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Revisiting the World's Fairs and International Expositions

Bibliography

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General World's Fair Materials

Articles

  • Journal of the American Art Pottery Association. 18:3 (2002) [Special Issue “Art Pottery of the World's Fairs]
  • Astley, Stephen. "Fountains as Spectacle at International Expositions 1851-1915." Fountains: Splash and Spectacle Eds. Marilyn F. Symmes and Kenneth A. Breisch. New York: Rizzoli in association with the Smithsonian Institution,1998.
  • Denson, Andrew. "Muskogee's Indian International Fairs: Tribal Autonomy and the Indian Image in the late 19th Century." Western Historical Quarterly 34:3 (2003): 332-345.
    Describes the Indian International Fairs, an annual multitribal event held in Muskogee, Oklahoma from 1874 through the 1890's. Native Americans were among its organizers, judges, speakers, competitors, and attendees.
  • Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol. "As Demadas Cientificas E A Particpaçäo Do Brasil Nas Exposiçöes Internacionais Do Secuco XIX." Quipu [Mexico] 12:2 (1999): 203-215.
  • Driggs, Christopher G. "Nevada at the World's Fair." Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 42:3 (1999): 91-139.
    Nevada's participation in a series of World's Fairs from 1862 in London to San Francisco in 1940. The article discusses the effort to lure permanent residents fading in favor of a drive to attract tourists with money to the state.
  • Ekström, Anders. "International Exhibitions and the Struggle for Cultural Hegemony." Uppsala Newsletter 12 (Fall 1989): 6-7.
    This article summarizes Swedish participation in various nineteenth-century world's fairs. Ekström discusses Swedish exhibitions in light of national consciousness, industrial development, and the establishment of cultural hegemony. Applying Antonio Gramsci's concept of hegemony, the author argues that the Swedish exhibition at the world's fair at Stockholm in 1897 represented a "manifestation of hegemony" which legitimized the social dominancy of industrialists.
  • Ferguson, Eugene S. " Expositions of Technology, 1851-1900." Technology in Western Civilization. Eds. Melvin Kranzberg and Carroll Jr. Pursell. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. 706-726.
  • Gilbert, Anne. "Fair Souvenirs Offer Memories and History." Antiques and Collecting Magazine 107:4 ( June 2002): 28-30,63-65.
  • Harris, Moira F. "Breweries, Medals and Three World's Fairs." American Breweriana Journal 102 (Jan.-Feb. 2000): 12-17.
    A look at three World's Fairs: the Philadelphia Centennial Fair (1876), the World's Columbian Exposition (1893), and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (1904), and the brewery involvement in each.
  • Harris, Neil. "Expository Expositions: Preparing for the Theme Parks." Designing Disney's Theme Parks. Ed. Karal Ann Marling. Paris: Flammarion, 1997. 19-28.
  • Harrison, Alfred C. Jr. "John Ross Key's World's Fair Paintings." Antiques 165:3 (2004): 78-87.
    The painter was the best source for color renditions of the fairs in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a descriptive article about not only the paintings but art at the various fairs.
  • Holliday, Laura Scott. "Kitchen Technologies: Promises and Alibis, 1944-1966." Camera Obscura 47 (2001): 79-131.
  • Kosmider, Alexia. "Refracting the Imperial Gaze onto the Colonizers: Geronimo Poses for the Empire." ATQ 15: 4(Dec. 2001): 317-32.
    Information on the proliferation of world's fairs during the 19th and 20th centuries in which fairs served as vehicles that enabled the masses to consume the ideology of imperialism
  • LeCroy, Hoyt. "Music of the Atlanta Expositions: 1881, 1887, 1895." Journal of Band Research 30: 1 (1994): 53-68.
  • Marchand, Roland. "The Designers Go to the Fair, I: Walter Dorwin Teague and the Professionalization of Corporate Industrial Exhibits, 1933-1940." Design History: An Anthology. Ed. Dennis P. Doordan. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995: 89-102.
  • Mills, Stephen F. "The Contemporary Theme Park and its Victorian Pedigree." European Contributions to American Studies 24 (1992): 78-96.
    Mills argues that today's Disney theme parks originated from the earliest Victorian world's fairs. What follows is an in depth comparison, with special attention to their economic and social impact, between early world's fairs and the Disney theme parks. Mills looks in particular at the common elements found in the Chicago 1893 exposition and the Centennial exposition of 1876. Includes a short bibliography.
  • Mitchell, Timothy. "Orientalism and the Exhibitionary Order." Colonialism and Culture.Ed. Nicholas Dirks. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992.
  • Morgensen, Margit. "Technology and the World Exhibitions: Experiences of Danish Military Officers 1870-1900." ICON: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology 5 (1999): 100-121.
  • Murray, Stuart. "Canadian Participation and National representation at the 1851 London Great Exhibition and the 1855 Paris Exposition Universelle." Historie Sociale [Canada] 32:63(2001):1-22.
    Canada's participation in London and Paris showed the progress Canada was making in its evolution from colony to nation at a time when Canada was rethinking its ties with Britain.
  • Nelson, Steve. "Walt Disney's EPCOT and the World's Fair Performance Tradition." TDR-The Drama Review 30:4 (1986): 106.
  • Ogata, Amy F. "Viewing Souvenirs: Peepshows and the International Expositions." Journal of Design History 15:2(2002): 69-82.
    Considers how 19th and early 20th c. international expositions were represented in peepshow souvenirs: folding paper devices that gave a three dimensional view and its implications for popular consumerism and collective memory.
  • Peck, Steven W. "From Paris to Hannover." Alternatives Journal 26:1 (2000): 1-2.
  • Peters, Tom F. "Patterns of Technological Thought: Buildings from the Sayn Foundry to the Galerie des Machines." Building the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge.: MIT Press, 1996. 205-280.
    This chapter illustrates the use of cast iron, wrought iron and steel including examples of the Crystal Palace of 1851, and the Eiffel Tower and the Galerie des Machines from the 1889 Paris Exhibition.
  • Pinot de Villechenon, Florence. "L'Amerique Latine dans les Expositions Universelles." Revue Historique (France) 289: 2 (1993): 511-20.
  • Reinhardt, Richard. "World's Fair." American Heritage 52: 6(Sept. 2001): 37.
    Evaluates the condition of the world's fair in the U.S., and the failure of fairs to fulfill promises.
  • Schiele, Bernard. "Creative Interaction of Visitor and Exhibition." Visitor Studies: Theory, Research, and Practice. Vol. 5. Jacksonville, Ala.: The Visitor Studies Association, 1993.
    Mentions briefly the Chicago World's Fair of 1934 and the New York World's Fair of 1939-1940 as turning points in the evaluation of exhibitions. The 1934 World's Fair was the "first large-scale exhibition to highlight the message content of the objects and artifacts being presented" thus putting the objects displayed into context for the public.
  • Vaughan, C. "Ogling Igorots:The Politics and Commerce of Exhibiting Cultural Otherness, 1898-1913."Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. Ed. Rosemarie Garland Thomson. New York: New York University Press, 1996:219-233.
  • Vennman, Barbara. "Dragons, Dummies, and Royals: China at American World's Fairs, 1876-1904." Gateway Heritage 17:2 (1996): 16-31.
    The images of China that were presented at these early world's fairs was determined not by the Chinese people, but by the Chinese Customs Service under the direction of British officials. The images that were constructed and the restrictions placed by fair organizers on Chinese participation served the purpose of justifying and affirming exclusionary international and domestic policies and imperialism by Western powers. This article looks at the changes that occurred in Chinese exhibitions during this time and how this related to American perceptions of China. Includes photographs and a brief bibliography.
  • Weeks, Jim. "Gettysburg: Display Window for Popular Memory." Journal of American Culture. 21:4 (1998): 41-56.
    Gettysburg exhibits were displayed from the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition to the 1939 World's Fair in New York, showing everything from photographs of the battle to collections of relics and dioramas.
  • Winner, Langdon. "An Alternative World's Fair Could Playfully Debunk Myths About Technological Progress," Technology Review 94 (February 1991): 94.
    Winner argues that the idea of unlimited progress through technological change has been debunked by 200 years of such "progress," and is no longer a fitting theme for international exhibitions. He offers instead the theme of "Humanity in a Postmodern World," with exhibits to illustrate the ironies and unkept promises of technological progress.

Dissertations

  • Ackermann, Marsha E. "Cold Comfort: The Air Conditioning of America." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Michigan, 1996.
    Ackermann addresses the historical role of air conditioning in the transformation of American life. Chapter III in particular examines the relationship between the 1930s American world's fairs, their promotion of futuristic, "utopian" living, and the power of technology as a means of achieving a perfect, climate-controlled environment.
  • Aso, Noriko. "The Emergence of a Discourse on Traditional Japanese Arts and Crafts, 1868-1945." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Chicago, 1997.
    Following the Meiji Restoration, Japan dealt with issues such as the relation of tradition to modernity and its position as a nation-state in an international context. The discourse on native arts and crafts provided one arena through which these issues could be debated. The first chapter of this dissertation focuses on official Japanese representations from international exhibitions in the last half of the nineteenth century, as was determined by government officials. Includes bibliography and numerous illustrations.
  • Beezley, Paul Richard. "Exhibiting Visions of a New South: Mississippi and the World's Fairs, 1884-1904." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Mississippi, 1999.
    Mississippi's exhibits at the industrial expositions between 1884 and 1904 show the evolution of how Mississippians wanted to recreate their society in the years following the Civil War. New South boosters led this effort, but were assisted initially by both white women and African Americans. Each group created their own exhibit, reinforcing this forward looking ideal without reference to the late war or white supremacy. Each group used their exhibit to remake their national images.
  • Benson, Gwen Young. "The Façade and the Reality: World's Fairs Celebrate Progress and Unity While American Novelists Reveal Social Disparity and Individual Isolation." Ph.D. Dissertation: Oklahoma State University, 1997.
    Benson explores the question of identity for the nation and the individual by looking at American world's fairs and the imagery of the home in American literature. She explains that although American representation at the fairs projected an image of national progress, prosperity, and unity strengthened by Victorian ideals, American authors of the time reveal through their writing a different image. The image they construct is one in which the individual is highly uncertain and is grasping for a place and identity in a society which is changing rapidly. The industrialism, materialism, and expansionism that the fairs promote have confounded the once simple life of the individual and the literature tells of the individual's effort to cope with these changes. Benson examines in particular the 1876 Centennial Exhibition, the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, and the 1915 Pan-American Exhibition. Illustrations and a bibliography are included.
  • Burris, John Paul, Jr. "Religion and Anthropology at Nineteenth-Century International Expositions:From the Great Exhibition to the World's Parliament of Religions,1851-1893." Ph.D. Dissertation:University of California, Santa Barbara,1997.
    Burris looks at the development of the history of religion in the historical context of international expositions. He focuses in particular on the Crystal Palace exposition and the World's Columbian Exposition. He also looks at the first World's Parliament of Religions while assessing the implications of the omission of African and Native Americans from the parliament. Includes a bibliography.
  • Dymond, Anne Elizabeth. "Exhibiting Provence: Regionalism, Art and the Nation 1890-1914 France." Ph.D. Dissertation: Queen's University at Kingston, Canada, 2000.
    Dymond looks at regional groups that resented the nation's homogenization of diverse cultures. Of particular interest is her second chapter looking specifically at the Paris 1900 Exposition Universelle and the 1906 Exposition Coloniale de Marseille.
  • Edwards. Douglas Michael. "Fair Days in the ‘Zone of Plenty': Exhibit Networks and the Development of the American West." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of Maryland College Park, 2001.
    From the 1876 Centennial Exposition to the 1915 Panama Pacific Exposition, western states and territories continually exhibited their commitment to "progress."
  • Elkin, Noah C. "Promoting a New Brazil: National Expositions and Images of Modernity, 1861-1922." Ph.D. Dissertation: Rutgers University, 1999.
    Over the course of the six decades between 1860 and 1922, the Brazilian government used expositions and elaborate pageants that comprised an inventory of Brazil's economic, social and cultural resources to define and project an idealized image of a modern Brazil. Even as Brazil slowly industrialized, expositions consistently fashioned a vision of a nation rich in resources and potential.
  • Endersby, Linda Eikmeier. "Expositions, Museums, and Technological Display: Building Cultural Institutions for the ‘inventor citizen' in the late 19th century United States." Ph.D. Dissertation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999.
    Focuses on the intersections between industry, engineers, international expositions, and museums in the nineteenth century by considering the cases of the Smithsonian's National Museum and the Field Columbian Museum.
  • Fernsebner, Susan R. "Material Modernities: China's Participation in World's Fairs and Expositions, 1876-1955." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of California, San Diego, 2003.
  • Harvey, Bruce Gordon. "World's Fairs in a Southern Accent: Atlanta, Nashville, and Charleston." Ph.D. Dissertation: Vanderbilt University, 1998.
    During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, southern leaders endeavored to involve their region in the international exposition movement in order to boost the southern economy and integrate it on a national scale. The South also looked at expositions as a way of improving their regional image and bringing the South in line with the rest of the country. Includes a bibliography.
  • Heaman, Elisabeth Anne. "Commercial Leviathan: Central Canadian Exhibitions at Home and Abroad During the Nineteenth-Century." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Toronto, 1996.
  • Hoffenberg, Peter. "To Create a Commonwealth: Empire and Nation at English, Australian, and Indian Exhibitions, 1851-1914." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Berkeley, 1993.
    Hoffenberg analyzes international expositions from the Great Exhibition to the Festival of Empire Exhibition and the impact these events had on imperial relations between England, Australia, and India. He argues that these events helped to establish and regulate the economic and political imperial roles of different racial groups. Includes a bibliography.
  • Jayes, Janice Lee. "'Strangers to Each Other': The American Encounter with Mexico, 1877-1910." Ph.D. Dissertation: American University, 1999.
  • Larson, Judy L. "Three Southern World's Fairs: Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta, 1895; Tennessee Centennial, Nashville, 1897; South Carolina Inter-State, Charleston, 1901/2" Ph.D. Dissertation: Emory University, 1998.
    World's fairs were a way in which cities could construct and promote new images of themselves. In the South, fair organizers felt the need to address two issues - first, the image of the South as "coarse" and backward, and second, the perceived division and animosity between the North and the South. The Fine Arts Buildings, Woman's Building's, and Negro Buildings at each of the three fairs are assessed to explore these themes. A bibliography is included.
  • Lockyer, Angus Edmund. "Japan at the Exhibition, 1867-1970." Ph.D. Dissertation: Stanford University, 2000.
    This dissertation examines Japanese participation in and representation at international exhibitions between 1867 and 1970, together with the domestic expositions modeled on these. Expositions never functioned very efficiently to communicate truths about Japan. Exposition design was the outcome of lengthy bureaucratic negotiation, exhibits were not easily subordinated to didactic purposes, and visitors tended to see what they wanted, rather than what they were meant to.
  • Mehta, Binita. "India as Spectacle: The Representation of India in French Theater." Ph.D. Dissertation: City University of New York, 1997.
  • Murphy, Joseph Claude. "Exposing the Modern: World's Fairs and American Literary Culture, 1853-1907." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Pennsylvania, 1997.
  • Staackman, Gloria Starr. "Fifteen American Impressionists: Genteel Traditionalists in a Changing World." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Hawaii, 1994.
    Staackman argues that American Impressionism, the dominant and accepted art form between the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the Panama Pacific International Exposition of 1915, was forgotten in the light of Modern Art because it did not respond to the changes of the time. American Impressionism made its debut at the 1893 exposition and the prominence of the style amongst the paintings featured at the 1915 exposition indicate the height of the movement. Modern Art, however, had been introduced in 1913 and by 1930 it had come to dominate the art world. The lives of 15 artists are studied in this work. Includes biographies of the artists and a bibliography.
  • Venable, Charles L. "Silver in America, 1840-1940: Production, Marketing, and Consumption." Ph.D. Dissertation: Boston University, 1993.
    Technology, transportation, and new tariffs caused a boom in the production of silver. World's fairs were one way in which silver wares were advertised and marketed to consumers. World's fairs boasted the "most spectacular" silver marketing exhibitions. The participation of several manufacturers in the world's fairs is discussed in Chapter 5.

Monographs

  • Ahlström, Göran. Technological Development and Industrial Expositions, 1850-1914. Lund: Lund University Press, 1996.
    Focuses on the key features of international industrial exhibitions during the latter half of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Includes discussion on their purpose and scope as well as Swedish participation in these events. Ahlström endeavors to trace Swedish technological and industrial development from an international perspective while asserting that although communications were poor by today's standards, international exhibitions provided a venue for the international exchange of information about technology. Includes bibliography.
  • Beauchamp, K.G. Exhibiting Electricity. IEEE History of Technology Series, vol. 21. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1997.
    Traces the history of public and technical exhibitions from the 18th century to the present: showing how exhibitions presented electrical innovation and manufacturing to the public especially in 19th c. exhibitions in the U.S. and abroad.
  • Blaisdell, Marilyn. San Francisciana: Photographs of 3 World's Fairs. San Francisco: The Author, 1994.
    Photos from the California Midwinter International Exposition, the Pan-Pacific International Exposition, and the Golden Gate International Exposition.
  • Brown, Julie K. Making Culture Visible: Photography and Display at Industrial Fairs, International Expositions and Institutional Exhibitions in the U.S., 1847-1900. Amsterdam: Harwood Acad. 2001.
  • Burris, John P. Exhibiting Religion: Colonialism and Spectacle at International Expositions, 1851-1893. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
    Survey of world's fairs from the Great Exhibition to the Columbian Exposition as pivotal forums in which various religions came into contact with one another and the results.
  • Celik, Zeynep. Displaying the Orient: Architecture of Islam at Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
  • Friz, Richard, ed. The Official Price Guide to World's Fair Memorabilia. New York: House of Collectibles, 1989.
    This handbook is organized by type of object, and provides a glimpse of the range of material culture the fairs generated, from postcards to commemorative ceramics and clothing. Includes a listing of collectors' organizations and a brief bibliography.
  • Gere, Charlotte. European Decorative Arts at the World's Fairs, 1850-1900. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 3. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999.
    This issue of the Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin features selected, prizewinning European decorative artifacts that are owned by the museum and were exhibited at the world's fairs from the London Great Exhibition of 1851 to the Paris Centennial Exposition of 1900. According to Gere, the pieces selected for this publication were acknowledged masterpieces of their time and represent "expressions of the highest possible skill and artistic taste." Gere's introduction provides a concise, yet thorough overview of the impact of nineteenth-century world's fairs on artistic design and consumption. The rest of the work contains beautiful color and black and white photographs and drawings as well as descriptions of the artifacts and the artists who created them. A short bibliography is also included.
  • Gordon, Beverly. Bazaars and Ladies Fairs: The History of the American Fundraising Fair. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998.
    This work examines the bazaar, or the "fundraising fair," as the "'woman's fair', the female manifestation of the broader fair phenomenon." Particularly valuable to feminist scholarship, women were able to participate and gain control within bazaars much more easily than in mainstream, male-identified expositions. In their 175 year history, fundraising fairs gave women the opportunity to express their visions and priorities as well as their skills and creativity. Gordon involves the reader in a chronological look at the fundraising fair while interjecting discussions about individuals who worked at fairs.
  • Greenhalgh, Paul. Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Exhibitions and World's Fairs, 1851-1939. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 2000.
  • Hamon, Philippe. Expositions: Literature and Architecture in Nineteenth-Century France. Translated by Katia Sainson-Frank and Lisa Maguire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
    Hamon sees theExposition universelle as a phenomenon where urban landscapes became stages and the culture of image was promoted and perpetuated. "A study of the extended metaphor of exposition," Hamon explores nineteenth-century "expositionitis" by looking at the literary representation of architecture.
  • Heller, Alfred E. World's Fairs and the End of Progress: An Insider's View. Corte Madera, Calif.: World's Fair, Inc., 1999.
    Heller provides an introspective and personal look into the world's fair experience. Having attended the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition as a child, Heller has since then spent his life attending and researching international expositions. Some of the key themes discussed are the power of the world's fair as an experience, their historical relevance, the blurring distinction between expos and other entertainment forms, the changes that have occurred within world's fairs over time, and what he feels future expo organizers should be mindful of in the future.
  • Hoffenberg, Peter. An Empire on Display: English, Indian, and Australian Exhibitions from the Crystal Palace to the Great War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
    The author examines the economic, cultural, and social forces that helped define Britain and the British Empire. He takes special interest in the interactive nature of the exhibition experience: the long term consequences for the participants and host societies, and the ways in which such popular gatherings revealed dissent as well as celebration.
  • Hunter, Stanley K. Footsteps at the American World's Fairs: The International Exhibitions of Chicago, New York and Philadelphia, 1853-1965: Revisited in 1993. Glasgow: Exhibition Study Group, 1996.
  • Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Barbarian Virtues: the United States encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.
  • Jakle, John. City Lights: Illuminating the American Night. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University press, 2001.
    Includes a chapter entitled "Lighting the World's Fairs," and examines many fairs from the Crystal Palace to Seattle in 1962.
  • Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Barbara. Destination Culture: Tourisms, Museums, and Heritage. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
    Includes an essay "Exhibiting Jews," tracing the history of important displays of Jewish ritual objects from the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851 to the New York World's Fair of 1939.
  • Mattie, Erik. World's Fairs. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998.
    Millions around the world have attended international expositions for the last 150 years. This book is the only illustrated history covering all the major fairs. Over thirty world's fairs are examined in terms of architecture and style beginning with the 1851 Paris exposition and ending with a prospectus of the Hanover fair of 2000, includes numerous photographs and illustrations.
  • McKenna, Neil and Paula Snyder. Great Exhibitions. London: Channel 4 Television, 1999.
    Produced by BSS to accompany Great Exhibitions shown on Channel 4 in August 1999 " From the Crystal Palace to the Festival of Britain 1851-1951."
  • Mitchell, Timothy. Colonising Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
  • Nye, David E. Narratives and Spaces: Technology and the Construction of American Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
    Part three of this work deals with the history of lighting at world's fairs from 1880 to 1939 and the "successful integration of new machines into the American sense of space." Chapter eight looks at the 1939 New York World's Fair and "European Self-Representations."
  • Pilato, Denise E. The Retrieval of a Legacy: Nineteenth Century American Women Inventors. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2000.
    The final chapter includes insights from industrial expositions including the 1876 Centennial Exposition and the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, and women's contributions and technological innovations.
  • Pinot de Villechenon, Florence and Jean- Louis Cohen. Fêtes Géantes: Les Expositions Universelles, Pour Quoi Faire? Paris: Autrement, 2000.
  • Pinot de Villechenon, Florence. Les Expositions universelles. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1992.
  • Roche, Maurice. Mega-Events and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture. London: Routledge, 2000.
  • Rossen, Howard M. World's Fair Collectibles: Chicago, 1933 and New York, 1939. Atglen, Pa.: Schiffer Pub., 1998.
    This guide includes color photographs and prices for memorabilia from both world's fairs. Short descriptions of each fair are included. Also included are a short bibliography and an index.
  • Rydell, Robert W. and Nancy E. Gwinn, eds. Fair Representations: World's Fairs and the Modern World. European Contributions to American Studies, vol. 27. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 1994.
    In this volume, Rydell and Gwinn bring together key articles by various authors that deal with the world's fair and exposition phenomenon. They argue that much of today's modern culture has its roots in world's fairs of the past. World expositions can be seen as manifestations of the struggle by societies to give "meaning to modernity" and to properly represent their social realities. Studying the world's fairs helps us to understand the extent to which they modernized the world and the effect they have on how we currently see and understand the world around us. The volume is divided into three sections: "Representing Others," "Interrogating Cultures," and "Documenting Fairs." Nine articles and the annotated bibliography to which this bibliography is an addendum to are included.
  • Schroeder-Gudehus, Brigitte and Anne Rasmussen. Les Fastes du Progŕes: Le guide des Expositions Universelles, 1851-1992. Paris: Flammarion, 1992.
  • Smithsonian Institution Libraries. World's Fairs, 1851-1940: An Exhibition of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, February 12-August 26, 1992 Washington, D.C.: SIL, National Museum of American History, 1992.
    This large-type text accompanied the exhibition and was developed for the visually impaired. Includes dates, attendance, and descriptions of several world's fairs as well as a short reading list.
  • Tenorio-Trillo, Mauricio. Mexico at the World's Fairs: Crafting a Modern Nation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
  • Thomas, Richard W. Life for Us is What We Make It: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915 - 1945. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
    Thomas surveys the Seventy-Five Years of Negro Progress Exhibition, held in Detroit in 1940. Exhibits were designed to demonstrate the accomplishments of African Americans in the seventy-five years since emancipation. Conciliatory in its approach, the exhibition featured a Negro Hall of Fame that included persons who had worked for black social progress regardless of their race.
  • Van Wesemael, Pieter. Architecture of Instruction and Delight: a Socio-historical Analysis of World Exhibitions as a Didactic Phenomenon (1798-1851-1970). Rotterdam: Uitgeverij, 2001.
    Deals with the genesis and development of the 19th and 20th c. World Exhibitions as a didactic phenomenon, and how architecture, and later urbanism, played a key role in it.
  • Wörner, Martin. Vergnügen und Belehrung: Volkskultur auf den Weltausstellung, 1851-1900. Münster, Germany: Waxmann, 1999.

Web Sites

  • Expo Museum: World's Fair History, Architecture and Memorabilia
    Website: Connect to website
  • World's Fairs and Expositions: Defining America and the World: 1876-1916
    Website: Connect to website

Paris Industrial Exposition of 1806

Articles

  • Hafter, Daryl M. "The Business of Invention in the Paris Industrial Exposition of 1806." Business History Review 58 (1984): 317-35.
    The infusion of inexpensive English goods into the French market signaled the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. French work traditions and the work force hindered the development of a similar movement in France. The Paris Industrial Exposition was launched in an effort to encourage French businesses to modernize. Hafter concludes that the exposition lead to the beginning of modern light industry in France.

Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, London 1851

Articles

  • Briggs, Asa. "Exhibiting the Nation." History Today 50:1 (2000):16-25.
    Compares the social contexts and the goals of Britain's three modern international exhibitions: the 1851 Great Exhibition, the 1951 Festival of Britain, and the 2000 Millenium Dome.
  • Buchanan, Angus, Stephen K. Jones and Ken Kiss. "Brunel and the Crystal Palace." Industrial Archaeology Review 17 (Autumn 1994): 7-21.
    This article focuses on the structure of the Crystal Palace and the process that its key engineers underwent to construct it and then relocate it. It looks in particular at the role of Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Includes diagrams, photographs, and other illustrations.
  • Carriere, Marius. "Dr. Samuel Bond and the Crystal Palace Medal." West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 41 (1987): 1-3.
    Carriere provides a brief description of the rise of cotton production in West Tennessee, and Samuel Bond's receipt of a prize medal for cotton at the London exhibition.
  • Coleman, Earle E. "The Exhibition in the Palace: A Bibliographical Essay." Bulletin of the New York Public Library 65 (September 1960): 459-75.
  • Colvin, Peter. "Muhammad Ali Pasha, the Great Exhibition of 1851, and the School of Oriental and African Studies Library." Libraries and Culture 33:3 (1998): 249-259.
  • Fuchs, Eckhardt. "Räume und Mechanismen der Internationalen Wissenschftskommunikation und Ideenzirkulation vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg." Internaltionales Archiv Für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur [German] 27:1 (2002): 125-43.
  • Hassam, Andrew."Portable iron Structures and Uncertain Colonial Spaces and the Sydenham Crystal Palace." Imperial Cities:Landscape, Display and Identity. Ed.Felix Driver and David Gilbert.Manchester:Manchester University Press,1999.
  • Hopkins, David. "Art and Industry: Coalbrookdale Co. and the Great Exhibition." History Today [Great Britain] 52:2(2002): 19-25.
    Transformation of the Coalbrookdale Company from a mass producer of iron to a supplier of decorative art objects illustrates how Britain's Great Exhibition of 1851 influenced the union of art and industry.
  • Mainardi, Patricia. "The Unbuilt Picture Gallery at the 1851 Great Exhibition." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 45: 3 (1986): 294-99.
    Presents documents related to a plan to build a specially designed gallery for the exhibition of paintings. Adds new dimensions to traditional history which states that the French were the first to exhibit fine arts as part of the 1855 Universal Exposition. The intended design of the gallery suggests that the fine arts were considered a part of tradition and not something to be featured in the Crystal Palace alongside other forms of modern industry.
  • Morson, A.F.P. "The Great Exhibition of 1851." Pharmaceutical Historian 27:3 (1997): 27-30.
    Describes the chemical, raw materials and pharmaceutical exhibits at the Fair, both British and foreign, the prizes won, and their importance in later years.
  • Oliver, Richard. "The Ordnance Survey and the Great Exhibition of 1851." Map Collector 50 (1990): 24-28.
    Only certain sections of the Ordnance Survey map were completed by the time they were to be exhibited at the world's fair. The maps that were initially displayed did not include Scotland. Discussion of survey styles and the subsequent incorrect mapping of Scotland are included.
  • Peters, Tom F. "How Creative Engineers Think." Civil Engineering 68:3 (1998): 58-51.
    Discusses the building of the Crystal Palace, including the relationship between architect Joseph Paxton and builder Charles Fox.
  • Peterson, M.J. "The Emergence of a Mass Market for Fax Machines." Technology in Society 17: 4 (1995): 469-82.
    Author mentions briefly the development of fax machines in the 1840's and their being exhibited at the Crystal Palace.
  • Purbrick, Louise. "Knowledge is Property: Looking at Exhibits and Patents in 1851 (Henry Cole's Great Exhibition at London's South Kensington Museum)." Oxford Art Journal 20:2 (1997):53-60.
  • Reynolds, Diana J. "The Great Exhibition of 1851." Events that Changed Great Britain Since 1869. Frank W. Thackery and John E. Findling, eds. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2002.
  • Shifman, B. "The Fourdinois Sideboard at the 1851 Great Exhibition (Second Empire Furniture)." Apollo- The Magazine of the Arts 156: 491 (Jan. 2003): 14-21.
  • Smithhurst, Peter. "Observations on the Crystal Palace Exhibition." Tools & Technology 19:1 (2001): 9-10.
    Manufacturing centers throughout England and the world saw the 1851 Exhibit as an opportunity to show their achievements to the world and included several pioneers in manufacturing techniques.
  • The Society's History Study Group. "Symposium on 'Exhibition and Celebration': the RSA and the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Festival of Britain of 1951 and plans for the Millennium." RSA Journal 143 (May 1995): 43-59.
    See specifically the first three speeches: Allan, D.G.C. "The Society of Arts and the National Repository" Bonython, Elizabeth. "The Planning of the Great Exhibition of 1851" Hobhouse, Hermione. "The Legacy of the Great Exhibition" Allan's speech sheds light on the connection between the Great Exhibition and the Society. Bonython introduces the key individuals who took part in organizing the Great Exhibition and the process that they went through. Hobhouse delves into the lasting impact of that first world exposition: tourism, successor exhibitions, and the South Kensington estate of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851.
  • Zaitsev, Valentin Pavlovich. "Pervye Vsemirnye Promyshlennye vystavki V Londone." Novaia I Noveishaia Istoriia [Russia] 4(2001): 188-193.

Dissertations

  • Auerbach, Jeffrey A. "Exhibiting the Nation: British National Identity and the Great Exhibition of 1851." Ph. D. Dissertation: Yale, 1995.

Monographs

  • Auerbach, Jeffrey. The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.
    Held in London's Crystal Palace, "was the world's first industrial exposition," and for Britons became a defining event of the mid-19th century. Reveals how the event was conceived, planned, and why it was such a success.
  • Birbineau, Lorenza Stevens and Karen Kilcup, ed. From Beacon Hill to the Crystal Palace: the 1851 Travel Diary of a Working Class Woman. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2002.
    Documents the six month European Grand Tour of a domestic servant who traveled with a well known and wealthy family of Boston's Beacon Hill.
  • Bizup, Joseph. Manufacturing Culture: Vindications of Early Victorian Industry. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003.
    Looks into the factory system and its social consequences as well as the social and commercial benefits that culminated in the Great Exhibit of 1851.
  • Bosback, Franz and John R. Davis. Die Weltausstellung von 1851 und Ihre Folgen: The Great Exhibition and its Legacy. München: Saur, 2002.
    In English and German: Papers from a joint conference with the Prince Albert Society, the Victorian Society, and the Royal Society of Arts.
  • Colquhoun, Kate. A Thing in Disguise: the Visionary Life of Joseph Paxton. London: Fourth Estate, 2003.
    Biography of the landscape architect of the Great Exhibition and how his work influenced the future of landscape architecture.
  • Davis, John R. The Great Exhibition. Stroud, Gloustershire: Sutton, 1999.
    Provides a history of the way the Exhibition was organized and took place while looking at the Exhibition's wider influence and the historical debates surrounding it.
  • Hobhouse, Hermione. The Crystal Palace and the Great Exhibition: Art, Science, and Productive Industry: a History of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. London: Althone Press, 2002.
  • Leapman, Michael. The World for a Shilling: How the Great Exhibition of 1851 Shaped a Nation. London: Headline, 2001.
    Examines the story of how the exhibition came into being, the key characters who made it happen, and the tales behind the exhibitions: why so many would spend a day's wages to see the Exhibition.
  • Purbrick, Louise. The Great Exhibition of 1851: New Interdisciplinary Essays. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2001.

Web Sites

  • The Crystal Palace, or The Great Exhibition of 1851: An Overview
    Website: Connect to website

Expositions Universelles, Paris 1855

Articles

  • Vincente, Filipa Lowndes. "The Future is a Foreign Country: The Visit of the King of Portugal, Dom Pedro V, to the Parisian Exposition Universelle of 1855." Journal of Romance Studies 3:2 (2003): 31-48.

London International Exhibition on Industry and Art, 1862

Articles

  • Gregory, Martin. "Sewing Machines at the London Exhibition of 1862." ISMACS News: Journal of the International Sewing Machine Collectors' Society 72 (2001): 4-9.

Expositions Universelles, Paris 1867

Articles

  • Troyen, Carol. "Innocents Abroad: American Painters at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, Paris." American Art Journal 16 (Autumn 1984): 3-29.
    Wanting to present the best examples of American art in Paris to show that America's artistic skill matched its industrial prowess, a committee of the nation's leading artistic minds were gathered to select pieces to present as a part of its fine art exhibit. American cultural confidence was shattered, however, when only one medal was awarded to an American work, placing them below the French and English. This article includes discussion of individual works that were part of this exhibition, illustrations and reproductions of some of the artwork, and an index of all the works that comprised the exhibition.

Dissertations

  • Nikou, Mehrangiz. "National Architecture and International Politics: Pavilions of the Near Eastern Nations in the Paris International Exposition of 1867." Ph.D. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1997.
    The concept of national pavilions was debuted at the 1876 exposition. However, instead of Near Eastern countries of the Ottoman Empire defining their own identity through national architecture, their cultural identity was determined by the representations constructed by European commissioners and architects. These representations reflected the interests of Napolean III's political agenda. Includes illustrations and a bibliography.

Weltausstellung Vienna, Austria 1873

Articles

  • Lackner, Mónika."Pasture Romance:Installation, National Self-Representation at the Vienna World Fair 1873."Making and Breaking of Borders:Ethnological Interpretations, Presentations: 303-309.Helsinki:Finnish Literature Society,2003.

Monographs

  • Osman Hamdi Bey. 1873 Yilinda Türkiye ‘de halk Giysileri: Elbise-I Osmaniyye. [Turkish] Karaköy-Istanbul: Sabanci Universitesi, 1999.
  • Tsunoyama, Yukihiro. Win Bankokuhaku no Kenkyu. [Japanese] Suita-shi: Kansai Daigaku Shuppanbu, 2000.

Web Sites

  • Vienna International Exposition: Weltausstellung in Wien 1873 [Japanese and English]
    Website: Connect to website

United States Centennial International Exhibition, Philadelphia 1876

Articles

  • Bonnell, Andrew. "Cheap and Nasty: German Goods, Socialism, and the 1876 Philadelphia World Fair." International Review of Social History 46: 2 (2001): 207-226.
  • Donnelly, Max. "British Furniture at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876." Furniture History 36 (2001): 91-120.
  • Fischer, Felice. "The Centennial Exhibition, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and Hector Tyndale." Antiques 163:3 (2002): 97-107.
  • Halen, Widar. "Christopher Dresser, the Centennial Exhibition and the Anglo-American Dialogue." Antiques 160 (Sept. 2001): 354-60.
  • Howe, Jeffrey. "A Monster Ediface: Ambivalence, Appropriation, and the Forging of Cultural identity at the Centennial Exhibition." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 126:4 (2002): 635-650.
  • Myers, Susan and Susan Padwee. Special issue of Tile Heritage devoted to tiles at the Centennial Exhibition. Tile Heritage 6:2 (2002).
  • Nolan, Marianne. "A Century of Industrial Progress: Lighting Products at the Centennial Exhibition 1876." The Rushlight 65:3 (1999): 2-11.
    Describes the exhibiting and awarding of gas and glassware lighting fixtures at the fair. Includes listings of manufacturers and short descriptions of lighting fixtures as well as discussion of how exhibits were judged. Illustrations are also included.
  • Pitman, Jennifer. "China's Presence at the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876." Studies in the Decorative Arts. 10: 1 (2002-2003): 35-73.
    Details the national exhibit by the Chinese government at the Exhibition: China displayed and sold a wide variety of decorative arts, increasing the influence of Chinese styles in the U.S..
  • Remberger, Sebastian. "Billig and Schlecht: Franz Reuleaux zu den Weltausstellungen in Philadelphia 1876 und Chicago 1893." Kultur & Technik (July-Sept. 2000): 42-51.
  • Winpenny, Thomas R. "The Phoenix Tower and the Struggling Centennial Exhibition of 1876: A Tale of What Might Have Been." The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 124:4 (October 2000): 547-555.
  • Yount, Sylvia. "A ‘New Century' for Women: Philadelphia's Centennial Exhibition and Domestic Reform." Philadelphia's Cultural Landscape. Ed. Katharine Martinez and Page Talbott. Philadelphia:Temple University Press, 2000.

Dissertations

  • Giberti, Bruno. "The Classified Landscape: Consumption, Commodity Order, and the 1876 Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1994.
    Giberti explores the discourse that surrounded the order and classification of objects at the Centennial Exhibition. The order and classification of objects determined all aspects of the exhibition's structure such as the organization of the site and architecture of the buildings and helped to develop a consumer-oriented environment. [Based on abstract from Dissertation Abstracts Online]
  • Laidlaw, Christine. "The American reaction to Japanese Art 1853-1876." Ph. D. Dissertation: Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 1996.
    Japanese art affected American art in the 1860s and 1870s and had an impact on art, architecture, and views of nature. This influence became much more widely dispersed to the public at the International Exposition in 1876.
  • Owen, Nancy Elizabeth. "Women, Culture and Commerce: Rookwood Pottery, 1880-1913." Ph.D. Dissertation: Northwestern University, 1997.
    Chapter 4 of this dissertation is dedicated to the presence of Rookwood pottery - "the largest, longest lasting, and arguably most important American Art Pottery," according to the author - at international expositions. She notes that the American Art Pottery movement began as a result of the perceived inferiority of American ceramics at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876. The first part of Chapter 4 looks at Rookwood participation at the fairs and the effort to distinguish the ceramics internationally. The second part consists of a case study of objects that were considered to be key examples of "American" art. Includes a bibliography and illustrations.

Monographs

  • Fisher, Felice. West Meets East: China and Japan at the Centennial Exhibition. [Brochure] Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2001.
  • Giberti, Bruno. Designing the Centennial: a History of the 1876 International Exhibition in Philadelphia. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002,
    Behind the scenes look at the planning of America's "first important world's fair:" the conflicts between the players - scientists and engineers, planners and politicians demonstrate wider cultural clashes. Investigates the design process by considering the nature of display: what people were looking at, and how they were looking.
  • Owen, Nancy Elizabeth. Rookwood and the Industry of Art: Women, Culture, and Commerce, 1880-1913. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2001.
    Discusses the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition at length and its influence on the rise of pottery art.

Web Sites

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1878

Articles

  • Davis, Shane Alder. "'Fine Clothes on the Alter': The Commodification of Late Nineteenth-Century France." Art Journal 48 (Spring 1989): 85-89.
    French department stores and exhibitions conspired to change the French vision of womanhood from that of the thrifty republican housewife to the well-adorned Parisian fashion plate. Davis draws examples from the popular women's press to demonstrate this shift, and argues that these visions were incompatible and ultimately harmful to female identity.

Exposition International d'Electricite, Paris 1881

Articles

  • Fox, Robert. "Thomas Edison's Parisian Campaign: Incandescent Lighting and the Hidden Face of Technology Transfer." Annals of Science 53 (1996): 157-93
  • Segreto, Luciano. "Financing the Electric Industry Worldwide: Strategy and Structure of the Swiss Electric Holding Companies, 1895-1945." Business and Economic History 23: 1 (1994): 162-75.
    Makes reference to Thomas Edison's demonstration of incandescent lighting at the 1881 exposition as the start of the electric industry in Europe. He focuses primarily on the electric industry in Switzerland.

International Cotton Exposition, Atlanta 1881

Articles

  • Funderburke, Richard. "An Architect for the New South: The Atlanta Years of Edmund G. Lind, 1882-1893." Georgia Historical Quarterly 81: 1 (1997): 25-51.
    The Cotton Exposition was the event that drew national attention to Atlanta and gave new life to the New South movement. The exposition is also known for drawing talented and enterprising individuals to Atlanta including Edmund Lind. This article focuses primarily on the professional development of Edmund Lind while living in Atlanta after the exposition. Includes drawings.
  • Newman, Harvey K. "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." Georgia Historical Quarterly 80: 1 (1996): 53-76.
    Discusses primarily early hotels such as the Kimball House and businesses like traveling circuses. The impact of prohibition is also addressed. Mention is made of the 1881 Cotton Exposition while the 1895 Cotton Exposition is dealt with in more detail.

Monographs

  • Newman, Harvey K. Southern Hospitality: Tourism and the Growth of Atlanta. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999.

North Carolina Exposition, 1884

Articles

  • Sumner, Jim L. "Let Us Have a Big Fair: The North Carolina Exposition of 1884." North Carolina Historical Review 69 (1992): 57-81.
    The North Carolina Exposition represented an effort by the state's citizens to show the nation that it adhered to the industrial message of the New South. Men who represented the industrial goals which North Carolina endeavored to achieve comprised the committee that organized this fair. North Carolina's participation in early world's fairs is discussed briefly. The planning, organizing, and attendance at the exposition are also addressed. Includes photographs.

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889

Articles

  • Aubain, Laurence. "La Russie a l'Exposition Universelle de 1889." Cahiers du Monde Russe (France) 37: 3 (1996): 349-67.
  • Ducrey, Guy. "L'Andalouse et l'almée: Quelques danseuses "sauvages" aux Expositions Universelles." Sociopoetique de la Danse[Paris]: Anthropos (1998): 461-475.
  • Fey, Ingrid E. "Peddling the Pampas: Argentina at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889." Latin American Popular Culture: an Introduction. Ed. William H. Beezley and Linda A. Curcio-Nagy. Wilmington, DE.: SR Books, 2000.
  • Fey, Ingrid E. "Zwischen Zivilisation und Barbarei: Latin Amerika auf der Pariser Weltausstellung von 1889." Comparitiv [Germany] 1999 9(5-6): 15-28.
  • Fink, Lois. "American Art at the 1889 Paris Exposition: The Paintings They Love to Hate." American Art 5 (1991): 34-53.
    Fink examines the American art work that was presented at the 1889 Exposition Universelle and again at a recent exhibition entitled "Paris 1889: American Artists at the Universal Exposition" in the context of the criticism that it received in the past and in the present day. She discusses the role of science as well as the ideological changes of the time that formed the basis of American artistic styles. Includes photographs and reproductions of some of the exhibited art.
  • Levin, Miriam R. "The City as a Museum of Technology." Industrial Society and its Museums 1890-1990: Social Aspirations and Cultural Politics, ed. Brigitte Schroeder-Gudehus, Philadelphia: Harwood Academic, 1992. 27-36
    Levin looks at the city of Paris as a living museum of technology. She includes a brief history of the Exposition Universelle of 1889 as one instance in which Republican reformers in the Third Republic transformed Paris into a museum. Includes drawings and photographs.
  • Lombard, Denys. "Le Kampong Javanais a L'Exposition Universelle de Paris en 1889." Archipel [France] 43(1992): 115-129.
  • Oudoire, Jean-Marie. "Le Palais des Machines, un palais de la republique." Revue du Nord 71 (Juillet - Decembre 1989): 1031-35.
  • Stamper, John W. and Robert Mark. "Structure of the Galerie Des Machines, Paris, 1889." History and Technology 10: 3 (1993): 127-38.
    Analyzes the structure of the Galerie Des Machines. Reveals through photo elastic modelling that although this historic building was the one of most impressive of its time, it was not as structurally efficient. Includes a description of the building, photographs and diagrams, and a mathematical analysis.
  • Yasuda, Kyo. "1889 Nen Pari Bankoku Hakurankai Ni Okeru Jawa Buyo To Ongaku Ni Tsuite." Tonan Ajia Kenkyu [Japan] 36:4(1999): 505-524.

Dissertations

  • Cooley, Kristin Nicole. "The 1889 and 1900 Paris Universal Expositions: French Masculine Nationalism and the American Response." M.A. Thesis: University of Arizona, 2001.
    Universal expositions of the later nineteenth century were opportunities for the host country to reinforce its sense of nationalism and to showcase its technological progress or, read differently, the progress of man. This thesis examines nationhood as defined in terms of masculinity at the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition, which demonstrated French technological, colonial, and artistic superiority over all other nations
  • Fernandez, Maria Auxiliadora. "The Representation of National Identity in Mexican Architecture: Two Case Studies (1680 and 1889)." Ph.D. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1993.
    The author uses the government commissioned Pavilion of Mexico from the Universal Exposition as her 1889 case study. She argues that perspectives on national identity can be extracted by looking at Mexican architecture. She adds that foreign influences play a major role in formulating the national identity of a colony. The structure is analyzed in the context of Mexican social and political history. Includes illustrations and a bibliography.
  • Portebois, Yannick. "Le Fauters d'Orthographe: Les Ecrivains et la Reforme de l'Orthographe, de l'Exposition Universelle de 1889 a la Premiere Guerre Mondiale." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Montreal, 1996.

World's Columbian Exhibition, Chicago 1893

Articles

  • Adams, Judith A. "The Promotion of New Technology through Fun and Spectacle: Electricity at the World's Columbian Exposition." Journal of American Culture 18: 2 (1995): 45-55.
    Although electricity was debuted at the 1876 exposition, it was not generally accepted and considered safe until its uses were promoted at the 1893 exposition. Adams asserts that amusement parks and fairs have successfully promoted new technology because they are presented in a way that is "fun." Venues such as the Electricity Building and mechanisms like the moveable sidewalk and the Ferris wheel were some ways in which the benefits of electricity were demonstrated. Includes a short bibliography.
  • Bank, Rosemarie K. "Representing History: Performing the Columbian Exposition." Theatre Journal 54:4 (2002):589-606.
    Examines the 1893 Exposition, and particularly at performances of "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" show.
  • Brown, Julie K. "Recovering Representations: U.S. Government Photographers at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893." Prologue 29:3 (1997): 218-31.
    Instead of relying on commercial sources for documentation, the government decided to photograph its own exhibitions at the Chicago world's fair. The author asserts that this decision indicates the great amount of importance placed by the government on its representation at this type of venue.
  • Brown, Julie K. "The Baltimore & Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad Displays: Chicago World's Columbian Exposition, 1893." History of Photography 24:2 (Summer 2000): 155-162.
    The article focuses on the use of photography for corporate display at the Exposition in order to show some of the complexities of the corporate image making process.
  • Burton, Shirley J. "Obscene, Lewd, and Lascivious: Ida Craddock and the Criminally Obscene Women of Chicago, 1873-1913." Michigan Historical Review 19: 1 (1993): 1-16.
    Burton addresses the prosecution of women during this period under the federal obscenity law. Ida Craddock was one such woman who spoke in defense of Fahreda Mahzar, also known as "Little Egypt," a belly dancer who performed at the "A Street in Cairo" exhibit at the world's fair. Although her performance was one of the most popular, conservative critics attempted to censor it by demanding its closure.
  • Carr, Carolyn Kinder and Sally Webster. "Mary Cassatt and Mary Fairchild MacMonnies: The Search for Their 1893 Murals." American Art 8:1 (1994): 52-69.
    The murals painted by the two artists along with the building in which they were housed celebrated women and their progress. Unfortunately, the two murals, Modern Woman by Cassatt and Primitive Woman by MacMonnies, cannot be found. Feminist scholarship and interest in "The White City" have recently uncovered clues that may lead to their recovery. Photographs of the murals are included.
  • Carriere, Marius. "Samuel Bond and the Crystal Palace Model." West Tennessee Historical Society Papers 41 (1987): 1-3.
  • Casey, Constance K. "Culture and Commerce." Chicago History 22: 3 (1993): 4-19.
  • Clarke, Jane H. "The Art Institute's Guardian Lions." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 14 (1988): 46-55.
    Clarke's brief history of the lions designed by Edward L. Kemeys for the Art Institute of Chicago also contains information on the design of the sculptural decoration of the World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Cressman, Jodi. "Helen Keller and the Mind's Eyewitness." Western Humanities Review 54:2 (Fall 2000): 108-23.
    The psychologist Joseph Jastrow's pavilion at the 1893 Fair put Helen Keller and all of her struggles on display. In her performances with Sullivan, the audience of the fair were rendered witnesses of Keller's consciousness.
  • Davis, Merle. "Sundays at the Fair: Iowa and the Sunday Closing of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." Palimpsest 74: 4 (1993): 156-9.
    Many states, including Iowa, had "blue laws" which made certain activities on the Christian Sabbath illegal. A debate arose over whether or not the World's Columbian Exposition should remain open on Sundays. Iowa and several other states decided to close their exhibits on Sundays, while the rest of the fair remained open.
  • Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer. "Revisiting the White City." Historical Preservation 45: 2 (1993): 42-49, 97-98.
    Although the fair was lauded by critics of the day as a wonder of urban planning and architecture, in retrospect it can be seen as halting the development of modern and functional American architecture. Dean delves into this debate by bringing to light its historical context and by analyzing the design of several key buildings. Includes photographs.
  • Dillon Diane. "Mapping Enterprise: Cartography and Commodification at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition."Nineteenth Century Geographies Ed. Helena Michie and Ronald Thomas. New Brunswick: Rutgers University, 2003.
  • Ebling, Charles W. "You Call That Damn Thing a Boat? More Than a Century Ago, Ships that Looked Like Nuclear Submarines were Everywhere on the Great Lakes." American Heritage of Invention and Technology. 17:2 (2001): 25-27.
    Examines the history of shipbuilding around the Great Lakes including ships that were used for the 1893 Columbian Exposition as ferryboats to carry visitors between downtown Chicago and the fairgrounds.
  • Garfinkle, Charlene G. "Lucia Fairchild Fuller's 'Lost' Woman's Building Mural." American Art 7: 1 (1993): 2-7.
    Up until recently, all of the murals of the Woman's Building were thought to be lost or destroyed. Only one, Fuller's The Women of Plymouth, has been located in New Hampshire. Includes photographs of the mural.
  • Gilbert, Emily. "Naturalist Metaphors in the Literatures of Chicago, 1893-1925." Journal of Historical Geography (Great Britain) 20:3 (1994): 283-304.
    Gilbert analyzes the use by turn of the century writers of organic metaphors to describe the modern city. She contextualizes this discussion by also looking at "other cultural projects of the period," one of which was the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Gilbert, James. "A Contest of Cultures." History Today 42 (July 1992): 33-39.
    The author asserts that the exposition's designers constructed the fair in a way that would promote "high culture," or the "superiority of European art and architecture and American Victorian moral sensibilities." This metaphor is explored by comparing and contrasting the manifestation of high culture, the White City, and its opposite as embodied in the Midway.
  • Gullett, Gayle. "'Our Great Opportunity': Organized Women Advanced Women's Work at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893." Illinois Historical Journal 87 (1994): 259-76.
    Organized women saw the Columbian Exposition as a chance to promote "organized womanhood" and the advancement of women. They also wanted to promote women's work, believing that all work was valuable if it remained faithful to women's "moral responsibilities to wards home and society." The efforts made at the exposition strengthened the women's movement and expanded the notion of women's politics.
  • Harris, Leo. "Wrecking to Save: The Chicago House Wrecking Company." Journal of the West 38:4(October 1999):65-74.
    Russian immigrant Moses Harris established a successful salvage business that reused materials from world's fairs. His companies included the Chicago House Wrecking Company and the Columbia Exposition Salvage Company in which he pioneered techniques for preserving historical materials by reusing them.
  • Harris, Moira F. "Curt Teich Postcards of Minnesota." Minnesota History 54: 7 (1995): 304-15.
    Harris expounds the historical value of studying postcards, specifically those of the Curt Teich Printing Company. The debut of the postcard at the 1893 world's fair is mentioned briefly.
  • Harris, Neil. "Dream Making." Chicago History 23: 2 (1994): 44-57.
  • Hinsley,Curtis M."The World as Marketplace: Commodification of the Exotic at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893." Exhibiting Cultures:The Poetics and Politics of Museum DisplayWashington>:Smithsonian Press,1991.344-65.
  • Hunt, Sylvia. "'Throw Aside the Veil of Helplessness': A Southern Feminist at the 1893 World's Fair." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 100: 1 (1996): 48-62.
    Hunt looks at the life and philosophy of Sue Huffman Brady, a woman representing the South who delivered a speech to the Congress of Women. By examining her life and the participation of other women at the fair, an assessment can be made about the extent to which southern women experienced concepts such as "separate spheres" and "feminism" in the context of the contemporary women's movement.
  • Hutton, John. "Picking Fruit: Mary Cassatt's Modern Woman and the Woman's Building of 1893." Feminist Studies 20: 2 (1994): 318-48.
    Although Cassatt's mural, Modern Woman, was derided by critics of the time, their criticisms are testament to the way in which her depiction of women broke boundaries in the late nineteenth century. Her nontraditional use of Eve and Eden imagery has been the subject of contemporary feminist discussion.
  • Kasson, Joy S. "At the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Buffalo Bill's Wild West: Celebrity, Memory, and Popular Culture. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000: 93-122.
  • Kennedy, Charles A. "When Cairo Met Main Street: Little Egypt, Salome Dancers, and the World's Fairs of 1893 and 1904."Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918. Ed. Michael Saffle. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. 271-298.
  • Klasey, Jack. "Who Invented the Ferris Wheel?" American History Illustrated 28: 4 (1993): 60-63.
    Klasey contemplates the true origin of the Ferris wheel asserting that although George Washington Gale Ferris is credited with its invention, its conceptual beginnings can be traced to earlier sources. He also touches upon the patent difficulties that Ferris encountered soon after the wheel's debut.
  • Madsen, Carol Cornwall. "Decade of Detente: The Mormon-Gentile Female Relationship in Nineteenth-Century Utah." Utah Historical Quarterly 63: 4 (1995): 298-319.
  • Madsen, Carol Cornwall."The Power of Combination': Emmeline B. Wells and the National and International Councils of Women." Brigham Young University Studies 33: 4 (1993): 646-73.
    Mentions the convening of the first meeting of the International Council of Women at the 1893 exposition and the impact this had on women's activism worldwide. Wells' participation in this meeting provided the impetus for her work in further developing women's networks.
  • Massa, Ann. "'The Columbian Ode' and Poetry, A Magazine of Verse: Harriet Monroe's Entrepreneurial Triumphs." Journal of American Studies 20: 1 (1986): 51-69.
    Massa discusses the performing of Harriet Monroe's "The Columbian Ode" at the opening ceremonies of Dedication Day at the 1893 exposition as well as the establishment of the first journal dedicated to the publication and criticism of poetry.
  • McCarthy, Michael P. "Should We Drink the Water?: Typhoid Fever Worries at the Columbian Exposition." Illinois Historical Journal 86: 1 (1993): 2-14.
    Polluted drinking water from Lake Michigan caused a typhoid fever epidemic in Chicago from 1890-1892. The British raised concerns about the Columbian Exposition because of the typhoid fear. The movement to rid Chicago of this disease provides a historical look at solving public health problems and improving sanitation and water supply mechanisms.
  • Meister, Chris. "The Texas State Building: J. Reily Gordon's Contribution to the World's Columbian Exposition." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 98: 1 (1994):1-24.
    Meister recounts the story of Texan participation in the fair and the process of selecting and then modifying Gordon's building design. The building's stylistic affect on subsequent architectural designs is also discussed.
  • Miller, Daniel T. "The Columbian Exposition of 1893 and the American National Character." Journal of American Culture 10 (Summer 1987): 17-22.
    Miller relies on contemporary published accounts of the fair to identify three "national traits": insecurity, discord and optimism.
  • Miller, Donald L. "The White City." American Heritage 44:4 (1993): 70-87.
    Although the World's Columbian Exposition was an amazing and historic event for the nation, it was even more so for the city of Chicago. Rising out of the ashes of the Great Fire of 1871, this world's fair marked a moment in time when Chicago was at its greatest and most dynamic. Miller traces both its rise and its fall in the shadow of economic depression.
  • Mills, Stephen F. "The Presentation of Foreigners in the Land of Immigrants: Paradox and Stereotype at the Chicago World Exposition." European Contributions to American Studies 34 (1996): 251-65.
    Mills is concerned primarily with the presentation of the Irish by the British at the Chicago world's fair. The Irish, he argues, were presented as the "modern," "after" product of Great Britain's civilization processes.
  • Nathan, Marvin. "Visiting the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in July 1893: A Personal View." Journal of American Culture 19: 2 (1996): 79-102.
    Analyzes a letter written by an "ordinary" visitor, Annie Finette Lynch, about her experiences at the Chicago world's fair. Includes the text of the letter, which was written to her younger sister, as well as numerous photographs.
  • Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl. "In Search of Regional Expression: The Washington State Building at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 86: 4 (1995): 165-77.
    Although the Washington State building was commended for its uniqueness and beauty, its design was ultimately determined not by the state, but by D.H. Burnham, the fair's chief of construction. Burnham's choice for the building's design is indicative of eastern civic and business leaders' preconceived notion of western states as rural and primitive.
  • Paddon, Anna R. and Sally Turner. "African Americans and the World's Columbian Exposition." Illinois Historical Journal 88:1 (1995): 19-36.
    African American community leaders gathered in Chicago to deliberate how they should react to their exclusion from the fair's planning and exhibitions. The authors argue that their exclusion and the consequential process of responding to it helped to the lay the groundwork for twentieth century black political, social, and artistic movements.
  • Paddon, Anna R. and Sally Turner."Douglass's Triumphant Days at the World's Columbian Exposition." Proteus 12:1 (1995): 43-47.
    Paddon and Turner trace the change of heart that Frederick Douglass had for the Chicago world's fair, having first denounced it along with Ida B. Wells before its opening and then using his appointed position as commissioner from Haiti to champion the causes of African Americans within fair venues. They also include discussion of his address, "Honor to Their Race."
  • Palmer, Richard F. "Postcard Craze Engulfs the Great Lakes." Inland Seas 50: 1 (1994): 39-45.
    Discusses the origin and popularity of the postcard, mentioning the issuing of numerous souvenir postcards at the Chicago world's fair. Collecting and care and handling of postcards is also addressed.
  • Patton, Phil. "Mammy: Her Life and Times." American Heritage 44: 5 (1993): 78-87.
    Patton traces the evolution of the multi-faceted American icon, Mammy. He looks closely at Aunt Jemima, the commercial image used to sell baking goods, who made her debut at the World's Columbian Exposition.
  • Patton, Phil. "Sell the Cookstove if Necessary, but Come to the Fair." Smithsonian 24: 3 (1993): 38-51.
    Patton provides a general yet comprehensive overview of the World's Columbian Exposition phenomenon which encompasses the public's reaction, its architecture and splendor, and its commercialism. Patton also discusses aspects of racism and sexism at the fair including the segregation and exclusion of African Americans and the condescending nature with which Asians, Native Americans, and women were treated.
  • Phipps, Linda S. "The 1893 Art Institute Building and the ‘Paris of America': Aspirations of Patrons and Architects in Late Nineteenth-Century Chicago," Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 14: 1 (1988): 28-45.
  • Rabinovitz, Laura."The Fair View: The 1893 Chicago World's Columbian Exposition." For the Love of Pleasure: Women, Movies, and Culture in Turn of the Century Chicago. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1998: 47-67.
  • Raibmon, Paige."Theatres of Contact: The Kwakwak'wakw Meet Colonialism in British Columbia and the Chicago World's Fair." Canadian Historical Review 81: 2(June 2000):157-191.
    Focuses on the reaction of spectators to the performers from Vancouver Island during the Fair. Description of the version of the hamasta, or cannibal dance, a spiritually and politically important tribal initiation rite, and assertion of their cultural persistence.
  • Reinhart, Richard. "The Midway Plaisance--Notorious Ancestor of Today's Amusement Parks." World's Fair 12 (April-June 1993): 15-19.
    Reinhart captures the lasciviousness of the Midway, the first amusement area officially part of an American fair.
  • Ridge, Martin. "Turner the Historian: A Long Shadow." Journal of the Early Republic 13: 2 (1993): 132-44.
    Mentions briefly Frederick Jackson Turner's address, "The Significance of the American Frontier in American History," given at the 1893 world's fair.
  • Rudwick, Elliot and August Meier. "Black Man in the ‘White City': Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893." Phylon 26 (Winter 1965): 354-61.
  • Rydell, Robert. "The Chicago World's Columbian Exposition of 1893: ‘And was Jerusalem Builded Here?'" Representing the Nation: A Reader: Histories, Heritage, and Museums. Ed. D. Boswell and Jessica Evans. London: Routledge, 1999.
  • Savory, Jerold J. "Cartoon Commentary." Chicago History 23: 1 (1994): 32-57.
  • Shaw, Marian. "The Fair in Black and White." Chicago History 22: 2 (1993): 54-72.
  • Steiner, Michael. "Parables of Stone and Steel: Architectural Images of Progress and Nostalgia at the Columbian Exposition and Disneyland." American Studies 42:1 (2001): 39-67.
    As a way to gauge changing perceptions of technological progress, compares public attitudes toward Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition to those toward Disneyland since its 1955 opening. Fairgoers of 1893 were fascinated and overwhelmed by the technological features offered at the Chicago exposition, while early visitors to Disneyland longed for the Old West, while also marveling at what tomorrow could bring.
  • Swaim, Ginalie, Becky Hawbaker, Lisa Moran, and Bill Silag. "Iowans at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition: What They Took to the Fair, What They Did There, and What They Brought Home." Palimpsest 74: 4 (1993): 161-87.
  • Tehranian, Katherine Kia. "The Chicago Columbian Exposition of 1893: A Symbol of Modernism." Proceedings of the National Conference on American Planning History 5 (1993): 500-511.
    Traces the development of urban planning in America as well as the significance of it at the Chicago world's fair. The planning of this exposition was one of the first large scale projects in which a group of experts was brought together to work collaboratively.
  • Vaillant, Derek."Preludes of Reform:the Chicago Jubilee,Thomas 'summer nights' concerts,and the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." Sounds of Reform:Progressivism and Music in Chicago,1873-1935.Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2003.
  • Valis, Noël. "Women's Culture in 1893: Spanish Nationalism and the Chicago World's Fair." Letras Peninsulares 13:2-3(2001):633-64.
  • Vendl, Karen and Mark Vendl. "The Mines and Mining Building of the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893: A Photographic Essay." Mining History Journal 8 (2001): 30-41.
    The architecture and internal design of the Mines and Mining Building, one of 14 primary exhibit halls constructed for Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, recognized the industry's importance to America's economy, workforce, and culture by showcasing mineral samples, new technology, and production methods from mines in Colorado, Montana, Michigan, and other states, as well as several other nations.
  • Weimann, Jeanne Madeline. "The Great 1893 Woman's Building: Can We Measure up in 1992." MS Magazine 41(March 1983): 65-67.
  • Wills, Garry. "Sons and Daughters of Chicago." New York Review of Books 61: 11 (June 1994): 52-59.
    A review of several books on Chicago and the World's Columbian Exposition, principally on the architecture of the fair, the Women's Pavilion, and Chicago architects including Daniel Burnham, H.H. Richardson and Frank Lloyd Wright.
  • Wilmerding, John. "Essential Reading." American Art 11: 2 (1997): 28-35.
    This piece primarily discusses the life of Henry Adams and his autobiography, The Education of Henry Adams. Adams' philosophy on learning was changed by his visit to the 1893 world's fair and what he saw as "an image of American unity."
  • Wilson, Matthew. "The Advent of the 'Nigger': The Careers of Paul Laurence Dunbar, Henry O. Tanner, and Charles W. Chesnutt." American Studies 43:1 (2002): 5-50.
  • Wilson, William H. "The World's Columbian Exposition and the City Beautiful Movement: What Really Happened?" Proceedings of the National Conference on American Planning History 5 (1993): 487-99.
    Asserts that the "White City" influenced the City Beautiful movement in terms of design, collaboration, and the use of experts, but did not begin or lead the movement of "comprehensive city planning." Architects of the City Beautiful movement purposely tied their efforts to the world's fair in order to advance their own agendas.
  • Zimmerman, Karen P. "Promoting the Prairie Cornucopia: South Dakota at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition." South Dakota History 23: 4 (1993): 281-300.
    Considering the difficulties of South Dakota's first years of statehood, Governor Mellette saw the fair as an opportunity to bolster the state's image and encourage immigration. Zimmerman discusses the effort to appropriate funds for the state's participation, the role of citizens in garnering the needed support, and the agricultural theme of the state building. Includes photographs.
  • Ziolkowski, Eric J. "Waking Up From Akbar's Dream: The Literary Profiguration of Chicago's 1893 World's Parliament of Religions." The Journal of Religion 73 (January 1993): 42-60.
    The author brings together the worlds of religion and literature by arguing that the Parliament of Religions traces its origins to "a concurrent maverick theme of religious tolerance that had been emergent in Western literature since the Middle Ages." The author asserts that these themes influenced the parliament's chairman through the "poetry of Alfred Tennyson."

Dissertations

  • Brittain, Randy Charles. "Festival Jubilate, Op. 17 by Amy Cheney Beach (1867-1944): A Performing Edition." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of North Carolina, Greensboro, 1994.
    Brittain asserts that the first prominent American woman composer in choral music was Amy Cheney Beach. Beach was commissioned by the Board of Lady Managers of the Chicago world's fair to compose music for the opening of the Woman's Building. Festival Jubilate, op. 17 was the resulting piece. In this work, Brittain produces a new edition of the piano-vocal score of Festival Jubilate.
  • Canfield, Amy Taipale. "Discovering Woman: Women's Performances at the World's Columbian Exposition Chicago, 1893." Ph.D. Dissertation: Ohio State University, 2002.
    A pivotal event in the adjustment of America's attitudes towards women was the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Because the images that women performed, both on-stage and off, in conjunction with the Exposition, reached so many people, this occasion can be considered a landmark in the shaping of public attitudes towards women in theatre and in general. This study examines the performances of three groups of women: the Board of Lady Managers, which had official responsibility for activities relating to women at the Exposition; actresses who performed in the legitimate drama in Chicago during the Exposition; and the women who formed part of the village performances and living ethnological exhibits on the fairgrounds.
  • Dillon, Diane. "'The Fair as Spectacle': American Art and Culture at the 1893 World's Fair." Ph.D. Dissertation: Yale University, 1994.
    Dillon examines the intersection between American capitalism and American culture and aesthetics as was seen in the World's Columbian Exposition. She focuses on the American art exhibition on at the Fine Arts Palace, analyzing the works and then contextualizing them within the larger framework of American culture and history. Includes illustrations and a bibliography.
  • Garfinkle,Charlene."Women at Work:The Design and Decoration of the Woman's Building at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition:Exterior Sculpture,Stained Glass,Interior Murals." Ph.D. Dissertation:University of California,Santa Barbara,1996.
    Garfinkle analyzes the Women's Building, designed and built entirely by women, as "a visible manifestation of the New Woman" at the turn of the century. She does so by looking at its architecture and art. She also asserts that the building, under the direction of the Board of Lady Managers, was designed to send a strong message which would "transcend the limited existence of the building."
  • Harding, John Sheldon. "Mahayana Phoenix: Japan's Buddhists at the 1893 World's Parliament of Religions." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Pennsylvania, 2003.
    A group of Japanese Buddhists traveled to Chicago's Columbian Exposition in the 1893 Parliament of Religions. These delegates combined religious aspirations with nationalist ambitions. Their portrayal of Buddhism mirrored modern reforms in Meiji Japan and the historical context of cultural competition and religious exhibition on display at the 1893 World's Fair.
  • Hubbard, Ladee. "Mobility in America: The Myth of the Frontier and the Performance of National Culture at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Los Angeles, 2003.
  • Potter-Hennessey, Pamela. "The Sculpture at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition: International Encounters and Jingoistic Spectacles." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Maryland, 1995.

Monographs

  • Anderson, Norman D. Ferris Wheels: An Illustrated History. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992.
    Anderson notes that with the debut of the postcard at the Chicago world's fair, much of the history of the Ferris wheel has been captured on these souvenirs. Chapter III is devoted to the history of the Ferris Wheel, built by George Ferris, Jr., at the 1893 exposition. Chapter IV deals with the continuing presence of the Ferris wheel at world's fairs following 1893 and its influence on shaping amusement attractions. Anderson also mentions in Chapter V that the American carnival traces its lineage to the Midway Plaisance of the Columbian Exposition. Includes numerous photographs and illustrations, a bibliography, and an index.
  • Bertuca, David J., ed. World's Columbian Exposition: A Centennial Bibliographic Guide. Bibliographies and Indexes in American History, vol. 26. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1996.
    This extensive bibliography includes materials on the Chicago world's fair of varying format and location as well as primary and secondary sources. It contains over 6,000 references and entries for 131 special collections worldwide. It includes a list of the journals that were indexed and is organized into general works and then into specific subject areas. An index is also provided.
  • Brown, Julie K. Contesting Images: Photography and the World's Columbian Exposition. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994.
    This work explores the multiple roles of photography at the fair. As a relatively new technology and mode of communication, photography was used for both documentation and exhibition. Brown divides the book into two parts, "Photographs on Display" and "Photographic Practices." A bibliography, glossary, and an index are included.
  • Carr, Carolyn Kinder and George Gurney, eds. Revisiting the White City: American Art at the 1893 World's Fair. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art, National Portrait Gallery, 1993.
    This catalog accompanies an exhibition that was created by the NMAA and NPG to celebrate the 500th anniversary of Columbus's voyage and the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. It assembles American art that was exhibited at the Fair and looks at them in a social and historical context. Essays by Robert Rydell and Carolyn Kinder Carr, images of the displayed works, and a catalog of the original fair exhibition are included.
  • Dabakis, Melissa. Visualizing Labor in American Sculpture: Monuments, Manliness, and the Work Ethic, 1880-1935. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    The author uses gender as a critical framework in her analysis of the Exposition. The organizers were aware of labor issues, and created a visual spectacle about peaceful notions of work for the visiting public.
  • Dybwad, G. L. and Joy V. Bliss. Chicago Day at the World's Columbian Exposition: Illustrated with Candid Photographs. Albuquerque: Book Stops Here, 1997.
    Dybwad and Bliss tell the story of Chicago Day using both text and photographs. Following their recount are two short articles about gas ballooning and photography at fairs as well as a section of candid photographs. The authors look at both the viability of photography for amateurs during that time and the work that Chicago Day managers undertook. Includes numerous photographs and illustrations, an illustrated reference list, and an index.
  • Findling, John E. Chicago's Great World's Fairs. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
  • Gilbert, James Burkhart. Perfect Cities: Chicago's Utopias of 1893. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.
  • Hales, Peter B. Constructing the Fair: Platinum Photographs by C.D. Arnold of the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1993.
    This work accompanies a centennial exhibition organized by the Art Institute of Chicago. Charles Dudley Arnold was the official photographer hired by the Fair's Director of Works, Daniel H. Burnham. His works capture the beginning construction stages of the fair and its opening in May of 1893 as well as its consequent heyday and demise.
  • Hartman, Donald K., ed. Fairground Fiction: Detective Stories from the World's Columbian Exposition. Kenmore, N.Y.: Motif Press, 1992.
    This work contains two detective stories. The first, entitled "Against Odds," is by Emma Murdoch Van Deventer and was written in 1894. The second, "Chicago Charlie, the Columbian Detective," is by John Harvey Whitson and was written in 1932. Both stories are followed by short descriptions of the authors and a list of their other works. A map of the fairgrounds, photographs, as well as an annotated bibliography of other fictional works that use the World's Columbian Exposition as a setting are also included in this work.
  • Jonnes, Jill. Empires of Light: Edison, Tesla, Westinghouse, and the Race to Electrify the World. New York: Random House, 2003.
    Details the successful illumination of the fair, and the competition for the contracts.
  • Kirkpatrick, Diane, curator. The Fair View: Representations of the World's Columbian Exposition. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Museum of Art; Chicago, Ill.: Terra Museum of American Art, 1993.
    This brochure provides an introduction to an exhibition of images of the Exposition. The images were divided into four sections: "Introduction," "Utopian Vision," "Nature and Culture," and "Construction and Destruction." Some illustrations and a brief description of late-nineteenth century photographic and mass media image processes are included.
  • Larson, Erik. The Devil in the White City: Murder, Magic and Madness at the Fair that Changed America. New York: Crown, 2003.
    Tells the story of 2 men: Daniel H. Burnham, the architect responsible for the Fair's construction, and H.H. Holmes, a serial killer masquerading as a charming doctor. Burnham overcame tremendous obstacles as he organized the talents of Frederick Law Olmstead, Charles McKim, and Louis Sullivan.
  • Lewis, Arnold. An Early Encounter with Tomorrow: Europeans, Chicago's Loop, and the World's Columbian Exposition. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
    Documents the mixture of amazement and alarm with which European visitors greeted 1890's Chicago: as a futuristic city animated by a crass, frenetic mercantile class.
  • Miller, Donald L. City of the Century: The Epic of Chicago and the Making of America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
    In the aftermath of the Great Fire, the year of the World's Columbian Exposition marked the pinnacle of Chicago's growth as one of the most modern and dynamic cities in the country. This work covers the history of Chicago from its initial "discovery" to the turn of the twentieth century. Chapter 14 is devoted to the events of 1893 and includes discussion of the exposition.
  • Reed, Christopher Robert. All the World is Here!: The Black Presence at White City. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2000.
    Discusses the role of African-Americans at the 1893 Columbian Exposition and looks at the fairs racism and exploitation of people of color, and the historical controversies that have ensued.

Web Sites

  • Ida B. Wells: The Reason Why the Colored American is not in the World's Columbian Exposition.
    Website: Connect to website
  • The World's Columbian Exposition: Idea, Experience, Aftermath
    Website: Connect to website
  • Welcome to The Web-Book Of The Fair - a window on the Chicago World's Fair Of 1893, the Columbian Exposition
    Website: Connect to website

California Midwinter International Exposition, San Francisco 1894

Articles

  • Berglund, Barbara. "The Days of Old, the Days of Gold, the Days of '49: Identity, History, and memory at the California Midwinter International Exposition, 1894." Public Historian 25:4 (Fall 2003): 25-49.

Monographs

  • Chandler, Arthur and Marvin Nathan.The Fantastic Fair: The Story of the California Midwinter International Exposition, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 1894. Calif.: Pogo Press, 1993.
  • Lipsky, William. San Francisco's Midwinter Exposition. Chicago, IL: Arcadia Publishing, 2002.
  • San Francisco History Association. Centennial Journey 1894-1994: California Midwinter International Exposition, 1894, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco. San Francisco: San Francisco History Association, 1994.
  • Silver, Mae. 1894 California Midwinter Fair Women Artists: An Appreciation. S.I.: s.n., 1994.

Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta 1895

Articles

  • Lorini,Alessandra."International Expositions in Chicago and Atlanta:Rituals of Progress and Reconciliation."Rituals of Race:American Public Culture and the Search for Racial Democracy.Charlottesville:U.of Virginia Press,1999:33-75.
  • Newman, Harvey K. "Atlanta's Hospitality Businesses in the New South Era, 1880-1900." Georgia Historical Quarterly 80: 1 (1996): 53-76.
    Discusses primarily early hotels such as the Kimball House and businesses like traveling circuses. The impact of prohibition is also addressed. Mention is made of the 1881 Cotton Exposition while the 1895 Cotton Exposition is dealt with in more detail.

Dissertations

  • Coons, F. H. Boyd. "The Cotton States and International Exposition in the New South: Architecture and Implications." Master's Thesis: University of Virginia, 1988.
    Created to espouse the positive traits of the New South, the Cotton States and International Exposition occurred at a time of "renewed regional identity." The layout of the fairgrounds as well as the disunity of architectural style amongst the buildings were indicative of the New South's unresolved identity issues. Includes photographs and a bibliography.

Monographs

  • Goodson, Steve. Highbrows Hillbillies and Hellfire: Public Entertainment in Atlanta, 1880-1930. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002.

Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, 1898 Omaha, Nebraska

Articles

  • Beam, Patrice K. "The Last Victorian Fair: The Trans-Mississippi International Exposition." Journal of the West 33: 1 (1994): 10-23.
    Provides a general overview of different aspects of the fair and places the fair within an American historical context. Includes photographs as well as a table of attendance figures from world's fairs from 1851 to 1904.
  • Moore, Sarah J. "Mapping Empire in Omaha and Buffalo: World's Fairs and the Spanish American War." Bilingual Review/ La Revista Bilingüe 25:1 (2000): 111-126.

Monographs

  • Cajka, Liz. Westward the Empire: Omaha's World Fair of 1898. Omaha, Nebraska: University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1998.
  • Gale, Kira. Buffalo Bill and Geronimo at the Trans-Miss. Omaha, Nebraska: River Junction Press, 1998.
  • Larsen, Lawrence Harold. The Gate City: A History of Omaha. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
  • Morris Press. Loving Memories: Trans-Mississippi 1898 and Greater America 1899. Kearney, Nebraska: Morris Press, 1999.
  • Peterson, Jess R. Omaha's Trans-Mississippi Exposition. Chicago: Arcadia, 2003.

Web Sites

  • Special Collections: 1898 Omaha Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition
    Website: Connect to website

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1900

Articles

  • Mogensen, Margit."New Technology for Social Health: the Finsen Lamp at the World Exhibition in Paris,1900." ICON: Journal of the International Committee for the History of Technology. 7(2001):35-48.
  • Robinson, Joyce Henri. "M Exhibits: Exposing Art in 2000." Museum News (Sept/Oct. 2000): 39-63.
    Review of two traveling exhibits based on the 1900 Exposition, and their attempt to recreate the ambiance of the original exhibition. Did the art of the time belong to the Post-Impressionist giants in the 1880s or to the early twentieth century artists?
  • Smeds, Kerstin. "A Paradise Called Finland." Scandinavian Journal of Design History (Denmark): 6 (1996): 62-77.
    Amidst a tumultuous history of war between Sweden and Russia, one way in which Finland attempted to establish its distinctive national identity was through architecture. The Finnish Pavilion at the 1900 world's fair was a key example of "nation-building" during a period of imposed Russification. The pavilion is discussed in the early portion of the article. Photographs are also included.
  • Trocme, Helen. "1900: Les Americains a l'Exposition Universelle de Paris." Revue Francaise d'Etudes Americaines 59 (1994): 35-44.

Monographs

  • Bruson, Jean-Marie, Diane Pietrucha Fischer and Linda Jones Docherty. Paris 1900: les artistes á l'exposition Universelle: Musée Carnalavet, Historie de Paris, 21 Février - 29 Avril 2001. Paris: Paris-Musees.
  • Fischer, Diane P., editor. Paris 1900: The "American School" at the Universal Exposition. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1999.
  • Greenhalgh, Paul. Art Nouveau: 1890-1914. London: Washington D.C.: Victoria and Albert Museum; National Gallery of Art, 2000.
    Art Nouveau exploded onto the art and design scene in the early 1890s, and spread rapidly throughout the western world with an enormous showcase at the 1900 Exposition Universelle.
  • Kiddle, Charles. The Paris Universal Exposition 1900: the Poster Stamps-Vignettes. Alton: World Poster Stamps, 2000.
  • Lewis, David L. and Deborah Willis. A Small Nation of People: W.E.B. DuBois and African American Portraits of Progress. New York: Amistad, 2003.
    W.E.B. DuBois and the Paris Exposition; including 150 of the photographs that DuBois included in his display on African Americans in Georgia at the 1900 Paris Exposition.
  • Lorrain, Jean and Phillipe Martin Lau. Mes Expositions Universelles: 1889-1900. Paris: H. Champion, 2002.
  • Mabire, Jean- Christophe. L'Exposition Universelle de 1900. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2000.

1901 Pan-American Exposition Buffalo, New York

Articles

  • Bamford, Heidi. "A Century Ago: Behind the Scenes with 'Uncle Hank': The 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo." Nineteenth Century 21:2 (2002):44-47.
    Looks back on the 1901 Exposition, how it came into being, and a book that was written by Thomas Fleming, Around the ‘Pan' with Uncle Hank: His Trip Through the Pan-American Exposition.
  • Bewley, Michele Ryan. "The New World in Unity: Pan-America Visualized at Buffalo in 1901." New York History 84:2 (2003): 179-203.

Monographs

  • Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. Treasures from the Past: the Pan-Am Expo of 1901. Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, 2001.
    Offers educators a practical way to teach the Pan-American Exposition curriculum. Provides lessons for all grade levels, source documents, links to web sites: CD Rom included.
  • Grant, Kerry S. The Rainbow City: Celebrating Light, Color, and Architecture at the Pan American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901. Buffalo, N.Y.: Canisius College Press, 2001.
  • Harmon, Carey A. and Varney Greene. The Pan-American Exposition: A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Sources Available at the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. Buffalo, N.Y.: The Library, 2001.
  • Lee, Raya and Robert Berkman. Pan American Exposition, Buffalo New York, 1901: A Bird's Eye View of Sights and Sounds. Buffalo, N.Y.: Canisius College Press, 2001.
    Accompanying CD includes popular music of the time period.
  • Loos,William, Ami Savigny, Robert Gurn, and Lillian Williams.The Forgotten "Negro Exhibit":African American Involvement in Buffalo's Pan-American Exposition, 1901. Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo/Erie County Public Library: 2001.

Web Sites

  • Illuminations: Revisiting the Buffalo Pan-American Exposition of 1901.
    Website: Connect to website

Inter-State and West Indian Exposition, South Carolina 1901-1902

Articles

  • Bland, Sidney R. "Women and World's Fairs: The Charleston Story." South Carolina Historical Magazine 94: 3 (1993): 166-84.
    World's fairs at the turn of the century began to celebrate the accomplishments of women. Women's pavilions and activities from previous world's fairs set the precedent for following women's forums, including that of the West Indian Exposition. The Woman's Department formed the backbone of organizing efforts and in the process created an image of the southern woman as having aspects of both "traditional womanhood and new womanhood."
  • Harvey, Bruce. "'Struggles and Triumphs' Revisited: Charleston's West Indian Exposition and the Development of Urban Progressivism" Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association (1988): 85-93.
    Despite ending up bankrupt by the end of the fair, the West Indian Exposition can be seen, according to Harvey, as a success for the city of Charleston. The fair was an effort to establish Progressivism in the southern business community and revive the southern economy.
  • Smyth, William. "Blacks and the South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition." South Carolina Historical Magazine 88: 4 (1987): 211-219.
    Smyth looks specifically at the Negro Building as well as the Negro Department which had Booker T. Washington as its chief commissioner. The organizers of the building wanted to showcase black progress in industry, education, and agriculture. Smyth asserts that the building was well received by visitors and helped to unite blacks in the South.

Monographs

  • Chibbaro, Anthony. The Charleston Exposition. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia, 2001.

Esposizione Internazionale de Disegno, Turin 1902

Articles

  • Weisberg, Gabriel P. "The Turin Exposition of International Design 1902: The Mystery of the Stile Floreale and the Palazzina of Augostino Lauro." Arts Magazine 62 (April 1988): 32-36.
    During a period in which Italian design was considered "weak," the Turin Exposition was designed to stimulate the creative forces of Italian artistry in buildings and furniture by placing their works in direct competition with foreign designs. The exposition marked the debut of a new, original Italian style called Stile Floreale. The Palazzina was built to demonstrate this modern style.

Monographs

  • Bossaglia, Rossana, Ezio Godoli, and Marco Rosci. Torino 1902: le arti decorative internazionali del nuovo secolo: catalogo della mostra. [Italian] Milan: Fabbri, 1994.
  • Garuzzo, Valeria. L'esposizione del 1902 a Torino. [Italian] Torino: Testo & imagine, 1999.

Louisiana Purchase International Exposition, St. Louis 1904

Articles

  • Afable, Patricia O. "The Exhibition of Cordillerans in the United States during the Early 1900's." The Igorot Quarterly 6: 2 (1997): 19-22.
    A large Philippine exhibit which included an estimated 800 to 1000 Filipinos was created for the fair in order to display the United States' recently acquired colonial spoils and justify its imperial presence in the Philippines. Afable discusses some of the key features of the exhibit, its popularity, and the present day effort to unearth more information about its Igorot participants. Includes references.
  • Armstrong, Agnes. "The Organ in the Iowa State Building at the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition." The Tracker: Journal of the Organ Historical Society. 36:4 (1992): 25-30.
  • Barr, Bernadine Courtright. "Entertaining and Instructing the Public: John Zahorsky's 1904 Incubator Institute." Social History of Medicine (Great Britain) 8: 1 (1995): 17-36.
  • Blumentritt, Mia. "Bontoc Eulogy, History and the Craft of Memory: An Extended Conversation with Marlon E. Fuentes." Amerasia Journal 24: 3(1998): 75-91.
    Concerned with the Filipino experience at the St. Louis Fair, and the historical importance of the fair to Filipinos as well as the conditions of the indigineous Filipinos who were brought to the Fair.
  • Book, Jeff. "Return of a Giant." Smithsonian 34:12 (2004): 27-28.Book, Jeff. “Return of a Giant.” Smithsonian 34:12 (2004): 27-28.
    Birmingham, Alabama was a major iron-making center at the beginning of the 20th century: to prove this to the world, they built a colossal iron statue of Vulcan, Roman God of the forge for the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. The statue has been restored, and now sits in Vulcan Park.
  • Christ, Carol. "Japan's Seven Acres: Politics and Aesthetics at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 2-15.
    For Japan, the 1904 world's fair was the opportunity to present two images to the world. In the midst of Western imperial encroachment into Asia, Japan wanted to project an image of military strength equal to that of the United States and Great Britain. On the other hand, Japan provided fair goers with an image of uniqueness based on ancient culture and tradition that resisted the imposition of Western standards. Some of the areas covered by the article are Japanese participation in earlier world's fairs, Japanese collaboration with American anthropologists to exhibit the indigenous Ainu, the Russo-Japanese War, and Japanese aesthetics. Includes photographs and a brief bibliography of primary and secondary resources.
  • Christ, Carol. "The Sole Guardians of the Art Inheritance of Asia: Japan and China at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair." Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 8:3 (2000): 675-709.
    Describes Japanese participation in the 1904 World's Fair, and Japan's use of the Exposition to claim the status of colonial power. Distinctions between the Japanese and Chinese, and how they were viewed by the world.
  • Clevenger, Martha R. "Through Western Eyes: Americans Encounter Asians at the Fair." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 42-51.
    The world's fairs showcased what organizers believed was "progress" according to Western standards. These standards were used to judge non-Western cultures and deem them uncivilized and backward. Organizers juxtaposed these cultural exhibitions in order to educate attendees of the "benefits" of Western progress. Clevenger discusses the impact that the Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino exhibits had on audiences based on the personal accounts of four fair attendees. She also delves into greater detail about each country's exhibit. This piece was adapted from an excerpt from Clevenger's "Indescribably Grand": Diaries and Letters from the 1904 World's Fair. Includes photographs and short bibliography.
  • Cody, Davis C. "Henry Adams and the City of Brass." New England Quarterly 60 (1987): 89-91.
    Adams used the phrase "the city of brass" to describe the night time illumination of the St. Louis fairgrounds. Cody traces its history and reveals the more ominous meanings of the phrase in noting that Kipling and the tales of Scheherazade used the "city of brass" as a metaphor for "a ghastly monument of spiritual starvation in the midst of material plenty."
  • Crets, Jennifer. "What the Carnival is at Rome, the Fair is at St. Louis: the Nascent Years of the St. Louis Agricultural and Mechanical Fair." Gateway Heritage 22:4 (2002): 22-33.
  • Dyreson, Mark. "The Playing Fields of Progress: American Athletic Nationalism and the 1904 Olympics." Gateway Heritage 16: 2 (1995): 18-37.
    The 1904 Olympic Games were held in conjunction with the world's fair. The games were incorporated into the fair as an example of "social technology," a theme that coincided with the touting of human progress at all world's fairs. Photographs are included.
  • Edwards, Sue Bradford. "Imperial East Meets Democratic West: The St. Louis Press and the Fair's Chinese Delegation." Gateway Heritage 17: 2 (1996): 32-41.
    Despite being invited to the world's fair by fair officials, the majority of the Chinese delegation was subjected to negative treatment, harassment, and curfews. Only high ranking Chinese officials like Prince Pu Lun and Wong Kai Kah were treated better, but only after initially being portrayed by the media as "backwards and bizarre." Discussion focuses around Chinese and Western commercial relations, stereotypes held by Americans of Chinese, Chinese laborers in the U.S., and the experiences of the Chinese delegation at the fair. Photographs and a short bibliography are included.
  • Everdell, William R. "Meet Me in Saint Louis: Modernism Comes to Middle America, 1904." The First Moderns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. 206-226.
  • Feldman, Richard D. "The Golden Hill Totem Pole of Indianapolis: The Missing Totem Pole from the Brady Collection of Sitka National Historical Park." American Indian Art Magazine 21: 2 (1996): 58-71.
    Delineates Feldman's search for the Alaskan totem pole that was once displayed at the 1904 fair and then found its way to the Indianapolis, Indiana neighborhood of Golden Hill.
  • Frelinghuysen, Alice Cooney. "The Early Artistic Jewelry of Louis C. Tiffany." The Magazine Antiques (1971) 162: 1 (July 2002): 90-5.
    Louis Comfort Tiffany's earliest jewelry was exhibited at the 1904 Exhibition, and received more attention from art critics than did Tiffany and Company's displays.
  • Grindstaff, Beverly K. "Creating Identity: Exhibiting the Philippines at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition." National Identities 1 : 3 (Nov. 1999): 245-264.
    Focuses on the Philippine culture exhibit at the fair and the importance of the Exhibition in creating Philippine identity.
  • Gunning, Tom. "The World as Object Lesson: Cinema Audiences, Visual Culture, and the St. Louis World's Fair, 1904." Film History 6 (1994): 422-44.
  • Gustaitis, Joseph. "Who Invented the Ice Cream Cone?" American History Illustrated 23 (1988): 42-44.
    This brief article describes the convergence of rolled waffles and ice cream at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and names the contenders for the title of inventor of the ice cream cone.
  • Kierstead, Matthew A. "Vulcan: Birmingham's Industrial Colossus." IA: the Journal of the Society of Industrial Archaeology 28:1 (2002):59-74.
    Vulcan, the largest cast-iron statue in the world was conceived by a Birmingham, Alabama, businessman as a dramatic booster for the industry of the city and the South for display at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition…the statue was a sensation at the fair.
  • Kramer, Paul. "Making Concessions: Race and Empire Revisited at the Philippine Exposition, 1901-1905." Radical History Review 73 (1999): 74-114.
    Justifying overseas colonies and the American presence in the Philippines was difficult for those who worked to establish American imperialism abroad at the turn of the century. One way of promoting imperialism was through expositions. Kramer explores these efforts and their outcomes by closely examining the Philippine Exposition at the 1904 world's fair.
  • Laurie, Clayton D. "An Oddity of Empire: The Philippine Scouts and the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 15: 3 (1994-95): 44-55.
    The Philippine Exhibit, designed to showcase American imperialism was one of the largest and most frequently visited displays at the fair. Within the exhibit, the most popular native group featured was the US Army Philippine Scouts, "Filipino soldiers who served the American military establishment in the archipelago." These soldiers were used to quell popular rebellions against the Americans during the colonization process. Photographs are included.
  • Lerner, Michael. "Hoping for a Splendid Summer: African-American St. Louis, Ragtime, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition." Gateway Heritage 19:3 (1998-99): 28-41.
    By supporting and participating in the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition, African Americans hoped to promote the economic advancement of the black community. The Exposition never welcomed African American artists like ragtime musicians and some groups did boycott the fair.
  • Long, Burke O. "Lakeside at Chautauqua's Holy Land." Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 92 (March 2001): 1-26.
    Presents information on the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and the idea of the holy land in the American Republic, with background on the Palestine Park.
  • Miyatake, Kimio. "Jinruigaku to Orinpikku: Ainu to 1904 nen Sentoruisu Orinpikku." Hokkaido Daigaku Bungaku-bu Kiyo [Japan] 108 (2002): 1-22.
  • Moenster, Kathleen. "Jessie Beals: Official Photographer of the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 3:2 (1982): 22-29.
  • Mullen, Robert. "The First Monument to the Third President: The World's Fair Comes to an End." Gateway Heritage 16: 1 (1995): 14-19.
    After the closing of the 1904 fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company (LPEC) had a surplus of profit. The LPEC, as its final act, decided to erect a monument to Thomas Jefferson with the excess funds. The Jefferson Memorial Building was finally built in 1913. Includes photographs.
  • Parezo, Nancy, and John Troutman."The Shy Cocopa Go to the Fair."Selling the Indian: Commercializing & Appropriating American Indian Cultures.Ed. Carter Jones Meyer and Diana Royer.Tucson, AZ.:University of Arizona Press,2001. 3-43.
  • Paul, Andrea I. "Nebraska's Home Movies: The Nebraska Exhibit at the 1904 World's Fair." Nebraska History 76: 1 (1995): 22-27.
  • Peavy, Linda and Ursula Smith. "World Champions: the 1904 Girl's Basketball Team from Fort Shaw Indian Boarding School." Montana 51:4(2001): 2-25.
  • Sanger, Chesley W. and Anthony B. Dickenson. "The Construction and Display of the First Full-Scale Model of a Blue Whale: The Newfoundland Connection." Acadiensis (Canada) 27:1 (1997): 67-84.
  • Scott, Catherine. "Pygmy in the Zoo: the Story of Ota Benga." Bronx County Historical Society Journal 38:2 (2001): 84-95.
    In 1904, an American explorer brought a number of pygmies to America whom he exhibited at the World's Fair. One of them, Ota Benga ended up on display in the Bronx Zoo, which outraged the African American community.
  • Shapiro-Shapin, Carolyn G. "Filtering the City's Image: Progressivism, Local Control, and the St. Louis Water Supply, 1890-1906." Journal of the History of Medicine 54 (July 1999): 387-412.
    St. Louisans realized that a successful fair depended on the world perceiving their city as a healthy locale, despite the increase in typhoid fever. The article discusses the advances towards “pure water,” and the need for visitors to see the improvements.
  • Simpson, Pamela. "Meet Me in St. Louis: Lexingtonians Go to the Fair." Proceedings of the Rockbridge Historical Society (Lexington, Va.) 10 (1980-1989): 355-64.
    This address presented a general overview of the fair covering features such as its planning, exhibitions, and architecture. It includes discussion of how Lexingtonians reacted to the fair. Photographs are also included.
  • Smith, Jeffrey E. "A Mirror Held to St. Louis: William Marion Reedy and the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 19:1(1998): 32-39.
  • Steffensen-Bruce, Ingrid. "'Classic Serenity' or 'Oriental Splendor': Cass Gilbert's Designs for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904." Nineteenth Century 19:2 (1999): 35-43.
  • Trennert, Robert A. "A Resurrection of Native Arts and Crafts: The St. Louis World's Fair, 1904." Missouri Historical Review 87: 3 (1993): 274-92.
  • VanStone, James W. "The Ainu Group at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904." Arctic Anthropology 30: 2 (1993): 77-91.
  • Vostral, Sharra L. "Imperialism on Display: The Philippine Exhibition at the 1904 World's Fair." Gateway Heritage 13: 4 (1993): 18-31.
    The Philippine Exhibition left fair goers with the image of Filipinos as savage, barbaric dog-eaters. The exhibition was constructed as propaganda to justify US imperialism in the Philippines. The US was portrayed as "benevolent" and civilizing and economic investment in the islands was encouraged. Discussion of US involvement in the Spanish-American War and the consequent annexation of the Philippines is included. Photographs are included as well.
  • Watkins, W. Merle and Bill Watkins. "The World's Fair in a Rowboat." Goldenseal 27:2 (2001): 66-71.

Dissertations

  • Harper, Christine Froechtenight. "The Water Wizard: John F. Wixford and the Purification of the St. Louis Water Supply in 1904." Ph.D. Dissertation: St. Louis University, 2001.
  • Luftschein, Susan Elise. "The Changing Face of an Expanding America: The City Beautiful Movement, the Myth of the Frontier, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904." Ph.D. Dissertation: City University of New York, 1996.
    This fair was dedicated to the one-hundred year anniversary of Jefferson's purchase of the Louisiana Territory and embodied the City Beautiful Movement. This work looks at the "artistic achievements" of the fair and analyzes them with respect to historical context. Two aspects of the fair, the layout of the grounds and the free standing sculpture, are focused on. Illustrations and a bibliography are included.

Monographs

  • Barnes, Harper. Standing on a Volcano: the Life and Times of David Rowland Francis. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 2001.
    Biography of the "father" of the St. Louis Fair who was later appointed ambassador to Russia by Woodrow Wilson.
  • Breitbart, Eric. A World on Display: Photographs from the St. Louis World's Fair, 1904. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.
  • Clevenger, Martha R., ed. "Indescribably Grand": Diaries and Letters from the 1904 World's Fair. St. Louis, Mo.: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1996.
    This work focuses on the reactions of visitors to the various aspects of the world's fair. It includes the diaries and letters of four visitors as well as an overview of the 1904 world's fair by Clevenger. Illustrations, a bibliography, and an index are included.
  • Fox, Elana. Inside the World's Fair of 1904: Exploring the Louisiana Purchase Exposition (2 Volumes). Bloomington, Ind.: 1st Books Library, 2003.
    Visual history of the Exposition.
  • Fox, Tim and Duane R. Sneddeker. From the Palaces to the Pike: Visions of the 1904 World's Fair. St. Louis, Mo.: Missouri Society Press, 1997.
    This photographic history of the fair presents readers with images of the fair's opening day, over fourteen of its buildings, the Philippine Reservation and Anthropological Division, the 1904 Olympic Games, its special events, and the fair goers. Each section includes a brief introduction.
  • Hendershott, Robert L. The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair: The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Mementos and Memorabilia. Iola, Wis.: Kurt F. Krueger Pub., 1994.
    This guide includes over 2400 listings for actual items with corresponding photographs. Photographs are black and white. The items are arranged by category and each listing includes the item's value range.
  • Minkin, Bertram. Legacies of the St. Louis World's Fair. St. Louis, MO.: Virginia Publishing, 1998.
  • Rademacher, Diane. Still Shining Discovering! Lost Treasures from the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. St. Louis, MO: Virginia Publishing Corporation, 2003.
    Tracks down the present history and location of the 1904 fair buildings, sculptures, and structures. Contains original photographs as well as photographs of how the structures look today. Also provides background on the items and how they came to be included in the fair.

Web Sites

Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, Jamestown, VA. 1907

Articles

  • Gleach, Frederic W. "Pocahontas at the Fair: Crafting Identities at the 1907 Jamestown Exposition." Ethnohistory 50:3(Summer 2003): 419-446.
    The 1907 Exposition was held to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the English settlement. The Powhatan Indians were seeking ways to improve their conditions – this article explores the ways in which their performances were intertwined with identity construction.

Dissertations

  • Watkins, Sarah Howard. "The Negro Building: African American representation at the 1907 Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition." M.A. Thesis: College of William and Mary, 1994.
  • Wilkes, John Thomas. "Enough Glory for Us All: the 'Negro Exhibit' at the Jamestown Tercentennial Exposition, 1907." M.A. Thesis: University of Richmond, 2003.

Monographs

  • Hampton Roads Naval Museum. An Illustrated History of the Jamestown Exposition. Norfolk: The Museum, 2nd edition, 2000.
  • Yarsinske, Amy Waters. Jamestown Exposition: American Imperialism on Parade. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia, 1999.

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco 1915

Articles

  • Eggener, Keith L. "Maybeck's Melancholy: Architecture, Empathy, Empire, and Mental Illness at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition." Winterthur Portfolio 29: 4 (1994): 211-26.
    This article examines the Palace of Fine Arts and its creator, Bernard Maybeck. Through architecture, he tried to build an environment where the structure, viewer, and artworks would be linked, conveying to the visitor the feeling of "melancholy," or sadness and seriousness, that the artworks evoked. The mental disorder "melancholia" in the early 1900s and its relation to Maybeck's structure is also addressed. Illustrations and photographs are included.
  • Ewald, Donna and Peter Clute. "America in Photographs: The Enchanted City." American History Illustrated 27: 3 (1992): 46-57.
    In the aftermath of the 1906 earthquake, businessman Reuben Hale spearheaded the formation of a committee to create an exposition that would celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal. This article includes numerous photographs documenting various aspects of the fair such as its construction and the "Zone," the fair's amusement district.
  • Lundberg, Robert. "The Art Room in the Oregon Building: Oregon Arts and Crafts in 1915." Oregon Historical Quarterly 102:2 (2000): 214-227.
    Surveys the artistic holdings in the Oregon Building Art Room at the Exposition including basketry, books, furniture, music, paintings, and photography.
  • Reinhardt, Richard. "Day of the Daredevil." American Heritage of Invention and Technology 11:2 (1995): 10-21.
    Tells the story of Lincoln Beachey, a thrill seeking aviator who plunged to his death as spectators watched from the shores of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, and Art Smith, an aviator who flew successfully at the same fair. Photographs are included.
  • Shields, Scott A. "The Panama Pacific International Exposition Silver Spade." Silver Magazine March/April (2000):24-25.
    In 1911, President William Taft went to San Francisco to break ground for the Pan-Pacific Exposition of 1915. During the groundbreaking, he used a sterling silver spade created especially for the occasion; one of the few sterling silver shovels ever made in the U.S..
  • Williams, Reba White. "Prints in the United States, 1900-1918." Prints Quarterly (Great Britain) 14: 2 (1997): 151-73.
    This article focuses on the history prints in the early part of the twentieth century and makes mention of the Panama-Pacific Exposition as the host of the first large exhibition of American prints. Appendix D includes a list of American prize winners at the fair.

Dissertations

  • Bolton, Marie. "Recovery for Whom?: Social Conflict After the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, 1906-1915." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Davis, 1997.
  • Lee, Anthony Wallace. "Public Painting in San Francisco: Diego Rivera and His Contemporaries." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Berkeley, 1995.
  • Powell, Chandra A. "A Study of James Earle Fraser's 'End of the Trail': A New Interpretation for the Image of the Defeated Native American." Master's Thesis: Oklahoma City University, 1998.

Monographs

  • Bonnett, Wayne. City of Dreams: Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Sausalito, CA: Windgate Press, 1995.
  • Bruml, Laura and Paul J. Hershey. Electric Lights Dazzling: An Account of One Family's Visit to the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition. Los Angeles: Info-Miner Research, 1999.

Web Sites

  • The Panama Pacific International Exposition: Bibliography by Location
    Website: Connect to website
  • The Way California Could Be: The Panama-Pacific International Exposition
    Website: Connect to website

Panama California Exhibition, San Diego 1915-1916

Articles

  • Amero, Richard. "The Southwest on Display at the Panama-California Exposition." Journal of San Diego History 36 (1990): 183-220.
    Amero presents a detailed history of the Panama California Exhibition. He discusses the planning process as well as many of the buildings and their distinctive use of Southwestern motifs. Includes numerous photographs.
  • Bokovoy, Matthew F. "Peers of Their White Conquerors: The San Diego Expositions and Modern Spanish Heritage in the Southwest 1880-1940." New Mexico Historical Review 78:4 (2003): 387-418.
    The 1915 Exhibition focused on the southwest and it's cultures with an extensive section devoted to Native Americans including displaying Hopi, Navajo, and Pueblo Indians in “their natural state.” The author also discusses the 1935 Exposition and the relationship between Whites and Mexicans.
  • Kropp, Phoebe. "There is a Little Sermon in That:Constructing the Native Southwest at the San Diego Panama-California Exposition of 1915." The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company. Ed. Marta Weigle. Phoenix:Heard Museum, 1996.

Dissertations

  • Barnd, Natchee Blu. "Erasing Indians in the Making of Paradise: Race, Space, History and San Diego's Panama - California Exposition of 1915." M.A. Thesis: University of California San Diego, 2002.
  • Bates, Cheryl Lei. "The Life and Times of Gilbert Aubrey Davidson." M.A. Thesis: University of San Diego, 1995.
  • Bokovoy, Matthew Francis. "San Diego's Expositions as ‘Islands on the Land', 1915, 1935: Southwestern Culture, Race and Class in Southern California." Ph.D. Dissertation: Temple University, 1999.
    Topics covered include the myths of agricultural boosterism, the role of popular anthropology in the construction of ethnic identity, and the representations of Native American culture and Indian resistance within ethnic dioramas during the 1915 exposition. The section on the 1935 San Diego fair analyzes New Deal policy, the California Dream, and the “culture of abundance.”
  • Jansen, Gail Ann. "The Political - Economic Aspects of Architectural Choice at the Panama California Exposition, San Diego 1915: Why Bertram Goodhue?" M.A. Thesis: University of California Los Angeles, 1999.
  • Kropp, Phoebe S. "All Our Yesterdays: the Spanish Fantasy Past and the Politics of Public Memory in Southern California." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California San Diego, 1999.
    The author states that a movement to construct a tourist mission road, El Camino Real, established the popularity of the Spanish past in the early years of the century. The staging of the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego in 1915 provided a key moment for a definition of the region in terms of its Spanish image.

Web Sites

  • Panama-California Exposition ~ San Diego ~ 1915-1916 (The San Diego Historical Society)
    Website: Connect to website

British Empire Exhibition, Wembly 1924

Articles

  • August, Tom. "Art and Empire -- Wembley 1924." History Today 43 (1993): 38-44.
  • Walthew, K. "The British Empire Exhibition of 1924." History Today 31 (1981): 34-39.

Dissertations

  • Ramsay, Ellen Louise. "The Promotion of the Fine Arts in Canada, 1880-1924: The Development of Art Patronage and the Formation of Public Policy." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of London [United Kingdom], 1988.
    This dissertation traces the growth in art patronage and public policy during these years from the formation of the Royal Canadian Academy (RCA) in 1880 to the celebration of the first school of national landscape painters at the British Empire Exhibition in 1924.

Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes, Paris 1925

Articles

  • Gura, Judith B. "Modernism and the 1925 Paris Exposition." Magazine Antiques 158 (2000): 194-200.
  • Hillier, Bevis and Stephen Escritt. "Strictly Modern: The 1925 Paris Exposition and the State of European Decoration." Art Deco Style. London: Phaidon, 1997.Articles

Dissertations

  • Gronberg, Tag. "Cite D'Illusion: Staging Modernity at the 1925 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes." Ph.D. Dissertation: Open University [United Kingdom], 1994.
    Situated in the heart of Paris, the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes was criticised at the time for its overtly temporary and artificial architecture--for being a 'cite d'illusion' and a 'decor de theatre' as opposed to a 'cite reelle'. The Exhibition's emphasis on ostentatious and luxurious display was also widely attacked.

Sesquicentennial International Exposition, Philadelphia 1926

Articles

  • Lucas, J. "The Greatest Gathering of Olympians: an Historical Flashback." Olympian 9:2 (Jul/Aug. 1984): 6-8.

Dissertations

  • Cleary, Calista Keller. "The Past is Present: Historical Representation at the Sesquicentennial International Exposition." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Pennsylvania, 1999.
    The fair offered a forum in which Philadelphians confronted some of the most pressing issues of the early twentieth century: urbanization, consumerism, the changing role of women, immigration, racism, racial diversity and mass culture. Even though the fair's organizers touted peace, the event proved to be battleground, an arena in which numerous interests fought to control the depiction of the past in order to control the shape of the future.
  • Wilson, Martin Willever. "From the Sesquicentennial to the Bicentennial: Changing Attitudes toward tourism in Philadelphia." Ph.D. Dissertation: Temple University, 2000.

Exposition Coloniale Internationale, Paris 1931

Articles

  • Evans, Martin. "Projecting a Greater France: Martin Evans contrasts the Triumphalism of France's 1931 Colonial Exhibition in Paris with the Rotten Reality of its Ramshackle Empire." History Today 50:2 (2000): 18-32.
  • Hodeir, Catherine. "La ‘Fee Electricite' a L' Exposition Coloniale Internationale de Paris (1931)." Outre-Mers: Revue d'Historie [France] 89:1(2002):55-69.

Dissertations

  • Ezra, Elizabeth Rose. "The Identification of Difference: Raymond Roussel, Rene Crevel and the Colonial Exhibitions in Interwar France." Ph.D. Dissertation: Cornell University, 1992.Dissertations
    This thesis examines the construction of group identities in French colonial discourse of the 1920s and 1930s through readings of literary texts with colonial themes, and through studies of archival data pertaining to the 1931 Exposition Coloniale Internationale and the colonial section of the 1937 World's Fair, both held in Paris.

Century of Progress, Chicago 1933-1934

Articles

  • Boehm, Lisa Krisoff. "The Fair and the Fan Dancer: A Century of Progress and Chicago's Image." Chicago History 27:2(1998): 42-55.
    Chicago's second World's Fair was supposed to transform Chicago's image from that of a frontier, vice-ridden town to one of sophisticated metropolis supporting the finest cultural events: this was not the case.
  • Havlik, Robert J. "The Chicago Century of Progress Sky-Ride 1932-1935." Image File: A Journal from the Curt Teich Postcard Archives 7: 1 (1992): 3-6.
    A commercial success rather than an engineering wonder, the Sky Ride's design, construction and demolition are the subject of this article.
  • Kay, Gwen. "Seeing the Fair the FDA Way: the 1933 Century of Progress Exposition." Journal of Illinois History 5:3(2002):197-212.
    Details how the Food and Drug Administration used its exhibit space in the Government building at the Exposition to further its agenda of revising the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in order to better protect the consumer.
  • Kegl, Rosemary. "Wrapping Togas over Elizabethan Garb: Tabloid Shakespeare at the 1934 Chicago World's Fair." Renaissance Drama 28 (1999): 73-97.
    Examines the popularity of the 1934 Chicago World's Fair and focuses on the reconstruction of England's Globe Theater which presented forty minute productions of Shakespeare's plays.
  • Ohman, Marian. "Major N. Clark Smith in Chicago." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 96:1(2003): 49-79.
    Chronicles the career of N. Clark Smith, a leading African American composer and his role in "Negro Day" at the fair.
  • Sherman, Jane. "Ruth St. Denis: the Lost Ballet." Dance Chronicle 20:1 (1997): 49-62.
    Ruth St. Denis was appointed dance director for the 1933-34 Century of Progress International Exposition. She produced a detailed plan for the ambitious project called the Ballet of the States, but it was not produced as it was declared too expensive.
  • Talbot-Stanaway, Susan. "The Giant Jewel." Chicago History 22: 2 (1993): 4-23.
    Evaluates the architecture of Chicago's Century of Progress Exposition of the summers of 1933 and 1934, paying special attention to the color scheme assigned to fair buildings designed by Joseph Urban.

Dissertations

  • McDaniel, David Paul. "A Century of Progress? Cultural Change and the Rise of Modern Chicago." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1999.
    By 1933, the Midway's forces of popular culture had achieved cultural hegemony: in the rise of popular entertainment, mass-production-based consumer culture, and a rise in beliefs in the power of science.
  • Schrenk, Lisa Diane. "The Role of the 1933-34 Century of Progress International Exposition in the Development and Promotion of Modern Architecture in the United States." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 1998.
    During the years that the Exposition was designed and built, architects were searching for design solutions appropriate for the rapidly changing world. The Exposition provided an opportunity for architects to explore a wide range of new ideas reflective of the times.

Monographs

  • Gleisten, Samantha. Chicago's 1933-34 World's Fair: A Century of Progress in Vintage Postcards. Chicago, Ill: Arcadia Pub., 2002.
  • Ingerle, Rudolph.Rudolph Ingerle 1879-1950: Paintings of the Ozarks, the Great Smoky Mountains, and the 1933 Chicago Century of Progress Exhibition. Chicago, Ill: Aaron Galleries, 2000.
  • Taragin, Davira S. Alliance of Art and Industry: Toledo Designs for a Modern America. Toledo, OH.: Toledo Museum of Art, Hudson Hills Press, 2002.
    Concerns industrial designers who worked with companies in Toledo and includes substantial references to the Chicago Exposition of 1933 and the contributions of those designers.
  • Waldvogel, Merikay and Barbara Brackman. Patchwork Souvenirs of the 1933 World's Fair: The Sears National Quilt Contest and Chicago's Century of Progress Exposition. Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill Press, 1993.
    The Sears National Quilt Contest which was held at the fair was the largest exhibition of quilts ever organized. Some of the quilts that were displayed and the women who made them are discussed. A brief overview of the fair is also given and numerous full color photographs of are included.

Web Sites

  • Chicago World's Fair: A Century of Progress Exhibition 1933-1934
    Website: Connect to website

Exposition Coloniale Internationale, Paris 1931

Web Sites

  • Empire of the Republic: The Exposition Coloniale Internationale de Paris, 1931 by Arthur Chandler
    Website: Connect to website

California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego 1935-1936

Articles

  • Bokovoy, Matthew F. "The FHA and the Culture of Abundance at the 1935 San Diego World's Fair." Journal of the American Planning Association 68: 4 (Autumn 2002): 371-387.
    Explores the debate about modern housing in the history of Southern California with an examination of the Federal Housing Administration's participation in the Fair.

Web Sites

  • California Pacific Exposition, San Diego 1935-1936 (The San Diego Historical Society)
    Website: Connect to website

Empire Exhibition, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1936

Articles

  • Robinson, Jennifer. "Johannesburg's 1936 Empire Exhibition: Interaction, Segregation and Modernity in a South African City." Journal of Southern African Studies 29: 3 (Sept. 2003): 759-790.
    The article explores the implications of the encounters and juxtapositions that took place there for understanding the meanings of interaction and segregation in South African cities at this time.

Exposition International des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris 1937

Articles

  • Barker, Michael. "International Exhibitions at Paris Culminating with the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la vie moderne - Paris 1937." Decorative Arts Society 27 (2003): 7-21.
    Discusses a number of expositions in Paris, but focuses on 1937 and the pavilions and architecture from the various participating countries.
  • Chipp, Herschel. "The First Step Towards Guernica." Arts Magazine 64 (1988): 62-67.
    Chipp studies Picasso's plans for his 1937 Paris World's Fair mural and their relationship with Guernica.
  • da Costa Meyer, Esther. "Cruel Metonymies: Lilly Reich's Designs for the 1937 World's Fair." New German Critique 76 (Winter 1999): 161-190.
  • Ryckelynek, Xavier. "L'Expo de 1937." Gavroche 35 (Sept.-Oct. 1987):17-21.

Dissertations

  • Fiss, Karen A. "Deutschland in Paris: the 1937 German Pavilion and Franco-German Cultural Relations." Ph.D. Dissertation: Yale University, 1995.
    Designed by Albert Speer, the German pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exposition international was the most elaborate pre-war manifestation of National-Socialist culture outside of Germany. It contained a carefully orchestrated program of conservative official art, juxtaposed with the most advanced products of German technology.
  • Moentmann, Elise Marie. "Conservative Modernism at the 1937 International Exposition in Paris." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1998.
  • Udovicki-Selb, Danilo. "The Elusive Faces of Modernity: The Invention of the 1937 Paris Exhibition and the Temps Nouveaux Pavilion." Ph.D. Dissertation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995.

Monographs

  • Peer, Shanny. France on Display: Peasants, Provincials, and Folklore in the 1937 Paris World's Fair. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.
    Unlike other French world's fairs, this one in particular also celebrated "rural life, regionalism, and folklore," which was seen as contradictory to the usual themes of modernization. This work looks in detail at those exhibits for insights into the French response to modernization and the effort to establish a new national identity. Illustrations, a bibliography, and an index are included.

Web Sites

  • Expo. Internationale des Arts et des Techniques dans la vie Moderne, Paris 1937
    Website: Connect to website

Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco 1939-1940

Articles

  • Rubens, Lisa. "Re-Presenting the Nation: The Golden Gate International Exposition." European Contributions to American Studies [Netherlands] 27 (1994): 121-139.
    Traces the development of the GGIE and analyzes its content. The fair departed from tradition in its eclectic organization of exhibits which included productions, displays, lectures, films, demonstrations, and bazaars.

Dissertations

  • Meyn, Susan Labry. "More than Curiosities: A Grassroots History of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board and Its Precursors, 1920 to 1942." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Cincinnati, 1997.
    In the midst of a revival of Indian arts in the Southwest and the growing destitution of the Indian people, Congress passed the Indian Arts and Crafts Act in 1935 to encourage economic development through their artistic products. One result of this act was the creation of the Indian exhibition at the San Francisco exposition. Chapter 6 of this work looks closely at the exhibition. Bibliography included.

Monographs

  • Callahan, Randall B. Magic City: The San Francisco Fair, Treasure Island 1939-1940: A Book of Postcards. San Francisco: Pomegranate, 1999.

Web Sites

  • Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco: New Deal Network Treasure Island 1939-40.
    Website: Connect to website
  • Hard Times, High Visions: Golden Gate International Exposition
    Website: Connect to website

New York World's Fair, 1939-1940

Articles

  • Becker, Ron. "Hear - and -See Radio: In the World of Tomorrow: RCA and the Presentation of Television at the World's Fair, 1939-40." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 21:4 (2001): 361-378.
    "Building the World of Tomorrow" marked the first public presentation of television. Fairgoers viewed news broadcasts and boxing matches, but with the U.S. entry into W.W. II, television was not brought into most American homes until the 1950's.
  • Cogdell, Christina. "The Futurama Recontextualized: Norman Bel Geddes's Eugenic World of Tomorrow." American Quarterly 52: 2 (2000): 193-245.
    Norman Bel Geddes, a designer known for his innovations in lighting, set, and theater design, developed 4 exhibits at the Fair. Eugenics formed the basis of Futurama, which showed his idea of the evolutionary hierarchy of the Anglo-American.
  • Cowell, Elspeth. "The Canadian Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair and the Development of Modernism in Canada." Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada (March 1994): 13-20.
  • Cull, Nicholas J. "Overture to an Alliance: British Propaganda at the New York World's Fair, 1939-40." Journal of British Studies 36: 3 (1997): 325-54.
    An integral part of British strategy to promote its empire in the eyes of the U.S. citizens in preparation for war was the British Pavilion at the Fair. President Roosevelt had invited King George VI to attend the fair: this was a big success for U.S.- British relations.
  • Fotsch, Paul Mason. "The Building of a Superhighway Future at the New York World's Fair." Cultural Critique 48 (Spring 2001):65-97.
  • Gelvin, James L. "Zionism and the Representation of Jewish Palestine at the New York World's Fair, 1939-40." International History Review 22 :1 (2000): 37-64.
    One American effort at promoting Zionism in the United States was a Jewish Palestine pavilion at the 1939 Fair, and was an exceptionally contentious display.
  • Groh, Karl F. "Rapid Transit to New York World's Fair I, 1939-40." Headlights 54: 3-4 (1992): 3-9.
  • Hart, Jeffrey. "Yesterday's America of Tomorrow." Commentary 80 (1985): 62-65.
    Hart provides a brief overview of the New York fair asserting that it was the international exposition that was the most successful in conveying the notions of "progress and enlightenment." Its planners had two motives: first, they wanted to show fair goers that the means for overcoming the Great Depression were available, and second, they wanted to showcase and promote democracy.
  • Kuznick, Peter J. "Losing the World of Tomorrow: The Battle Over the Presentation of Science at the New York World's Fair." American Quarterly 46: 3 (1994): 341-73.
    Scientists with the intention of popularizing science as more than just "gadgets, commodities, and magic," were denied an active role in the planning of the New York World's Fair. Scientists and their desire to present "pure science" at the fair were marginalized, thus foreshadowing the "corporate appropriation" of science for military and industrial ends.
  • Marchand, Roland."The Designers Go to the Fair, II: Norman Bel Geddes,the General Motors 'Futurama,' and the Visit-to-the-Factory Transformed." Design History:An Anthology. Ed. Dennis Doordan. Cambridge, MA:MIT press, 1995. 103-121.
  • Nye, David E. "The 1939 New York World's Fair." In American Technological Sublime. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1994.
    Nye refers to the 1939 World's Fair in New York as a "man-made sublime" event, which featured the "marriage of modernism and the vernacular of Broadway." Contributors to the Fair strove to demonstrate that modern technology and science could solve the problems of the world, specifically, the economic crisis of the time - the Great Depression.
  • Swift, Anthony. "The Soviet World of Tomorrow at the New York World's Fair, 1939." Russian Review 57:3 (1998):364-380.
  • Turim, Gayle. "Remembering a Fine Fair." Americana 17:3 (1989): 50-54.

Dissertations

  • Barrington, Thomas M. "A Vision of a Modern Future: a Fantasy Theme and Rhetorical Vision Analysis of the New York World's Fair of 1939." M.A. Thesis: Southwest Texas State University, 1992.
  • Cusker, Joseph P. "The World of Tomorrow: the 1939 New York World's Fair." Ph.D. Dissertation: Rutgers University, 1990, 1992.
  • Frydrych, Valerie Ann. "Building the Consumer of Tomorrow: Social Messages of the Spectacle at the 1939 New York World's Fair." Smith College, 1992.
  • Hagan, Carol A. "Visions of the City at the 1939 New York World's Fair." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
  • Morshed, Adnan. "The Aviator's (Re)Vision of the World: An Aesthetics of Ascension in Norman Bel Geddes's Futurama." Ph. D. Dissertation: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002.
  • O'Malley, Christine Grace. "The ‘Design Decade' and Beyond: American Industrial Designers and the Evolution of the Consumer Landscape from the 1930s to the 1950s." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of Virginia, 2002.
  • Post, Pamela Lee. "East Meets West: The Model Homes Exhibits at the 1939-40 New York and San Francisco World's Fairs." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of California Santa Barbara, 2000.
  • Scullin, Kevin. "All the World's a Film: Multimedia Exhibits at the 1939 New York World's Fair." M.A. Thesis: Western Washington University, 1999.
  • Todd, Jesse T. "Imagining the Future of American Religion at the New York World's Fair, 1939-40." Ph. D. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1996.
  • Zimnica, Elizabeth. "Making History: Poland at the 1939 World's Fair in New York." M.A. Thesis: Queen's University [Canada], 1999.

Monographs

  • Gelernter, David Hillel. 1939: The Lost World of the Fair. New York: Free Press, 1995.
    This work is a historical piece, but is told through fictional characters and dialog. It is based on contemporary literature of the fair, modern works, and personal interview with visitors. Includes photographs as well as a bibliography.
  • Handley, Susannah. Nylon: the Story of a Fashion Revolution: A Celebration of Design from Art Silk to Nylon and Thinking Fibres. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
    Nylon was first introduced at the 1939 World's Fair.
  • Martins, Rui Cardoso. Nova Iorque, 1939. [Portuguese] Lisboa: Expo '98, 1996.
  • Museum of the City of New York. Drawing the Future : Design Drawings for the 1939 New York World's Fair. New York: Museum of the City of New York, 1996.
    This work accompanied the exhibition at the Museum of the City of New York. It includes a brief overview of design at the 1939 fair and a catalog of the forty works that were chosen for the exhibition. Biographies of the artists are also included.
  • Portnoy, Mitchell, F. Mineral Day at the 1939/40 New York World's Fair. New York: New York Mineralogical Club, 2000.
  • Schnaffer, Ingrid. Salvador Dali's Dream of Venus: the Surrealist Funhouse from the 1939 World's Fair. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002
  • Smith, Terry. Making the Modern: Industry, Art and Design in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
  • Swan, Claudia, ed. 1939: Music and the World's Fair. New York: Eos Music, Inc., 1998.
    This work accompanied the Third Eos Music Festival which focused specifically on music from the 1939 world's fair. The music chosen for this fair is significant in that it allows us to view the "state of the world" just before it was plunged into the most transformative war in history. Along with music, areas such as art, architecture, and the "World's Fair Puppet Theater" are covered. Photographs are included.
  • Van Dort, Paul M. 1939: New York World's Fair Photo Collection. Sparks, Nev.: Paul M. VanDort, 2002.

Web Sites

Brussels's World's Fair of 1958

Articles

  • Devos, Rika. "Het Vaticaanse Paviljoen Op Expo 58 En De Moderne Religieuze Kunst in Belgie." Trajecta [Netherlands] 10:3 (2001): 244-263.

Dissertations

  • Haddow, Robert Hamilton. "Material Culture and the Cold War: International Trade Fairs and the American pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World's Fair." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of Minnesota, 1994.
    The American Pavilion at the 1958 Brussels World's Fair, the focus of this study, displayed the largest collection of American art and artifacts of any international exhibition during the 1950s, and was itself one of the most dramatic symbols of American culture ever created.
  • Kint, Johanna Maria Lucia. "Expo 58 as the Expression of a Humanist Modernism." Ph.D. Dissertation: Technische Universiteit Te Delft [The Netherlands] , 2001. [Dutch]
  • Nilsen, Sarah Dawn. "Projecting America: Films at the Brussels World's Fair of 1958." Ph. D. Dissertation: University of Southern California, 2000.

Century 21 Exhibition: 1962 Seattle, Washington

Articles

  • Bernklow, Gary M. "Seattle's Century 21, 1962." Pacific Northwest Forum. 7:1(1994): 68-80.
    Describes the Century 21 Exposition as one of the most successful world's fairs ever: attracted extensive media attention, boosted the local economy, supported urban renewal, and generated a site that could be used for multiple purposes after the fair ended.

Dissertations

  • Schlimgen, Veta R. "Defining Participation and Place: Women and the Seattle World's Fairs of 1909 and 1962." M.A. Thesis: University of Washington, 2000.

Monographs

  • Duncan, Don. Meet Me at the Center; the Story of the Seattle Center from the Beginnings to the 1962 Seattle World's Fair to the 21st Century. Seattle: Seattle Center Foundation, 1992.

Web Sites

New York World's Fair 1964-65

Articles

  • Symmes,Marilyn."Remembering the Fountain of the Planets at the New York World's Fair,1964-65."Fountains:Splash and Spectacle:Water and Design from Renaissance to the Present. Marilyn Symmes, ed. New York: Rizzoli,1998.

Web Sites

Montreal Expo 67: Man and His World

Articles

  • "The Centennial and Expo." Maclean's 1 112:26 (July 1999): 42-44.
    Discusses how the centennial celebrations in Canada and the World's Fair Expo '67 brought out pride and confidence within the country.
  • Brydon, Sherry. "The Indians of Canada Pavilion at Expo 67." American Indian Art Magazine 22:3 (1997): 54-63.
  • Kroller, Eva-Marie. "Expo '67: Canada's Camelot?" Canadian Literature 152/153 (Spring/Summer 1997): 36-52.
    Describes Canada's hosting of and participation in Expo '67,and its social and political implications; including the marginalized role of women at the exposition and a comparison with other world expositions.
  • Safdie, Moshe. "Habitat at 25." Architectural Record 180 :7(July 1992): 40-44.
    Examines Habitat, the Montreal housing complex designed by the author and unveiled at Expo '67. Discusses the goals of the complex and how it is viewed at 25.
  • Tippett, Maria. "Expressing Identity." Beaver [Canada] 80:1 (2000): 18-27.
    The author argues that twentieth century Canadian writers, artists, and musicians did not realize a shared culture being divided geographically as well as by language and ethnicity. Cultural artisans shared a sense of identity during WW I, the Great Depression, and most notable in EXPO '67.

Dissertations

  • Kicksee, Richard Gordon. "Scaled Down to Size: Contested Liberal Commonsense and the negotiation of ‘Indian Participation' in the Canadian Centennial Celebrations and Expo '67." M.A. Thesis: Queen's University at Kingston [Canada], 1996.
  • Miedema, Gary R. "Canada's Sake: The Re-visioning of Canada and the Re-structuring of Public Religion in the 1960s." Ph.D. Dissertation: Queen's University, 2000.
  • Whitney, Allison. "Labyrinth: Cinema, Myth and Nation at Expo 67." M.A. Thesis: McGill University, 1999.

Monographs

  • Gopnick, Blake and Michael Sorkin. Moshe Safdie: Habitat '67, Montreal. Torino: [Italian] Testo and Immagine, 1998.
  • Jasmin, Yves. La Petite Historie d'Expo 67: l'Expo 67 Comme Vous ne l'avez Jamais Vue. Montreal: Eds. Quebec/Amerique, 1997.

Web Sites

Expo 74 Spokane, Washington

Web Sites

1982 Knoxville World's Fair

Monographs

  • Urban Land Institute. World's Fair Site Knoxville, Tennessee: Strategies for the Development of a Convention Center and the Redevelopment of the World's Fair Site. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute, 1998.

Web Sites

Louisiana World Exposition: New Orleans 1984

Articles

  • Dimanche, Frederic. "Special Events Legacy: The 1984 Louisiana World's Fair in New Orleans." Quality Management in Urban Tourism. Ed. Peter E. Murphy. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 66-74.
  • Glazer, Susan Herzfeld. " A World's Fair to Remember." New Orleans Magazine 38: 2(Nov. 2003): D4
    For six months in 1984, New Orleans enjoyed an ongoing Mardi Gras and Jazz Festival hosting an international exhibition highlighting the importance of water to the world.

Dissertations

  • Hagan, Peter Edward. "The History and Impact of the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition." Master's Thesis: Tulane University, 1994.
  • Srinivasan, Sumitra. "New Life for Old Fairs." Master's Thesis: University of Texas at Austin, 1991.

Exposición Universal de 1992 Seville, Spain

Articles

  • Fernández Salinas, Victor. "Las Grandes Tranformaciones Urbanas de Sevilla Durante Los Anos Previos a la Exposicion Universal." Estudios Geográficos [Spain] 54:212 (1993): 387-407.
  • Harvey, Penolope. "Multiculturalism Without Responsibility? The Contemporary Universal Exhibition." Critical Quarterly 38 (Autumn 1996): 30-44.
    The author examines the 1992 Universal Exhibition as an interesting example of cultural theory in practice. She discusses the presentations of the European community, Spain, U.K., Czechoslovakia, and Switzerland.

Monographs

  • Davies, Colin and Nicholas Grimshaw. British Pavilion, Seville Exposition 1992: Nicholas Grimshaw and Partners. London: Phaidon, 1992.
  • Harvey, Penelope. Hybrids of Modernity: Anthropology, the Nation State and the Universal Exhibition. London: Routledge, 1996.
  • Pollalis, Spiro. What is a Bridge?: The Making of Calatrava's Bridge in Seville. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
  • Rispa, Raul. Expo '92 Seville: Architecture and Design. Milan: Electa, 1993.

Universal Exhibition Hannover 2000

Articles

  • Special Edition. '“Expo 2000 Erste Weltausstellung in Deutschland: Themen, Visionen, Geschichte." Kultur & Technik. July-September 2000.

Monographs

  • Breuel, Birgit, Stefan Iglhaut and Thomas Springer. Ideen für die Zukuft: Weltweite Projekte, Global Dialogue und Themenpark der EXPO 2000 Hannover. Berlin: Jovis, 2001.
  • Herzog, Thomas. Expodach: Symbolbauwerk zur Weltausstellung Hannover 2000.[German] Muchen: Prestel, 2000.
  • Louafi, Kamel. Die Gärten der Weltausstellung auf dem Kronsberg, EXPO 2000 Hannover. Berlin: Aedes East, 1998.
  • Scwarz, Michiel. Holland Schept Ruimte: het Nederlanse Paviljoen op de Wereldtentoonstelling, EXPO 2000 te Hanover. [Dutch] Den Haag: Blaricum, 1999.
  • Steckeweh, Carl and Reinhart Wustlich. EXPO Architektur Dokumente: Beitrage zur Weltausstellung Expo 2000 in Hannover.[German] Ostfildren -Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2000.
  • Zumthor, Peter, Plinio Bachmann and Roderick Hönig. Swiss Sound Box: a Handbook for the Pavillion of the Swiss Confederation at Expo 2000 in Hanover. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2000.