4 exhibits at the Fair. Eugenics formed the basis of Futurama, which showed his idea of the evolutionary hierarchy of the Anglo-American.
  • Cowell, Elspeth. "The Canadian Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair and the Development of Modernism in Canada." Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada (March 1994): 13-20.
  • Cull, Nicholas J. "Overture to an Alliance: British Propaganda at the New York World's Fair, 1939-40." Journal of British Studies 36: 3 (1997): 325-54.
    An integral part of British strategy to promote its empire in the eyes of the U.S. citizens in preparation for war was the British Pavilion at the Fair. President Roosevelt had invited King George VI to attend the fair: this was a big success for U.S.- British relations.
  • Fotsch, Paul Mason. "The Building of a Superhighway Future at the New York World's Fair." Cultural Critique 48 (Spring 2001):65-97.
  • Gelvin, James L. "Zionism and the Representation of Jewish Palestine at the New York World's Fair, 1939-40." International History Review 22 :1 (2000): 37-64.
    One American effort at promoting Zionism in the United States was a Jewish Palestine pavilion at the 1939 Fair, and was an exceptionally contentious display.
  • Groh, Karl F. "Rapid Transit to New York World's Fair I, 1939-40." Headlights 54: 3-4 (1992): 3-9.
  • Hart, Jeffrey. "Yesterday's America of Tomorrow." Commentary 80 (1985): 62-65.
    Hart provides a brief overview of the New York fair asserting that it was the international exposition that was the most successful in conveying the notions of "progress and enlightenment." Its planners had two motives: first, they wanted to show fair goers that the means for overcoming the Great Depression were available, and second, they wanted to showcase and promote democracy.
  • Kuznick, Peter J. "Losing the World of Tomorrow: The Battle Over the Presentation of Science at the New York World's Fair." American Quarterly 46: 3 (1994): 341-73.
    Scientists with the intention of popularizing science as more than just "gadgets, commodities, and magic," were denied an active role in the planning of the New York World's Fair. Scientists and their desire to present "pure science" at the fair were marginalized, thus foreshadowing the "corporate appropriation" of science for military and industrial ends.
  • Marchand, Roland."The Designers Go to the Fair, II: Norman Bel Geddes,the General Motors 'Futurama,' and the Visit-to-the-Factory Transformed." Design History:An Anthology. Ed. Dennis Doordan. Cambridge, MA:MIT press, 1995. 103-121.
  • Nye, David E. "The 1939 New York World's Fair." In American Technological Sublime. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1994.
    Nye refers to the 1939 World's Fair in New York as a "man-made sublime" event, which featured the "marriage of modernism and the vernacular of Broadway." Contributors to the Fair strove to demonstrate that modern technology and science could solve the problems of the world, specifically, the economic crisis of the time - the Great Depression.
  • Swift, Anthony. "The Soviet World of Tomorrow at the New York World's Fair, 1939." Russian Review 57:3 (1998):364-380.
  • Turim, Gayle. "Remembering a Fine Fair." Americana 17:3 (1989): 50-54.

Brussels's World's Fair of 1958

Articles

  • Devos, Rika. "Het Vaticaanse Paviljoen Op Expo 58 En De Moderne Religieuze Kunst in Belgie." Trajecta [Netherlands] 10:3 (2001): 244-263.

Century 21 Exhibition: 1962 Seattle, Washington

Articles

  • Bernklow, Gary M. "Seattle's Century 21, 1962." Pacific Northwest Forum. 7:1(1994): 68-80.
    Describes the Century 21 Exposition as one of the most successful world's fairs ever: attracted extensive media attention, boosted the local economy, supported urban renewal, and generated a site that could be used for multiple purposes after the fair ended.

New York World's Fair 1964-65

Articles

  • Symmes,Marilyn."Remembering the Fountain of the Planets at the New York World's Fair,1964-65."Fountains:Splash and Spectacle:Water and Design from Renaissance to the Present. Marilyn Symmes, ed. New York: Rizzoli,1998.

Montreal Expo 67: Man and His World

Articles

  • "The Centennial and Expo." Maclean's 1 112:26 (July 1999): 42-44.
    Discusses how the centennial celebrations in Canada and the World's Fair Expo '67 brought out pride and confidence within the country.
  • Brydon, Sherry. "The Indians of Canada Pavilion at Expo 67." American Indian Art Magazine 22:3 (1997): 54-63.
  • Kroller, Eva-Marie. "Expo '67: Canada's Camelot?" Canadian Literature 152/153 (Spring/Summer 1997): 36-52.
    Describes Canada's hosting of and participation in Expo '67,and its social and political implications; including the marginalized role of women at the exposition and a comparison with other world expositions.
  • Safdie, Moshe. "Habitat at 25." Architectural Record 180 :7(July 1992): 40-44.
    Examines Habitat, the Montreal housing complex designed by the author and unveiled at Expo '67. Discusses the goals of the complex and how it is viewed at 25.
  • Tippett, Maria. "Expressing Identity." Beaver [Canada] 80:1 (2000): 18-27.
    The author argues that twentieth century Canadian writers, artists, and musicians did not realize a shared culture being divided geographically as well as by language and ethnicity. Cultural artisans shared a sense of identity during WW I, the Great Depression, and most notable in EXPO '67.

Louisiana World Exposition: New Orleans 1984

Articles

  • Dimanche, Frederic. "Special Events Legacy: The 1984 Louisiana World's Fair in New Orleans." Quality Management in Urban Tourism. Ed. Peter E. Murphy. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 66-74.
  • Glazer, Susan Herzfeld. " A World's Fair to Remember." New Orleans Magazine 38: 2(Nov. 2003): D4
    For six months in 1984, New Orleans enjoyed an ongoing Mardi Gras and Jazz Festival hosting an international exhibition highlighting the importance of water to the world.

Exposición Universal de 1992 Seville, Spain

Articles

  • Fernández Salinas, Victor. "Las Grandes Tranformaciones Urbanas de Sevilla Durante Los Anos Previos a la Exposicion Universal." Estudios Geográficos [Spain] 54:212 (1993): 387-407.
  • Harvey, Penolope. "Multiculturalism Without Responsibility? The Contemporary Universal Exhibition." Critical Quarterly 38 (Autumn 1996): 30-44.
    The author examines the 1992 Universal Exhibition as an interesting example of cultural theory in practice. She discusses the presentations of the European community, Spain, U.K., Czechoslovakia, and Switzerland.

Universal Exhibition Hannover 2000

Articles

  • Special Edition. '“Expo 2000 Erste Weltausstellung in Deutschland: Themen, Visionen, Geschichte." Kultur & Technik. July-September 2000.
 
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