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Lindenmeier, 1934-1974: Concluding Report on Investigations
Edwin N. Wilmsen and Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.
187 pages, 166 figures, 3 maps, 109 tables
1978 (Date of Issue: 6 March 1978)
Vol. 24, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.24.1
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Abstract

The excavation and analysis of Paleo-Indian artifacts from the Lindenmeier site in northern Colorado are described in detail. The site was excavated from 1934 to 1940 by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.; the history of these excavations is summarized. Roberts died in 1966 without completing an analysis of the excavated materials. In the same year, Wilmsen began work on the collection. The goals and strategies of the original work, as well as methods employed in the field, are reconstructed to the extent permitted by existing archival materials and publications. A detailed discussion of the physiographic features of the site location and of its Recent geologic history is presented. It is suggested that common stream meander processes are responsible for the present appearance of the site and that appeals to climatic change are unnecessary. The floral and faunal composition of the area at the time of Folsom occupation is considered in terms of preserved samples of soil, charcoal, resin, and pollen, along with molluskan and mammalian remains. A new radiocarbon age is reported and compared with an age reported previously by Haynes and Agogino (1960). These two ages are compared according to the method proposed by Long and Rippiteau (1974) and found to be indistinguishable statistically.

The bulk of the report is devoted to an analysis of the stone artifacts in the collection. A method for assessing the comparability of measurements of artifacts made by different observers is introduced. This method also yields a basis for estimating the accuracy of observations and for rejecting a statistical result obtained from these observations. The artifacts are analyzed both in terms of sets of technological and functional variables and of their spatial clustering. Technologically, the artifacts are found to conform to the predictions of the wave model proposed by Speth (1972). Five major categories are defined in terms of functional variables. The spatially discrete sets of artifacts are found to be identical technologically and to possess only minor functional differences. These clusters are interpreted to be the debris remains of camps occupied periodically by socially and economically interacting units. Stylistic variation among projectile points is found to be highly significant and spatially discrete. These findings are used to support a hypothesis of social segmentation among the early inhabitants of the site.


Of Shoes and Ships and Sealing Wax: Sundries from Zinacantán
Robert M. Laughlin
286 pages, 5 figures
1980 (Date of Issue: 15 May 1980)
Vol. 25, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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Abstract

This volume is divided into two sections. Part 1 contains the travels of two Mayan Indians from Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico, who accompanied the author to the United States in 1963 and again in 1967. The first trip was described as it unfolded and then again after the passage of eight years. The second trip was described four years later. The travelers comment on such varied subjects as the assassination of President Kennedy, the Zuni Shalako, a football game, first views of snow and of the ocean, black-white relations, automation, and the “March on the Pentagon” in November 1967.

Part 2 is a miscellany of ethnographic texts supplied by Romin Teratol, one of the above travelers, in response to the author's occasional requests for re-creations of Zinacantec dialogue and activities. The subjects range from seductions, a birth, requests for loans and repayment, requests for godparents, and for the return of a wife, house-dedication prayers, common prayers, religious officials' prayers, shamans' prayers, oaths of office, religious officials' songs, a wedding song, and a drunkard's song. Together they provide a convincing if haphazard exhibit of the richness and variety of Zinacantec oral literature as it is created daily by the citizens of Zinacantán.


Material Culture of the Numa: The John Wesley Powell Collection, 1867-1880
Don D. Fowler and John F. Matley
181 pages, 82 figures, 1 map, 2 tables
1979 (Date of Issue: 18 January 1979)
Vol. 26, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.26.1
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Abstract

Between 1867 and 1880 John Wesley Powell made collections of material culture items from several Numic-speaking Indian groups in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions of the western United States. The collections were made in conjunction with Powell's ethnographic studies of those groups (Fowler and Fowler, eds., 1971). The USNM (United States National Museum) collections, on deposit in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, were studied by the authors in 1967-1968. The items described herein represent approximately one-half of the total collections. The remainder were deposited, on an exchange basis, in other major museums in the United States and abroad in the latter portion of the 19th century.

Several individual items, or classes of items, from the USNM collections, were described by various authors of comparative studies of American Indian material culture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the full range of items in the collections has not been described previously.

The bulk of the items were collected by Powell from various Southern Paiute or Northern Ute bands; the remainder from the Deep Creek Gosiute, and Goose Creek, Bear River and Wind River Shoshoni. The items reflect cultures in the early stages of acculturation to the intrusive Euroamerican cultures. The value of the collections is enhanced by photographs taken, principally in 1873 and 1874, by John K. (Jack) Hillers, Powell's photographer. The photographs show various items being worn or used by their makers.

With the exception of Powell's studies and collections, systematic ethnographic work among Numic-speaking Indian peoples was not undertaken until the 1920s or later. By that time, much knowledge of, and use of, aboriginal crafts had been lost or existed only in the memories of older people. In contrast, the collections described herein reflect still viable lifeways of the “Numa” as lived in the 1870s, and add a significant increment to our knowledge of those lifeways.


Ceremonies of the Pawnee, Part I: The Skiri
James R. Murie and Douglas R. Parks, editor
497 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 15 October 1981)
Vol. 27,Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.27.1
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In 1910 James R. Murie, an educated Pawnee who had previously worked with various anthropologists (most notably Alice C. Fletcher and George A. Dorsey), was given a grant by the Bureau of American Ethnology to prepare a full account of surviving Pawnee religious ceremonies. Shortly afterward he began work under the direction of Clark Wissler, with whom he planned a comprehensive description of the ritualism of the Skiri band. This monograph, written by Murie in collaboration with Clark Wissler, is the combined result of the two projects, which extended over a decade. It is a detailed presentation of the essential features of Pawnee ceremonialism. The first part presents the annual cycle of Skiri ceremonial life, minutely describing most of the rituals as well as the role and functions of sacred bundles in the culture. The second part includes accounts of three surviving South Band ceremonies that Murie witnessed: the White Beaver Ceremony (or Doctor Dance) of the Chawi band, and the Bear and Buffalo dances of the Pitahawirata band. In each of the accounts the songs of the ceremony are given in both Pawnee and English. Together they constitute one of the most extensive song collections for any North American tribe. For the three South Band ceremonies, the vision stories underlying the songs are also presented. The manuscript, scheduled for publication on several occasions in the 1920s and 1930s, has been in the archives of the Bureau of American Ethnology since 1921. It is here presented in edited form, together with revised linguistic transcriptions and translations, notes, an expanded bibliography, a biography of Murie, and two indexes.


Ceremonies of the Pawnee, Part II: The South Bands
James R. Murie and Douglas R. Parks, editor
497 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 15 October 1981)
Vol. 27,Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.27.1
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Abstract

In 1910 James R. Murie, an educated Pawnee who had previously worked with various anthropologists (most notably Alice C. Fletcher and George A. Dorsey), was given a grant by the Bureau of American Ethnology to prepare a full account of surviving Pawnee religious ceremonies. Shortly afterward he began work under the direction of Clark Wissler, with whom he planned a comprehensive description of the ritualism of the Skiri band. This monograph, written by Murie in collaboration with Clark Wissler, is the combined result of the two projects, which extended over a decade. It is a detailed presentation of the essential features of Pawnee ceremonialism. The first part presents the annual cycle of Skiri ceremonial life, minutely describing most of the rituals as well as the role and functions of sacred bundles in the culture. The second part includes accounts of three surviving South Band ceremonies that Murie witnessed: the White Beaver Ceremony (or Doctor Dance) of the Chawi band, and the Bear and Buffalo dances of the Pitahawirata band. In each of the accounts the songs of the ceremony are given in both Pawnee and English. Together they constitute one of the most extensive song collections for any North American tribe. For the three South Band ceremonies, the vision stories underlying the songs are also presented. The manuscript, scheduled for publication on several occasions in the 1920s and 1930s, has been in the archives of the Bureau of American Ethnology since 1921. It is here presented in edited form, together with revised linguistic transcriptions and translations, notes, an expanded bibliography, a biography of Murie, and two indexes.


Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Donald J. Ortner and Walter G. J. Putschar
479 pages, 765 figures, 14 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 28 December 1981)
Vol. 28, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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Abstract

This reference work is an attempt to provide an integrated and reasonably comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. The primary objective is to assist those who conduct research on archeological skeletal remains in interpreting abnormal conditions that they might encounter in the course of their research. However, there is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern medical historian, orthopaedist, pathologist, and radiologist about skeletal diseases that are rarely encountered in modern clinical practice.

All of the major categories of disease that affect bone are reviewed from the viewpoint of the pathologist. This review is followed by a discussion of the literature on the paleopathology of each condition and the presentation of paleopathological cases thought to represent each of the morbid categories affecting bone.

This work is based on extensive individual and collaborative research by both authors on the known parameters of modern skeletal diseases and their expression in antiquity. The monograph provides essential text and illustrative materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology.


The Ayalán Cemetery: A Late Integration Period Burial Site on the South Coast of Ecuador
Douglas H. Ubelaker
175 pages, 119 figures, 170 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 7 April 1981)
Vol. 29, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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Abstract

Excavation of a Milagro Phase Integration Period cemetery in 1972 and 1973 on the southern coast of Ecuador yielded 54 large funerary urns (AD 730-AD 1730) and 25 primary and two secondary burials (500 BC-AD 1155) located outside of the urns. Radiocarbon dates were obtained from charcoal and bone collagen and their validity is discussed. The urn burials with inverted urn coverings are similar to those reported from other Milagro Phase cemetery sites in Guayas and Los Ríos Provinces. The urns at the Ayalán cemetery contained secondary skeletal remains of as many as 25 persons per urn (average of about nine persons per urn) along with artifacts, such as ceramic jars, plates and compoteras, beads of shell, stone, and pottery, ear and nose rings of copper, silver, and gold, triangular copper plates (axe money), and small spheres of lead with copper inserts. Similar artifacts were found associated with the burials outside of the urns.

Detailed data are presented on archeological features, artifacts, and such biological subjects as demography, pathology, cranial measurements, nonmetric observations, and cultural practices registered in bone. Cultural differences between the urn features and the earlier non-urn features are minimal. Biological data shared by urn and non-urn samples include cranial deformation, reconstructed living stature, and porotic hyperostosis. The urn sample shows greater life expectancy at birth, lower infant mortality, greater adult life expectancy (especially in females), higher frequencies of foot bone alterations (probably indicating kneeling posture), vertebral osteophytosis, arthritic lipping at the knee, dental caries, alveolar abscesses, dental hypoplasia, and evidence of infectious disease. On the other hand, the urn sample shows fewer lines of increased density, fewer healed fractures, a lower frequency of joint degeneration (although more severe examples), and less dental calculus. An appendix by Brian Hesse, “The Association of Animal Bones with Burial Features,” examines the faunal remains associated with the burial features.


Plains Indian Studies: A Collection of Essays in Honor of John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel
Douglas H. Ubelaker and Herman J. Viola, editors
218 pages, 35 figures, 4 plates, 4 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 14 September 1982)
Vol. 30, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.30.1
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Much of our knowledge of the ethnology, material culture, and prehistory of the Plains of the United States can be linked with the careers and careful research of the Smithsonian's John C. Ewers and Waldo R. Wedel. Following their retirement, the Smithsonian chose to recognize their outstanding contributions to science by sponsoring a two-day symposium in their honor. The essays in this volume result from that symposium and are designed to illuminate both the diversity of their interests and the intensity of their research efforts. Biographical sketches of both men are provided by William N. Fenton and James H. Gunnerson, followed by their complete bibliographies. Smithsonian historical perspective is added by T.D. Stewart. The remaining essays focus on original research that relates to their career interests conducted by individuals whom they have influenced. These authors and their subjects are Douglas R. Parks on the scalped man character in Arikara and Pawnee folklore, Thomas R. Wessel on problems of adaptation among the Blackfeet Indians, Loretta Fowler on political developments among the Northern Arapahoe and Gros Ventres, Hugh A. Dempsey on the nature of band organization among nonhorticultural Plains Indians, James A. Hanson on the evolution of Plains garments during the years of initial Indian White contact, Mildred Mott Wedel on the historical ethnology of the Wichita-speaking peoples in the southern Central Plains, David Mayer Gradwohl on the use of mussel shells in the removal of corn kernels for drying, Brian Hesse on problems of faunal analysis, John A. Hotopp on the Central Plains tradition in Iowa, George C. Frison on Paleo-Indian winter subsistence strategies, and Dennis J. Stanford on a review of the evidence for the early presence of man in the New World.


The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of Santo Domingo Zinacantán, with Grammatical Analysis and Historical Commentary, Volume I: Tzotzil-English
Robert M. Laughlin with John B. Haviland
1119 pages, 29 figures, 34 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 20 December 1988)
Vol. 31,Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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This dictionary of Tzotzil (Mayan) vocabulary from the town of Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico, was edited by the author over a period of nine years. The original manuscript, compiled by an anonymous Dominican friar, probably at the close of the 16th century, disappeared during the Mexican Revolution, but a manuscript copy of 351 pages survives. It was made around 1906 at the behest of the Bishop of Chiapas, Francisco Orozco y Jiménez. The approximately 11,000 Spanish-Tzotzil entries have been translated into English. Following the format of The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán, the colonial Tzotzil has been ordered by roots. The spelling has been corrected and modernized. Doubtful interpretations are stated and problems are brought to the reader's attention, with frequent reference to the existing colonial Tzeltal dictionaries. Each entry is analyzed grammatically according to a system devised by John B. Haviland. All entries are keyed to their original location in the manuscript copy. A second section provides an English-Tzotzil dictionary and index for the thesaurus that follows. To make the cultural contents of this dictionary more readily available to anthropologists and historians, the thesaurus groups the Tzotzil terms under 36 cultural categories such as world, movement, life cycle, emotions, agriculture, ailments, religion, etc. Of special interest is metaphoric speech, subdivided into 10 categories. A third section presents the Spanish-Tzotzil dictionary slightly abbreviated and with the spelling of both languages modernized. A facsimile of the manuscript copy is also offered. Preceding the dictionaries is a historical sketch that places the original in its colonial setting, compares it to other 16th and 17th century lexicographic efforts, and suggests a possible author. The lives of the five individuals responsible for the preservation of the manuscript copy are traced. John B. Haviland, drawing upon the contents of the manuscript, provides a detailed analysis of the grammatical changes that have occurred in Tzotzil over the past four centuries.


The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of Santo Domingo Zinacantán, with Grammatical Analysis and Historical Commentary, Volume II: English-Tzotzil
Robert M. Laughlin with John B. Haviland
1119 pages, 29 figures, 34 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 20 December 1988)
Vol. 31,Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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Abstract

This dictionary of Tzotzil (Mayan) vocabulary from the town of Zinacantán, Chiapas, Mexico, was edited by the author over a period of nine years. The original manuscript, compiled by an anonymous Dominican friar, probably at the close of the 16th century, disappeared during the Mexican Revolution, but a manuscript copy of 351 pages survives. It was made around 1906 at the behest of the Bishop of Chiapas, Francisco Orozco y Jiménez. The approximately 11,000 Spanish-Tzotzil entries have been translated into English. Following the format of The Great Tzotzil Dictionary of San Lorenzo Zinacantán, the colonial Tzotzil has been ordered by roots. The spelling has been corrected and modernized. Doubtful interpretations are stated and problems are brought to the reader's attention, with frequent reference to the existing colonial Tzeltal dictionaries. Each entry is analyzed grammatically according to a system devised by John B. Haviland. All entries are keyed to their original location in the manuscript copy. A second section provides an English-Tzotzil dictionary and index for the thesaurus that follows. To make the cultural contents of this dictionary more readily available to anthropologists and historians, the thesaurus groups the Tzotzil terms under 36 cultural categories such as world, movement, life cycle, emotions, agriculture, ailments, religion, etc. Of special interest is metaphoric speech, subdivided into 10 categories. A third section presents the Spanish-Tzotzil dictionary slightly abbreviated and with the spelling of both languages modernized. A facsimile of the manuscript copy is also offered. Preceding the dictionaries is a historical sketch that places the original in its colonial setting, compares it to other 16th and 17th century lexicographic efforts, and suggests a possible author. The lives of the five individuals responsible for the preservation of the manuscript copy are traced. John B. Haviland, drawing upon the contents of the manuscript, provides a detailed analysis of the grammatical changes that have occurred in Tzotzil over the past four centuries.


Displaying 31 - 40 from the 61 total records