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Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part One
Frederica de Laguna
1395 pages, Vol. 7 [in 3 separately bound parts]
1972 (Date of Issue: 13 November 1972)
Vol. 7,Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.7.1
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Abstract

The field data on which this report is based were gathered at Yakutat in 1949, 1952, 1953, and 1954. On my first exploratory visit, June 8 to July 13, 1949, I was assisted by Edward Malin, then a graduate student at the University of Colorado, and by William Irving, then an undergraduate at the University of Alaska. At that time several old village sites and a number of well-informed, friendly natives gave promise that combined archeological and ethnological investigations would be fruitful. Furthermore, I learned that there were two persons in the community who could speak Eyak, a language which I had feared was extinct.

In the summer of 1952 (June 6 to September 13), I returned to Yakutat with a larger party. Dr. Catharine McClellan, who had worked with me at Angoon in 1950, collaborated in the ethnological investigations at Yakutat, and Francis A. Riddell, who had also been with us at Angoon, now directed the archeological excavations at Knight Island near Yakutat under my general supervision. He was assisted by Kenneth S. Lane, Donald F. McGeein, and J. Arthur Freed, then all students at or graduates of the University of California, Berkeley. For part of the summer, Dr. Fang-Kwei Li, Department of Far Eastern Studies, University of Washington, undertook linguistic research on Eyak, both at Yakutat and at Cordova.

The following summer, Riddell returned to continue the archeological work, with another party from the University of California consisting of Lane, McGeein, Albert H. Olson, and Robert T. Anderson. During the summer some ethnological information was gathered, although this was not the primary aim of the expedition.

In the winter and spring of 1954 (February 13 to June 16), I was able to resume ethnological work at Yakutat, assisted by Mary Jane Downs (now Mrs. Benjamin Lenz, then Fellow in Anthropology at Bryn Mawr College). We were accompanied by my mother, Professor Emeritus Grace A. de Laguna, although she took no active part in our investigations.

For hospitality in the field I am indebted to Paul Stout, manager of the cannery in 1949, and for other courtesies to Robert Welsh, manager in 1952 and 1954. J. B. Mallott, owner of an independent store, was also very helpful. The Alaska Native Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard, all rendered invaluable assistance.

Research at Yakutat was supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (1949, 1952), the Arctic Institute of North America, with funds from the Office of Naval Research (1949, 1953), the Social Science Research Council, the American Philosophical Society (1954). The Department of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley, the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, and Bryn Mawr College have all supported the fieldwork and aided in the preparation of this monograph. A Faculty Research Fellowship from the Social Science Research Council in 1962-63, and the hospitality of the Berkeley campus have enabled me to write much of this volume.

A grant from the National Science Foundation (G-4875) made possible assembling the illustrative and bibliographic material.

In preparation of this monograph, I have received the help and advice of many persons. For bibliographic assistance, especially in finding unpublished materials, I am indebted to Dr. J. Ronald Todd, Chief Reference Librarian, University of Washington, Seattle; to Dr. Willard E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian and Archivist, Victoria, British Columbia; to Dr. Wilson Duff, then Curator of Anthropology, and Donald N. Abbott, then Assistant Anthropologist, both at the Provincial Museum in Victoria; to Dr. John Barr Tompkins, and to Assistant Director Robert H. Becker, indeed to all the staff of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Kenneth Lane, who had copied many rare items in the Bancroft Library, generously turned over to me his complete notebook, and Dr. Robert F. Heizer, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, gave me notes and photographs made at Yakutat by C. Hart Merriam in 1899.

Through the kindness of Dr. Luis Pericot Garcia of the University of Barcelona I was able to secure copies of pictures, in the Museo Naval at Madrid, which had been made at Yakutat in 1791 by the painter, Tomás de Suría. Permission to publish the sketches in the MS. journal of this painter (cf. Wagner, 1936) were given by Dr. David Watkins, Chief Reference Librarian, and Dr. Archibald Hanna, Curator, Western Americana Collection, Yale University Library. I am also endebted to Dr. Joaquin Gonzales-Muela, Professor of Spanish, Bryn Mawr College, for assistance in translating the accounts of Suría and Malaspina. Dr. Erna Gunther, now at the Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, not only furnished a list of all Suría's paintings in Madrid, but gave me her invaluable notes on the specimens from Yakutat acquired by the Portland Art Museum from the Reverend Axel Rasmussen in 1948. Permission to publish photographs of these is gratefully acknowledged, as is additional information obtained from Donald Jenkins, Curatorial Assistant. Dr. Luyse Kollner, Curator, Mrs. Mona Bedell, Secretary, and Virginia Hillock, Registrar, procured photographs and information on specimens in the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle, and Dr. Walter A. Fairservis, Jr., Director, gave me permission to publish data on them. Edward L. Keithahn, Curator, sent information and his own photographs of Yakutat specimens in the Alaska Historical Library and Museum, Juneau. Other pictures of specimens there were taken for me by Malcolm Greany, photographer. Dr. Frederick J. Dockstader, Director, gave permisison to publish photographs of specimens in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City. I am grateful to Dr. Harry L. Shapiro, Chairman, to Miss Bella Weitzner, Associate Curator Emeritus, and to Dr. Richard A. Gould, Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for permission to utilize notes and photographs made by G. T. Emmons at Yakutat before 1889. I am especially grateful to Dr. Gould for his tireless help and skill in photographing so many specimens in the Emmons collections. At Princeton University, Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, and Will Starks, photographer, spared no pains to give me excellent photographs and fullest data on the collection made in 1886 by Libbey at Yakutat. Lastly, I should like to thank my Yakutat friends, John Ellis, Mrs. Minnie Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs. Harry K. Bremner for giving me pictures of Yakutat persons and scenes to use in this book.

Parts of the manuscript in various stages of completion have been read by a number of experts, and if, despite their vigilance, errors have crept in or gone undetected, the fault is mine. These are Dr. George Plafker, Geologist, Alaskan Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey; Dr. John W. Aldrich, Research Staff Specialist, and Dr. Richard H. Manville, both of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, Dr. Harald Rehder, Dr. W. R. Taylor, and Howard L. Chapelle, all at the U.S. National Museum; Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, Princeton University; Dr. Michael E. Krauss, Department of Linguistics, University of Alaska; Dr. Dell Hymes, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania; and lastly, Dr. Catharine McClellan, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, my collaborator in the field in 1952.

Preliminary studies of Yakutat recordings were made by Lindy Li Mark and by Agi Jambor, Professor of Music at Bryn Mawr College. The transcriptions in the Appendix, however, are those prepared by Dr. David P. McAllester, Director of the Laboratory of Ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, under a grant from the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society (1967).

It is Edward Schumacher, staff artist of the Smithsonian Institution, who has so skillfully and beautifully prepared the maps and many of the illustrations for this book. But without the skill and patient devotion of the editor, these labors would have come to nothing.

Preparation of the index was made possible by the kindness of Maude Hallowell, and through grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and from Bryn Mawr College.

To those institutions that made this work possible, to the many individuals who gave help and information, and to my companions in the field, I wish to express my thanks.

Frederica de Laguna

Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania


Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part Two
Frederica de Laguna
1395 pages, Vol. 7 [in 3 separately bound parts]
1972 (Date of Issue: 13 November 1972)
Vol. 7,Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.7.2
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Abstract

The field data on which this report is based were gathered at Yakutat in 1949, 1952, 1953, and 1954. On my first exploratory visit, June 8 to July 13, 1949, I was assisted by Edward Malin, then a graduate student at the University of Colorado, and by William Irving, then an undergraduate at the University of Alaska. At that time several old village sites and a number of well-informed, friendly natives gave promise that combined archeological and ethnological investigations would be fruitful. Furthermore, I learned that there were two persons in the community who could speak Eyak, a language which I had feared was extinct.

In the summer of 1952 (June 6 to September 13), I returned to Yakutat with a larger party. Dr. Catharine McClellan, who had worked with me at Angoon in 1950, collaborated in the ethnological investigations at Yakutat, and Francis A. Riddell, who had also been with us at Angoon, now directed the archeological excavations at Knight Island near Yakutat under my general supervision. He was assisted by Kenneth S. Lane, Donald F. McGeein, and J. Arthur Freed, then all students at or graduates of the University of California, Berkeley. For part of the summer, Dr. Fang-Kwei Li, Department of Far Eastern Studies, University of Washington, undertook linguistic research on Eyak, both at Yakutat and at Cordova.

The following summer, Riddell returned to continue the archeological work, with another party from the University of California consisting of Lane, McGeein, Albert H. Olson, and Robert T. Anderson. During the summer some ethnological information was gathered, although this was not the primary aim of the expedition.

In the winter and spring of 1954 (February 13 to June 16), I was able to resume ethnological work at Yakutat, assisted by Mary Jane Downs (now Mrs. Benjamin Lenz, then Fellow in Anthropology at Bryn Mawr College). We were accompanied by my mother, Professor Emeritus Grace A. de Laguna, although she took no active part in our investigations.

For hospitality in the field I am indebted to Paul Stout, manager of the cannery in 1949, and for other courtesies to Robert Welsh, manager in 1952 and 1954. J. B. Mallott, owner of an independent store, was also very helpful. The Alaska Native Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard, all rendered invaluable assistance.

Research at Yakutat was supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (1949, 1952), the Arctic Institute of North America, with funds from the Office of Naval Research (1949, 1953), the Social Science Research Council, the American Philosophical Society (1954). The Department of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley, the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, and Bryn Mawr College have all supported the fieldwork and aided in the preparation of this monograph. A Faculty Research Fellowship from the Social Science Research Council in 1962-63, and the hospitality of the Berkeley campus have enabled me to write much of this volume.

A grant from the National Science Foundation (G-4875) made possible assembling the illustrative and bibliographic material.

In preparation of this monograph, I have received the help and advice of many persons. For bibliographic assistance, especially in finding unpublished materials, I am indebted to Dr. J. Ronald Todd, Chief Reference Librarian, University of Washington, Seattle; to Dr. Willard E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian and Archivist, Victoria, British Columbia; to Dr. Wilson Duff, then Curator of Anthropology, and Donald N. Abbott, then Assistant Anthropologist, both at the Provincial Museum in Victoria; to Dr. John Barr Tompkins, and to Assistant Director Robert H. Becker, indeed to all the staff of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Kenneth Lane, who had copied many rare items in the Bancroft Library, generously turned over to me his complete notebook, and Dr. Robert F. Heizer, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, gave me notes and photographs made at Yakutat by C. Hart Merriam in 1899.

Through the kindness of Dr. Luis Pericot Garcia of the University of Barcelona I was able to secure copies of pictures, in the Museo Naval at Madrid, which had been made at Yakutat in 1791 by the painter, Tomás de Suría. Permission to publish the sketches in the MS. journal of this painter (cf. Wagner, 1936) were given by Dr. David Watkins, Chief Reference Librarian, and Dr. Archibald Hanna, Curator, Western Americana Collection, Yale University Library. I am also endebted to Dr. Joaquin Gonzales-Muela, Professor of Spanish, Bryn Mawr College, for assistance in translating the accounts of Suría and Malaspina. Dr. Erna Gunther, now at the Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, not only furnished a list of all Suría's paintings in Madrid, but gave me her invaluable notes on the specimens from Yakutat acquired by the Portland Art Museum from the Reverend Axel Rasmussen in 1948. Permission to publish photographs of these is gratefully acknowledged, as is additional information obtained from Donald Jenkins, Curatorial Assistant. Dr. Luyse Kollner, Curator, Mrs. Mona Bedell, Secretary, and Virginia Hillock, Registrar, procured photographs and information on specimens in the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle, and Dr. Walter A. Fairservis, Jr., Director, gave me permission to publish data on them. Edward L. Keithahn, Curator, sent information and his own photographs of Yakutat specimens in the Alaska Historical Library and Museum, Juneau. Other pictures of specimens there were taken for me by Malcolm Greany, photographer. Dr. Frederick J. Dockstader, Director, gave permisison to publish photographs of specimens in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City. I am grateful to Dr. Harry L. Shapiro, Chairman, to Miss Bella Weitzner, Associate Curator Emeritus, and to Dr. Richard A. Gould, Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for permission to utilize notes and photographs made by G. T. Emmons at Yakutat before 1889. I am especially grateful to Dr. Gould for his tireless help and skill in photographing so many specimens in the Emmons collections. At Princeton University, Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, and Will Starks, photographer, spared no pains to give me excellent photographs and fullest data on the collection made in 1886 by Libbey at Yakutat. Lastly, I should like to thank my Yakutat friends, John Ellis, Mrs. Minnie Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs. Harry K. Bremner for giving me pictures of Yakutat persons and scenes to use in this book.

Parts of the manuscript in various stages of completion have been read by a number of experts, and if, despite their vigilance, errors have crept in or gone undetected, the fault is mine. These are Dr. George Plafker, Geologist, Alaskan Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey; Dr. John W. Aldrich, Research Staff Specialist, and Dr. Richard H. Manville, both of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, Dr. Harald Rehder, Dr. W. R. Taylor, and Howard L. Chapelle, all at the U.S. National Museum; Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, Princeton University; Dr. Michael E. Krauss, Department of Linguistics, University of Alaska; Dr. Dell Hymes, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania; and lastly, Dr. Catharine McClellan, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, my collaborator in the field in 1952.

Preliminary studies of Yakutat recordings were made by Lindy Li Mark and by Agi Jambor, Professor of Music at Bryn Mawr College. The transcriptions in the Appendix, however, are those prepared by Dr. David P. McAllester, Director of the Laboratory of Ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, under a grant from the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society (1967).

It is Edward Schumacher, staff artist of the Smithsonian Institution, who has so skillfully and beautifully prepared the maps and many of the illustrations for this book. But without the skill and patient devotion of the editor, these labors would have come to nothing.

Preparation of the index was made possible by the kindness of Maude Hallowell, and through grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and from Bryn Mawr College.

To those institutions that made this work possible, to the many individuals who gave help and information, and to my companions in the field, I wish to express my thanks.

Frederica de Laguna

Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania


Under Mount Saint Elias: The History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingit: Part Three
Frederica de Laguna
1395 pages, Vol. 7 [in 3 separately bound parts]
1972 (Date of Issue: 13 November 1972)
Vol. 7,Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.7.3
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Abstract

The field data on which this report is based were gathered at Yakutat in 1949, 1952, 1953, and 1954. On my first exploratory visit, June 8 to July 13, 1949, I was assisted by Edward Malin, then a graduate student at the University of Colorado, and by William Irving, then an undergraduate at the University of Alaska. At that time several old village sites and a number of well-informed, friendly natives gave promise that combined archeological and ethnological investigations would be fruitful. Furthermore, I learned that there were two persons in the community who could speak Eyak, a language which I had feared was extinct.

In the summer of 1952 (June 6 to September 13), I returned to Yakutat with a larger party. Dr. Catharine McClellan, who had worked with me at Angoon in 1950, collaborated in the ethnological investigations at Yakutat, and Francis A. Riddell, who had also been with us at Angoon, now directed the archeological excavations at Knight Island near Yakutat under my general supervision. He was assisted by Kenneth S. Lane, Donald F. McGeein, and J. Arthur Freed, then all students at or graduates of the University of California, Berkeley. For part of the summer, Dr. Fang-Kwei Li, Department of Far Eastern Studies, University of Washington, undertook linguistic research on Eyak, both at Yakutat and at Cordova.

The following summer, Riddell returned to continue the archeological work, with another party from the University of California consisting of Lane, McGeein, Albert H. Olson, and Robert T. Anderson. During the summer some ethnological information was gathered, although this was not the primary aim of the expedition.

In the winter and spring of 1954 (February 13 to June 16), I was able to resume ethnological work at Yakutat, assisted by Mary Jane Downs (now Mrs. Benjamin Lenz, then Fellow in Anthropology at Bryn Mawr College). We were accompanied by my mother, Professor Emeritus Grace A. de Laguna, although she took no active part in our investigations.

For hospitality in the field I am indebted to Paul Stout, manager of the cannery in 1949, and for other courtesies to Robert Welsh, manager in 1952 and 1954. J. B. Mallott, owner of an independent store, was also very helpful. The Alaska Native Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard, all rendered invaluable assistance.

Research at Yakutat was supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (1949, 1952), the Arctic Institute of North America, with funds from the Office of Naval Research (1949, 1953), the Social Science Research Council, the American Philosophical Society (1954). The Department of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley, the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia, and Bryn Mawr College have all supported the fieldwork and aided in the preparation of this monograph. A Faculty Research Fellowship from the Social Science Research Council in 1962-63, and the hospitality of the Berkeley campus have enabled me to write much of this volume.

A grant from the National Science Foundation (G-4875) made possible assembling the illustrative and bibliographic material.

In preparation of this monograph, I have received the help and advice of many persons. For bibliographic assistance, especially in finding unpublished materials, I am indebted to Dr. J. Ronald Todd, Chief Reference Librarian, University of Washington, Seattle; to Dr. Willard E. Ireland, Provincial Librarian and Archivist, Victoria, British Columbia; to Dr. Wilson Duff, then Curator of Anthropology, and Donald N. Abbott, then Assistant Anthropologist, both at the Provincial Museum in Victoria; to Dr. John Barr Tompkins, and to Assistant Director Robert H. Becker, indeed to all the staff of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Kenneth Lane, who had copied many rare items in the Bancroft Library, generously turned over to me his complete notebook, and Dr. Robert F. Heizer, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, gave me notes and photographs made at Yakutat by C. Hart Merriam in 1899.

Through the kindness of Dr. Luis Pericot Garcia of the University of Barcelona I was able to secure copies of pictures, in the Museo Naval at Madrid, which had been made at Yakutat in 1791 by the painter, Tomás de Suría. Permission to publish the sketches in the MS. journal of this painter (cf. Wagner, 1936) were given by Dr. David Watkins, Chief Reference Librarian, and Dr. Archibald Hanna, Curator, Western Americana Collection, Yale University Library. I am also endebted to Dr. Joaquin Gonzales-Muela, Professor of Spanish, Bryn Mawr College, for assistance in translating the accounts of Suría and Malaspina. Dr. Erna Gunther, now at the Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, not only furnished a list of all Suría's paintings in Madrid, but gave me her invaluable notes on the specimens from Yakutat acquired by the Portland Art Museum from the Reverend Axel Rasmussen in 1948. Permission to publish photographs of these is gratefully acknowledged, as is additional information obtained from Donald Jenkins, Curatorial Assistant. Dr. Luyse Kollner, Curator, Mrs. Mona Bedell, Secretary, and Virginia Hillock, Registrar, procured photographs and information on specimens in the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Seattle, and Dr. Walter A. Fairservis, Jr., Director, gave me permission to publish data on them. Edward L. Keithahn, Curator, sent information and his own photographs of Yakutat specimens in the Alaska Historical Library and Museum, Juneau. Other pictures of specimens there were taken for me by Malcolm Greany, photographer. Dr. Frederick J. Dockstader, Director, gave permisison to publish photographs of specimens in the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York City. I am grateful to Dr. Harry L. Shapiro, Chairman, to Miss Bella Weitzner, Associate Curator Emeritus, and to Dr. Richard A. Gould, Assistant Curator, Department of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for permission to utilize notes and photographs made by G. T. Emmons at Yakutat before 1889. I am especially grateful to Dr. Gould for his tireless help and skill in photographing so many specimens in the Emmons collections. At Princeton University, Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, and Will Starks, photographer, spared no pains to give me excellent photographs and fullest data on the collection made in 1886 by Libbey at Yakutat. Lastly, I should like to thank my Yakutat friends, John Ellis, Mrs. Minnie Johnson, and Mr. and Mrs. Harry K. Bremner for giving me pictures of Yakutat persons and scenes to use in this book.

Parts of the manuscript in various stages of completion have been read by a number of experts, and if, despite their vigilance, errors have crept in or gone undetected, the fault is mine. These are Dr. George Plafker, Geologist, Alaskan Geology Branch, U.S. Geological Survey; Dr. John W. Aldrich, Research Staff Specialist, and Dr. Richard H. Manville, both of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr., Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, Dr. Harald Rehder, Dr. W. R. Taylor, and Howard L. Chapelle, all at the U.S. National Museum; Dr. Donald Baird, Department of Geology, Princeton University; Dr. Michael E. Krauss, Department of Linguistics, University of Alaska; Dr. Dell Hymes, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania; and lastly, Dr. Catharine McClellan, Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, my collaborator in the field in 1952.

Preliminary studies of Yakutat recordings were made by Lindy Li Mark and by Agi Jambor, Professor of Music at Bryn Mawr College. The transcriptions in the Appendix, however, are those prepared by Dr. David P. McAllester, Director of the Laboratory of Ethnomusicology, Wesleyan University, under a grant from the Penrose Fund of the American Philosophical Society (1967).

It is Edward Schumacher, staff artist of the Smithsonian Institution, who has so skillfully and beautifully prepared the maps and many of the illustrations for this book. But without the skill and patient devotion of the editor, these labors would have come to nothing.

Preparation of the index was made possible by the kindness of Maude Hallowell, and through grants from the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research and from Bryn Mawr College.

To those institutions that made this work possible, to the many individuals who gave help and information, and to my companions in the field, I wish to express my thanks.

Frederica de Laguna

Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania


Reconstruction of Demographic Profiles from Ossuary Skeletal Samples: A Case Study from the Tidewater Potomac
Douglas H. Ubelaker
79 pages, 27 figures, 45 tables
1974 (Date of Issue: 8 August 1974)
Vol. 18, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.18.1
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The excavation and analysis of two Late Woodland ossuaries from the Juhle site (18CH89) in southern Maryland are described in detail. The report includes a discussion of archeological features of the ossuaries, but emphasizes the reconstruction of population profiles derived from the analysis of the recovered skeletal samples. Ethnohistorical and archeological sources are consulted to suggest that ossuaries contain nearly all individuals who died in the contributing populations during culturally prescribed numbers of years and, consequently, offer somewhat unique opportunities for demographic analysis.

Several methods are employed to estimate the chronological age at death of individuals in both ossuaries. Subadult ages are derived from the formation and eruption of the teeth and from the maximum length of the femora. Adult ages are calculated from examinations of the symphyseal faces of the pubes and the degree of microscopic cortical remodeling in the femora. The latter method involved the preparation of 151 ground thin sections taken from the anterior cortices of the right femora, and it represents the first application of Kerley's relatively new method (1965) to a large archeological population. The resulting death curves are compared and the methods evaluated. Data from the most reliable of these age-determinative methods are used to calculate curves of mortality and survivorship, life tables, and crude mortality rates for the populations represented.

Population estimates are attempted by utilizing the crude mortality rates (calculated from the life tables), the length of time represented by each ossuary (calculated from archeological data), and the total numbers of individuals in the ossuaries. The resulting population size estimates are considered against both archeological and ethnohistorical data to suggest the nature of the sociopolitical unit serviced by the ossuaries. Finally, both local and regional population-size estimates are compared with those estimated by others using different types of data.


The Long Sword and Scabbard Slide in Asia
William Trousdale
332 pages, 100 figures, 24 plates, 5 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 8 May 1975)
Vol. 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.17.1
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The scabbard slide is a distinctive carrying device developed 2,500 years ago for the long, iron, equestrian sword. The history of the long sword and scabbard slide in Asia begins and ends in the same region, the steppelands of the southern Ural mountains. The association of this weapon and its suspension device endured for a thousand years, during which time it may be observed among many settled and nomadic cultures between China and the Mediterranean, and even beyond, as far west as France and England. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the significance of this association in its broadest cultural sense in terms of an aspect of weapons history among the peoples in Asia who employed the long sword and scabbard slide.


The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán
Robert M. Laughlin
598 pages, 5 figures, 5 maps, 6 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 17 December 1975)
Vol. 19, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.19.1
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This dictionary of Tzotzil (Mayan) vocabulary from the town of Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico, was compiled by the author over a period of fourteen years. In addition to unsystematic data gathering in Zinacantán, formal interviews were conducted in San Cristóbal. Two Zinacantec men accompanied the author to the United States on two occasions for further interviewing. All hypothetically possible CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) roots were tested to discover their existence and to determine their productivity. In addition to verbal suggestions, props were helpful: objects in everyday use, dolls, sound-effect records, play-acting. Special attention was directed to ethnobotanical lexicon and data; over 3000 specimens were collected and identified both by their Tzotzil name and by their scientific name. With the aid of aerial photographs and ground surveys the township and adjoining areas were mapped. Over one thousand place names were located. A system was developed to present considerable ethnographic context for the vocabulary within each root as succinctly as possible. Wherever possible, the etymology of loan words is indicated. Each entry is furnished with grammatical analysis. The approximately 30,000 Tzotzil entries and 15,000 English entries (including scientific names) were placed on magnetic tape to permit offset printing and further scholarly investigation. The body of the text is preceded by an introduction that records the eliciting techniques, organization of material, assessment and justification of the author's ethnographic approach, together with a sample of Tzotzil oral literature. Explanatory notes provide a more technical description of the contents and organizations of the dictionary as well as observations on Tzotzil grammar.


Of Wonders Wild and New: Dreams from Zinacantán
Robert M. Laughlin
178 pages, 14 figures
1976 (Date of Issue: 9 August 1976)
Vol. 22, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.22.1
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Abstract

This collection of 260 dream texts from Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico, was recorded in Tzotzil, primarily during 1963, and subsequently translated by the author into English. Dreams are ascribed considerable importance by the Zinacantecs, who see them not merely as portents of future events, but as actual, present encounters of the individual's soul, both in its contest with the souls of hostile humans and in communication with the deities. Dreams inform an individual of his capacity as a musician, a bonesetter, a midwife, or a shaman.

Over one hundred dream motifs are given standard interpretations by the Zinacantecs, who modify them to fit personal situations.

Included here are the dreams of eleven Zinacantecs, two of whom were shamans. Their richness of dialogue and imagery represent a hitherto much neglected aspect of Middle American culture. The dreams are accompanied by ethnographic commentary.


Traditional Pottery Techniques of Pakistan: Field and Laboratory Studies
Owen S. Rye and Clifford Evans
283 pages, 38 figures, 82 plates, 15 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 1 November 1976)
Vol. 21, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.21.1
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Abstract

The first part of this work deals with detailed observations obtained during four field expeditions (1967-1971) in Pakistan, for pottery making of unglazed ware in 13 areas and glazed ware in 5 major centers.

For each center a brief outline of the area is given, followed by an outline of the potter's craft under the following guidelines: tools and equipment, materials gathering and preparation, forming and finishing techniques, decoration (including slips and pigments), glazing, kilns and firing, and types of ware. Most of the common pottery-making techniques in Pakistan are included although fieldwork was primarily in the Northwest Frontier Province and Panjab. Pottery-related crafts such as brickmaking and tanur (bread oven) making are briefly discussed.

In the second part of this work detailed relationships between pottery-making techniques, outlined in the first section, are developed under the headings of tools and equipment, materials, forming and finishing techniques, slips, pigments and colorants, glazes, and kilns and firing. Technical studies include mineralogy studies of clays and tempering materials, particle size distribution studies of nonplastic tempering materials, and electron microprobe analyses of fired glazes.

The monograph provides essential data for use in comparative studies of archeological ceramics from Pakistan, as well as a detailed record of the rapidly disappearing pottery crafts of that country, including five appendixes and a glossary.


The Walakpa Site, Alaska: Its Place in the Birnirk and Thule Cultures
Dennis J. Stanford
226 pages, 29 figures, 119 plates, 10 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1976)
Vol. 20, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.20.1
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Abstract

An archeological survey directed by the author near Point Barrow, Alaska, during the summer of 1968 resulted in the discovery of Walakpa, a deeply stratified coastal Eskimo site. It contained over 20 occupation levels, showing the development of Eskimo culture from Birnirk to Thule, as well as earlier and later Eskimo occupation levels. On the basis of excavations at Walakpa during 1968 and 1969, previous estimates of Birnirk and Thule origins are reexamined and a new interpretation of the genesis of this Eskimo culture proposed.

Specifically, on the basis of the Point Barrow excavations, this monograph (1) examines the development of the Birnirk and Thule Eskimo cultures and (2) provides definitions for the horizon markers for each of the Eskimo stages represented at Walakpa. As a result of this detailed study, the author concludes that (1) Birnirk developed out of Old Bering Sea; (2) Birnirk can be divided into three phases: Early, A.D. 500-700, Middle, A.D. 700-800, and Late, A.D. 800-900; (3) Thule Eskimo culture developed directly out of Birnirk; and (4) the development from Birnirk to Thule took place because of over-utilization of seals as the primary food resource and a change to a warmer climatic regime that further depleated the already weak seal resource, resulting in an increased use of whales for food and an expansion of hunting territories to the east.


Of Cabbages and Kings: Tales from Zinacantán
Robert M. Laughlin
427 pages, 11 figures, 8 maps
1977 (Date of Issue: 16 December 1977)
Vol. 23, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.23.1
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Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This collection of 173 folktales, myths, legends, and personal reminiscences from Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico was recorded in Tzotzil, primarily in 1960, but also in 1963, 1968, and 1971. Zinacantec oral literature as represented here in the contributions of nine individuals, eight men and one woman, constitutes a small part of the community's awareness of past and present. The narrative style is no different from that of everyday speech. The form and content of the tales may vary considerably from one telling to the next. While a good number of tale motifs show unmistakable European provenience, others, apparently native to Middle America, are widely represented throughout southern Mexico and Guatemala, with a far smaller number restricted to the Chiapas highlands. The Tzotzil texts, with free English translations, are accompanied by linguistic, ethnographic, and folkloristic commentary.


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