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An Analysis of Forensic Anthropology Cases Submitted to the Smithsonian Institution by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1962 to 1994
Gretchen A. Grisbaum and Douglas H. Ubelaker
15 pages, 5 figures, 3 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 23 March 2001)
Vol. 45, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.45.1
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For more than 50 years, the Smithsonian Institution has provided scientific expertise in the analysis of forensic anthropology cases submitted to the Institution by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in Washington, D.C. This study presents an analysis of the cases submitted from 1962 to 1994 and reported on by two Smithsonian scientists, J. Lawrence Angel and Douglas H. Ubelaker.

Analysis revealed wide variation in the types of cases submitted. In addition, the rate of submission varied throughout this period, with the highest rate occurring in the late 1970s. The FBI submissions originated most commonly from western and southern regions of the United States and reflected original discoveries frequently in the months of May and November.

The total sample included all major categories of ancestry, sex, and age, but the overall pattern deviated significantly from national homicide statistics. Statistics on taphonomical alterations, trauma, the area of the body associated with trauma, and problems of positive identifications in the FBI sample are discussed.

Finally, temporal changes in report writing and information collected are discussed. These differences appear to reflect not only stylistic preferences of the two scientists involved, but also the academic growth of forensic anthropology. The patterns of change detected in the FBI sample relate to the more general expansion of forensic anthropology and the growing numbers of anthropologists involved in this application of physical anthropology.

Anthropology of the Numa: John Wesley Powell's Manuscripts on the Numic Peoples of Western North America, 1868-1880
Don D. Fowler and Catherine S. Fowler, editors
307 pages, 36 figures, 9 maps, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 10 December 1971)
Vol. 14, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.14.1
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Between 1868 and 1880, John Wesley Powell conducted intermittent linguistic, ethnographic, and folklore studies among the Numic-speaking Indians of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau areas of western North America. The data from these studies were recorded in over seventy unpublished manuscripts, deposited in the Bureau of American Ethnology manuscript collection of the Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives. Although Powell intended to write a general “Report on the Numa,” his increasing administrative duties after 1879 precluded completion of the project. The Powell manuscripts relating to the “Numa” have been collated, edited and annotated, and presented herein. The materials include general ethnographic data, a variety of myths and tales, and extensive vocabulary lists of various Numic languages and dialects.

Anthropology, History, and American Indians: Essays in Honor of William Curtis Sturtevant
William L. Merrill and Ives Goddard, eds.
357 pages, frontispiece, 86 figures, 13 tables
2002 (Date of Issue: 11 July 2002)
Vol. 44, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.44
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This collection of 31 essays and one bibliographic compilation is presented as a festschrift for William Curtis Sturtevant. Since 1956 a research anthropologist, and, since 1965, a museum curator, at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C, Sturtevant is one of the world's leading scholars of the cultures, languages, and histories of the indigenous peoples of the New World. Over the course of his career, he has also served as general editor of the Handbook of North American Indians, president of four of anthropology's major professional organizations, university professor, consultant, and public lecturer. He has contributed in myriad ways to the development of contemporary anthropology and to the research endeavors of scores of anthropologists and scholars in many other disciplines.

The volume is organized into six sections. The first begins with recollections of Sturtevant's childhood and early adulthood by his younger sister, Harriet Sturtevant Shapiro, followed by an overview of his professional career and a compilation of his writings from 1952 through 2001. The second section offers a range of perspectives on the history of anthropological and historical research on themes related to Native Americans, and the third examines the transformations that have occurred in their lives and circumstances from the time of European contact to today. The fourth section considers the relationship of anthropological collections and repositories to the development of the field and the shifting significance of museums, archives, and universities as the settings where anthropological research has traditionally been conducted. The fifth section presents the results of a series of research projects focused on museum and archival collections, and the sixth explores the complex interconnections between the cultural and natural worlds.

The essays provide an indication of the variety of topics and approaches represented in North Americanist studies at the turn of the twenty-first century. Together they address issues central to current scholarly debate: the political implications of cross-cultural research; the transcending of traditional disciplinary boundaries; the impact of colonialist and post-colonialist projects on native peoples and their responses to these projects; the relevance of anthropological repositories and collections to research; and the linkages among material and nonmaterial dimensions of human existence. Reflecting the scope of Sturtevant's own research, they stand as testimony to his intellectual breadth and to the extent of his influence on contemporary scholarship.

Archaeological Investigations on the Rio Napo, Eastern Ecuador
Clifford Evans and Betty Meggers
127 pages, Vol. 6, 80 figures, 94 plates, 15
1968 (Date of Issue: 4 October 1968)
Vol. 6, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.6.1
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The eastern slopes of the Andes attracted our attention in 1950, when it became probable that the Marajoara Phase on the island of Marajó at the mouth of the Amazon was derived from northwestern South America. Our first opportunity to investigate the possibilities for archeological fieldwork came when we were in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in 1954 and met Coronel Jorge V. Gortoire, who had served for a period as commandant of the Ecuadorian Army Post at Tiputini. Conversation with him reawakened our latent interest in the area, and we began to make specific plans. In October 1956, having been awarded Grant No. 2012 from the Penrose Fund by the American Philosophical Society and granted official detail by the Smithsonian Institution, we returned to Ecuador to undertake the fieldwork.

Through the courtesy of Coronel Rafael Andrade Ochoa, at that time Commander-general of the Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, we received authorization to fly from Quito to Tiputini in an Ecuadorian Air Force DC-3 transport plane. However, almost daily rains maintained the airstrip in unsuitable condition for landing and after several weeks of waiting in Quito for the weather to break, we gave up and arranged to fly by commercial airline in a Junkers Tri-Motor to Shell-Mera and then in a single engine Norseman to Tena. A day on horseback brought us to Latas, where we secured a dugout canoe manned by Quechua-speaking Indians to take us downriver. Although the trip was longer and more difficult than it would have been by air, it gave us invaluable first-hand experience with conditions along the Rio Napo (pls. 1-5). We were able to follow our hourly progress on U.S. Air Force Preliminary Base Map 950A (Scale 1: 500,000), which perfectly reproduced every bend and island. By the afternoon of the fifth day, when we arrived at Tiputini, we were well prepared to appreciate the comments of Orellana's men, who preceded us by 415 years.

When we stepped on shore at Tiputini, the military post that was to be our base of operations, we were delighted to discover not only that there was an archeological site on the spot, but that the pottery included incised and excised techniques of decoration diagnostic of the Marajoara Phase, although only painted vessels had been previously reported from the Rio Napo. With the cooperation of army personnel and local residents, we were able to investigate a number of sites particularly along the portion of the river between Tiputini and the mouth of the Rio Yasuní, which marks the boundary between Ecuador and Peru. We also checked the lower Rio Tiputini. During our stay, the river was unusually low, and extensive sand bars reduced the channel in places to a slender meandering stream (pl. 4b). Giant trees temporarily resting on beaches (pl. 3b) attested to the force of the current at other times of the year, lending credence to descriptions by Orellana's companions (see pp. 106-107), who had the misfortune to encounter higher water than we did.

At the conclusion of the survey, we had accumulated several tons of specimens and were sufficiently familiar with the river to look forward to returning to Quito by air. As was the case in October, intermittent rain kept the airstrip soft, but we were prepared to wait as long as necessary this time, since going by river would have taken at least two weeks. An Ecuadorian Air Force DC-3 finally came on December 15, and two hours after takeoff we were in Quito—by every standard of comparison, another world.

We left behind us in the Province of Napo-Pastaza many friends never to be seen again, and memories still fresh as we write this ten years later. Sr. José Bernardo Crespo Pando made us his guests while we worked at Nueva Armenia, and allowed us to use his home as a base from which to visit nearby sites. Philosopher, businessman, and astute observer of the world from afar, he was an invaluable promoter of our cause as well as an entertaining host. Several pleasant days were also spent at the home of Sr. José Rafael Urvina on the Rio Tiputini, where we received all possible cooperation and courtesy. Other land owners who granted us permission to work on their property and to whom we offer our thanks are Sr. Juan Francisco Buitrón (Hacienda San Juan, Cotacocha), Sr. Osvaldo Bijarini Aridi (Florencia), and Sr. Alfonso Antonio Cox Vega (Bello Horizonte). Sr. Pedro Jarrín, at that time Jefe Político of the Junta del Cantón Aguarico, kindly allowed us to dig a few holes in the main street of Nuevo Rocafuerte.

Since we were unable to arrange for a trip to the Rio Aguarico, we are particularly indebted to Rene Alberto Hinoyosa Carrera, then a second lieutenant stationed at Tiputini, who collected sherds for us from Cabo Minacho on the Rio Güepí and Pañacocha on the Rio Cuyabeno (fig. 3). Other young officers at Tiputini, who provided us not only with various kinds of assistance but also with pleasant companionship, include Soloman Hernandez V., Augustín Carvalho V., Raul Costales, and Fausto Bustamonte. We are indebted to the commandant at that time, then Major J. Gonzalo Ramos Sevilla, for permitting us to use Tiputini as our base, and providing us with quarters and other kinds of help.

During our negotiations to enter the Oriente by air, we were aided in numerous ways by Jorge V. Gortaire V., then a colonel and director of the Colegio Militar “Eloy Alfaro” in Quito. Other kinds of help and guidance were provided by Enrique Martinez Q., manager of the Compañía General de Comercio y Mandato in Quito, and his assistant Francisco Punina Y. To these and other military and governmental officials whose names escape us after a decade, we wish to express our appreciation for the many favors, large and small, that we have not forgotten, and which helped to make our visit memorable as well as scientifically fruitful.

Finally, we wish to record our indebtedness to the late Emilio Estrada, who while teasing us for persisting in our “whim” to go to the Rio Napo, exercised his considerable influence to help us secure the necessary permissions from military authorities. Although his interventions were often unobtrusive, it is probable that they were instrumental in making it possible for us to carry out the work described in the present report.

Other obligations have been incurred during efforts to work out the affiliations of Rio Napo archeological complexes. Our ability to trace the downriver movement of the Polychrome Horizon Style (fig. 68) stems from permission granted by the Ethnographical Museum in Göteborg, Sweden, to take detailed notes and photographs during the summer of 1960 of sherd samples collected in the 1920's by Curt Nimuendajú. This museum work was supported financially by Grant No. 2664 from the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society. Peter Paul Hilbert, who is responsible for what little stratigraphic information is available from the middle and upper Amazon, has again generously made available unpublished data. Donald Lathrap, whose chronological sequence in eastern Peru is one of the rare reliable reference points, has kindly allowed us to consult his unpublished doctoral dissertation at Harvard University, which supplements data secured by examination of the collections from his 1956 fieldwork. We wish also to record our appreciation to the American Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the American Indian (Heye Foundation), the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Primitive Art, the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (Harvard University), the Musée de l'Homme (Paris), the Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Belem), the Museu Paulista (São Paulo), the Instituto Geográfico e Histórico do Amazonas (Manaus), the Museo Víctor Emilio Estrada (Guayaquil), the Museo Arqueológico del Banco Central del Ecuador (Quito), and the Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana (Quito), all of which have granted us permission to examine and photograph specimens or have provided us with photographs for publication. Several Napo Phase anthropomorphic urns have passed into the hands of private collectors, who have allowed us to include them in our illustrations. To Thomas P. Flannery, Alan C. Lapiner, Jay C. Leff and Howard S. Strouth, we take this opportunity to offer public thanks.

Carbon-14 dates have been furnished by the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Pennsylvania. We are indebted to the Creole Foundation for a grant to assist in obtaining the first series of dates from the latter laboratory.

In conclusion, it is a pleasure to record once again our indebtedness to members of the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology Processing Lab staff, especially Willie Mae Pelham and Robert C. Jenkins, for their careful preparation of the sherd collections for study. George Robert Lewis, scientific illustrator in the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology, has produced his customarily excellent drawings from badly eroded pottery, poor illustrations in published sources or photographs, as well as the maps and diagrams. We apologize for delaying so many years to provide them with captions. The plates owe their clarity to the high quality enlargements furnished by the staff of the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History Photo Lab. The manuscript was efficiently typed by Anne M. Lewis, Smithsonian Office of Anthropology.

For scholars interested in consulting the illustrated material, some clarification of the symbols and legends may be useful. All specimens not otherwise credited are in the United States National Museum, where a large type collection of sherds has been deposited. Specimens in other collections are so identified, and addition of the word “courtesy” indicates that the photographs were supplied by the individual or institution named. A key has been employed in figures showing rim profiles, permitting rapid recognition of association between form and presence or absence of red slip or decoration, explained in each caption. The relative frequency of rims, shown in black, white, or hachure, approximates the relative popularity of the form with each type of surface treatment.



Smithsonian Institution

Washington, D.C.

December 13, 1966

Archeological Exploration of Patawomeke: The Indian Town Site (44St2) Ancestral to the One (44St1) Visited in 1608 by Captain John Smith
T. Dale Stewart
96 pages, 55 figures, 23 tables
1992 (Date of Issue: 27 November 1992)
Vol. 36, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.36.1
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Excavations by Judge William J. Graham and by T. Dale Stewart of the U.S. National Museum/Natural History from 1935 to 1940 at Potomac Neck in Stafford County, Virginia (site 44St2), produced evidence of a Late Woodland palisaded village (seven concentric palisade lines), enclosing an area of about 1.4 acres (0.56 ha). In the village were circular and elongate houses, plus storage pits, and three mass graves (ossuaries). The village proper dates from pre-Contact times. Two burial pits (one outside the palisade, and one that intruded into the outer palisade line) contained European trade items, indicating use of the site during post-Contact times, probably limited to a short time following the first European visit to the area by Captain John Smith in 1608.

Extensive collections of cultural materials and data exemplify what Karl Schmitt in 1952 named the Potomac Creek Focus. Ceramics are predominantly Potomac Creek Cord-impressed types; projectile points are small triangles, usually of white quartz; a majority of the clay pipes are of the obtuse angle type; and there is a diversity of bone tools. Shell beads are numerous, especially in the ossuaries. Burials are predominantly secondary bundle burials, with a few articulated flexed or extended, and even fewer cremations. Coupled with evidence of long-term occupation of the site (e.g., six rebuildings of the palisade), there is evidence of evolving pottery types. The earliest ware equates closely with Shepard Cord-marked type of the Piedmont Potomac valley, and this evolves into the Potomac Creek Cord-impressed and Potomac Creek Plain wares typical of the early 17th century.

An Archeological Survey of Southwest Virginia
C. G. Holland
194 pages, 43 figures, 28 plates, 9 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 27 May 1970)
Vol. 12, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.12.1
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Seventeen counties of southwestern Virginia, which are bounded by North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia, were surveyed archeologically in 1963-1964. Aboriginal occupation was found to extend from about 9000-8000 B.C. to A.D. 1700. The sites and occupational debris of pottery, stone, and bone are described, classified, and analyzed to construct an outline of the prehistory of the region and its cultural relationship with surrounding areas.

Artifacts from the Craig Mound at Spiro, Oklahoma
April K. Sievert, with J. Daniel Rogers; contribution by Javier Urcid
xiv, 231 pages. 163 figures, 11 plates, 48 tables
2011 (Date of Issue: 21 November 2011)
Vol. 49, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.49.1
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This monograph presents the historical context and detailed descriptions of a remarkable collection of more than 20,000 artifacts from the Craig Mound at the Spiro site in eastern Oklahoma. Spiro is one of the key sites known for the Mississippian Period (ad 900?1500) of the eastern United States. Aside from the cultural importance of the site in regional history, the artifacts from Spiro provide an almost unique glimpse into the ceremonial life and artistic innovations of a people who developed an important but poorly known cultural tradition. Between 1933 and 1936 the Spiro site was looted, and artifacts were sold and traded to many collectors. Subsequently, professional archaeological excavations were conducted, and those collections primarily reside at the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History. The Smithsonian Spiro collection is under the care of the Department of Anthropology at the National Museum of Natural History. The collection came to the Museum through 14 accessions between 1936 and 1986. The largest portion was acquired from Harry M. Trowbridge in 1958. Of particular note in the collection are marine shells engraved with a wide variety of human and animal images. The collection also includes pigments, basketry, clothing with dyed designs, pipes, weapons, ornaments, containers, and figurines made from several different materials. Many of the artifacts are made from raw materials that were acquired by the Spiro people through an extensive trade network extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and from the upper Midwest in the north to central Mexico in the south.

Artifacts of Diplomacy: Smithsonian Collections from Commodore Matthew Perry's Japan Expedition (1853-1854)
Chang-su Houchins
155 pages, 143 figures, 2 maps
1995 (Date of Issue: 31 May 1995)
Vol. 37, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.37.1
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Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's Japan Expedition (1853-1854) not only began a tradition of “gunboat diplomacy” so often associated with mid-nineteenth century American expansionism, it also initiated a new collection of “artifacts of diplomacy”—historical, scientific, and ethnological materials that would become the first acquisition of Japanese artifacts by the former United States National Museum, now the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.

Commodore Perry practiced traditional diplomatic gift exchanges. The ethnological artifacts described in this catalog are, in the main, the reciprocal gifts to the United States government, President Franklin Pierce, the Commodore himself, and other members of the expedition party by Japanese government commissioners and by officials of the Kingdom of Ryukyu. They were received prior to and following the signing of The Treaty of Kanagawa on 31 March 1854. Also included are artifacts purchased at bazaars in Hakodate and Shimoda by some members of the expedition party for the specific purpose of expanding the collections of the United States National Museum. Descriptions of all known materials collected by individual expedition members as well as expedition-related graphics now in the Smithsonian Institution collections also have been included here.

This study of the Japan Expedition collection, through the compilation of a catalog, provides a comprehensive chronicle of the collections. The chronicle records the expedition party's collecting activities, scenes of gift exchanges, and the assessments of the gifts, both positive and negative, made by Commodore Perry and others. It includes a history of previous exhibitions of portions of the collection. The catalog contains extensive documentation of the artifacts, with full descriptions based on both published and archival sources in English and Japanese. These descriptions, combined with the provenance of each object, provide a unique profile of mid-nineteenth century, preindustrial Japanese material culture.

The Artist of “Isleta Paintings” in Pueblo Society
Ester S. Goldfrank
227 pages, Vol. 5, 3 figures
1967 (Date of Issue: 4 August 1967)
Vol. 5, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.5.1
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Pueblo society places a very considerable emphasis on knowledge, but it also dictates how this knowledge is to be acquired and used. Joe Lente was a rebel. In a society where, as one anthropologist put it, “disobedience is a sacrilege and heresy as well as treason” (White, 1932, p. 11), he obviously was not attracted by the Pueblo road to recognition and power—a priestly vocation—and this despite his early involvement with “ceremonial members” (especially his father and grandfather) and ceremonial activities. Indeed he used his abilities in the very way that from his earliest years he had learned would surely bring dire punishment—even death: he disclosed the most sacred and secret teachings of his society to an outsider. The wonder is that while he breached a basic principle of his society, that while his anxiety over this action never abated, he nevertheless chose to remain in Isleta, outwardly conforming, except when he was drunk, to its authoritarian mode of life.

The Ayalán Cemetery: A Late Integration Period Burial Site on the South Coast of Ecuador
Douglas H. Ubelaker
175 pages, 119 figures, 170 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 7 April 1981)
Vol. 29, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.29.1
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Excavation of a Milagro Phase Integration Period cemetery in 1972 and 1973 on the southern coast of Ecuador yielded 54 large funerary urns (AD 730-AD 1730) and 25 primary and two secondary burials (500 BC-AD 1155) located outside of the urns. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from charcoal and bone collagen and their validity is discussed. The urn burials with inverted urn coverings are similar to those reported from other Milagro Phase cemetery sites in Guayas and Los Ríos Provinces. The urns at the Ayalán cemetery contained secondary skeletal remains of as many as 25 persons per urn (average of about nine persons per urn) along with artifacts, such as ceramic jars, plates and compoteras, beads of shell, stone, and pottery, ear and nose rings of copper, silver, and gold, triangular copper plates (axe money), and small spheres of lead with copper inserts. Similar artifacts were found associated with the burials outside of the urns.

Detailed data are presented on archeological features, artifacts, and such biological subjects as demography, pathology, cranial measurements, nonmetric observations, and cultural practices registered in bone. Cultural differences between the urn features and the earlier non-urn features are minimal. Biological data shared by urn and non-urn samples include cranial deformation, reconstructed living stature, and porotic hyperostosis. The urn sample shows greater life expectancy at birth, lower infant mortality, greater adult life expectancy (especially in females), higher frequencies of foot bone alterations (probably indicating kneeling posture), vertebral osteophytosis, arthritic lipping at the knee, dental caries, alveolar abscesses, dental hypoplasia, and evidence of infectious disease. On the other hand, the urn sample shows fewer lines of increased density, fewer healed fractures, a lower frequency of joint degeneration (although more severe examples), and less dental calculus. An appendix by Brian Hesse, “The Association of Animal Bones with Burial Features,” examines the faunal remains associated with the burial features.

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