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A Guide to the Kiowa Collections at the Smithsonian Institution
William L. Merrill, Marian Kaulaity Hansson, Candace S. Greene and Frederick J. Reuss
443 pages, 129 figures
1997 (Date of Issue: 28 February 1997)
Vol. 40, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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This guide provides an overview of the extensive anthropological collections associated with the Kiowa Indians of Oklahoma housed in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The vast majority of these collections are found in the Smithsonian's Department of Anthropology, located in the National Museum of Natural History.

In the 1990s, the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma included over 10,000 enrolled members, more than half of whom resided in western Oklahoma. Before settling on a reservation in the second half of the nineteenth century, the Kiowas were nomadic bison hunters on the southern Plains who raided deep into Mexico. The Kiowa materials at the Smithsonian were collected for the most part after the creation of the Kiowa reservation, but the information they contain spans a period from before European contact to the late twentieth century.

The guide, produced between 1985 and 1994, is divided into five major sections. Each of the first four sections focuses on a major component of the Smithsonian's Kiowa collection—material culture, manuscripts, artwork, and photographs—and includes background information on the collections as well as inventories and descriptions of them. The fifth section is a list of individuals whose names appear in association with the collections. This “List of Persons” indicates the specific materials in the collections with which each of these individuals is associated. The guide concludes with a summary of Smithsonian Kiowa collections located outside the Department of Anthropology and a bibliography of selected references on the Kiowa.

Human Remains from La Florida, Quito, Ecuador
Douglas H. Ubelaker
28 pages, 14 figures, 10 tables
2000 (Date of Issue: 8 February 2000)
Vol. 43, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.43.1
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Excavations from 1984 to 1988 at the site of La Florida in suburban Quito, Ecuador, discovered six very deep shaft tombs dating to about AD 340 (Chaupicruz phase of the Regional Development period).

Analysis of the human remains recovered from the tombs indicates the presence of at least 76 individuals. Data are presented to support archeological interpretations of mortuary procedure and social status of individuals. Cultural observations include perimortem sharp-force trauma, cranial deformation, interproximal grooves, and evidence of squatting postures on foot bones. Frequencies of skeletal indicators of pathology are low compared to other prehistoric samples from Ecuador, suggesting relatively good health. Biological evidence of status differences were largely confined to carbon isotopes, suggesting high-status individuals consumed more maize.

Human remains from Voegtly Cemetery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Douglas H. Ubelaker and Erica B. Jones, editors ; with Diane Beynon Landers, associate editor for archeology
vii, 224 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
2003 (Date of Issue: 21 April 2003)
Vol. 46, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.46.1
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In 1987, stimulated by planned highway construction, an archeological survey located the cemetery associated with Voegtly Church and Parsonage, which was dated to between 1833 and 1861. An intensive excavation in 1987 located 724 features thought to represent human burials and recovered the remains and associated artifacts. Analysis of the human remains revealed highly variable preservation with extensive weathering, especially among subadults. Cultural alterations on the teeth include evidence for pipe smoking. Living stature averaged about 160 cm (5 ft 3 in) for females and 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) for males. Pathological conditions included trauma, infection, extreme arthritis, and tuberculosis. Dental health was generally poor, with high frequencies of dental caries, alveolar abscessing, antemortem tooth loss, and dental hypoplasia. Mortality rates were high and life expectancy was generally low, especially among infants and children.

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains
Donald J. Ortner and Walter G. J. Putschar
479 pages, 765 figures, 14 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 28 December 1981)
Vol. 28, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
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This reference work is an attempt to provide an integrated and reasonably comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. The primary objective is to assist those who conduct research on archeological skeletal remains in interpreting abnormal conditions that they might encounter in the course of their research. However, there is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern medical historian, orthopaedist, pathologist, and radiologist about skeletal diseases that are rarely encountered in modern clinical practice.

All of the major categories of disease that affect bone are reviewed from the viewpoint of the pathologist. This review is followed by a discussion of the literature on the paleopathology of each condition and the presentation of paleopathological cases thought to represent each of the morbid categories affecting bone.

This work is based on extensive individual and collaborative research by both authors on the known parameters of modern skeletal diseases and their expression in antiquity. The monograph provides essential text and illustrative materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology.

Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa at the Beginning of the 19th Century
Harold Hickerson
41–63 pages, Vol. 2, 1 map
1967 (Date of Issue: 6 March 1967)
Vol. 2,Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.2.4
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The land tenure of northeastern Algonkians has been the subject of discussion and controversy over the past 50 years, since Speck first began describing family hunting territory systems among Algonquin and Chippewa of the Ottowa River valley (1914-15; 1915 a; 1915 b). The issue has boiled down to whether division of land among families or heads of families maintaining them in more or less permanent usufruct, and involving sanctions against trespass, was an aboriginal or postcontact form. I believe consensus now would hold that tenure based on small patrilocal family usufruct (the classic, but by no means universal form) is postcontact (cf. Driver, 1961, pp. 249-250), but the precise form of tenure in aboriginal times would be a matter of doubt. Leacock (1954) quite conclusively demonstrated that family holdings came into existence as a result in subarctic cultures of emphasis on trapping fur for the European fur trade. Such emphasis, in brief, led to the husbanding of beaver and other sedentary game on an individual basis, replacing old communal large-game hunting patterns.

The controversy over the aboriginality of the family tenure system relates to questions concerning the organization of primitives generally, and particularly to the question of the universality of primitive communism. This was recognized quite early in the discussion (Lowie, 1920, p. 211; Speck, 1922, pp. 83-84), and has been a tacit and at times explicit part of it ever since. I have discussed this at length in a review article (Hickerson, 1967).

More recently, Rogers has argued that the question of land tenure should be separated from that of the constitution of social units (1963, pp. 77 ff.). On the basis of his assessment of ecological and socioreligious factors operating among the Mistassini Montagnais and other eastern subarctic peoples he has observed, Rogers suggests that a “hunting group” unit consisting of five or so linked biological families comprised the basic social unit for the area. The fur trade had the effect of tying such units to specific territories due to such factors as the need to conserve fur and fuel, ensure a game supply in a region of limited transportation facilities, provide mutual assistance in times of need, have available the counsel of respected elders, etc. Territorial stability for such units developed from the reliance on fur game, the supply of which had to be regulated and conserved by trapper-proprietors. If I understand Rogers correctly, in pretrade times when fur was not the chief object of the chase, the hunting groups were free to utilize range over which they held no exclusive rights. Without an allotment system, the bands were nevertheless restricted to roughly defined areas without set boundaries.

Lindenmeier, 1934-1974: Concluding Report on Investigations
Edwin N. Wilmsen and Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.
187 pages, 166 figures, 3 maps, 109 tables
1978 (Date of Issue: 6 March 1978)
Vol. 24, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.24.1
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The excavation and analysis of Paleo-Indian artifacts from the Lindenmeier site in northern Colorado are described in detail. The site was excavated from 1934 to 1940 by Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr.; the history of these excavations is summarized. Roberts died in 1966 without completing an analysis of the excavated materials. In the same year, Wilmsen began work on the collection. The goals and strategies of the original work, as well as methods employed in the field, are reconstructed to the extent permitted by existing archival materials and publications. A detailed discussion of the physiographic features of the site location and of its Recent geologic history is presented. It is suggested that common stream meander processes are responsible for the present appearance of the site and that appeals to climatic change are unnecessary. The floral and faunal composition of the area at the time of Folsom occupation is considered in terms of preserved samples of soil, charcoal, resin, and pollen, along with molluskan and mammalian remains. A new radiocarbon age is reported and compared with an age reported previously by Haynes and Agogino (1960). These two ages are compared according to the method proposed by Long and Rippiteau (1974) and found to be indistinguishable statistically.

The bulk of the report is devoted to an analysis of the stone artifacts in the collection. A method for assessing the comparability of measurements of artifacts made by different observers is introduced. This method also yields a basis for estimating the accuracy of observations and for rejecting a statistical result obtained from these observations. The artifacts are analyzed both in terms of sets of technological and functional variables and of their spatial clustering. Technologically, the artifacts are found to conform to the predictions of the wave model proposed by Speth (1972). Five major categories are defined in terms of functional variables. The spatially discrete sets of artifacts are found to be identical technologically and to possess only minor functional differences. These clusters are interpreted to be the debris remains of camps occupied periodically by socially and economically interacting units. Stylistic variation among projectile points is found to be highly significant and spatially discrete. These findings are used to support a hypothesis of social segmentation among the early inhabitants of the site.

The Long Sword and Scabbard Slide in Asia
William Trousdale
332 pages, 100 figures, 24 plates, 5 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 8 May 1975)
Vol. 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.17.1
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The scabbard slide is a distinctive carrying device developed 2,500 years ago for the long, iron, equestrian sword. The history of the long sword and scabbard slide in Asia begins and ends in the same region, the steppelands of the southern Ural mountains. The association of this weapon and its suspension device endured for a thousand years, during which time it may be observed among many settled and nomadic cultures between China and the Mediterranean, and even beyond, as far west as France and England. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the significance of this association in its broadest cultural sense in terms of an aspect of weapons history among the peoples in Asia who employed the long sword and scabbard slide.

Material Culture of the Numa: The John Wesley Powell Collection, 1867-1880
Don D. Fowler and John F. Matley
181 pages, 82 figures, 1 map, 2 tables
1979 (Date of Issue: 18 January 1979)
Vol. 26, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.26.1
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Between 1867 and 1880 John Wesley Powell made collections of material culture items from several Numic-speaking Indian groups in the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau regions of the western United States. The collections were made in conjunction with Powell's ethnographic studies of those groups (Fowler and Fowler, eds., 1971). The USNM (United States National Museum) collections, on deposit in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, were studied by the authors in 1967-1968. The items described herein represent approximately one-half of the total collections. The remainder were deposited, on an exchange basis, in other major museums in the United States and abroad in the latter portion of the 19th century.

Several individual items, or classes of items, from the USNM collections, were described by various authors of comparative studies of American Indian material culture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. However, the full range of items in the collections has not been described previously.

The bulk of the items were collected by Powell from various Southern Paiute or Northern Ute bands; the remainder from the Deep Creek Gosiute, and Goose Creek, Bear River and Wind River Shoshoni. The items reflect cultures in the early stages of acculturation to the intrusive Euroamerican cultures. The value of the collections is enhanced by photographs taken, principally in 1873 and 1874, by John K. (Jack) Hillers, Powell's photographer. The photographs show various items being worn or used by their makers.

With the exception of Powell's studies and collections, systematic ethnographic work among Numic-speaking Indian peoples was not undertaken until the 1920s or later. By that time, much knowledge of, and use of, aboriginal crafts had been lost or existed only in the memories of older people. In contrast, the collections described herein reflect still viable lifeways of the “Numa” as lived in the 1870s, and add a significant increment to our knowledge of those lifeways.

The Modernization of Three Korean Villages, 1951-1981: An Illustrated Study of a People and Their Material Culture
Eugene I. Knez
216 pages, 191 figures, 35 tables
1997 (Date of Issue: 6 October 1997)
Vol. 39, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.39.1
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The “totality” of artifacts in three distinct villages, now consolidated into a city ward, represent an ethnohistorical perspective of material culture within a specific time-level of cultural evolution. Detailed descriptions of 413 selected artifacts are provided. These artifacts are assigned to four categories, namely Traditional, Traditional/Modified, New, and New/Modified, to reveal the number and distribution of artifacts in households and cultivated fields. Although the field study emphasizes the more durable objects, the perishables are also examined. The “totality” of artifacts will provide the reader “an archeology of the living” for Korean folk life.

Muskogean Charm Songs Among the Oklahoma Cherokees
Jack Frederick Kilpatrick and Anna Gritts Kilpatrick
29–40 pages, Vol. 2, 10 figures
1967 (Date of Issue: 6 March 1967)
Vol. 2,Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810223.2.3
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Manuscript works on medicine and magic among the Oklahoma Cherokees sometimes contain idi:gawé:sdi (to be said, them, by one) or the texts of charm songs that, although written or partially written in the Sequoyah syllabary, are not in the Cherokee language. Cherokee din(a)da:hnvwi:sg(i) (those who cure them=medicine men), who as a rule know no Indian language other than their own, are aware that such writings, in some instances handed down to them through several generations, are in either Creek or Natchez. But only rarely does one encounter a medicine man who thinks that he knows the meaning of a specific word here or there. More commonly he will not know even the general drift of what is written, and is not quite sure which particular grouping of syllables constitutes a word. But he does know that his saying or song is powerful—‘alive,’ as he expresses it—and there the matter rests.

Since some of the phonemes of Muskogean languages are not found in Cherokee, a certain amount of ingenuity had to be exerted in representing them in the Sequoyah syllabary. The Sequoyan symbol for gwa, for example, may have been chosen to stand for pa. We have seen examples wherein new symbols had been created, or standard symbols reversed or inverted. We have also seen examples in which recourse to the English alphabet had been made in order to compensate for specific deficiencies in the Sequoyah syllabary.

In addition to these Muskogean materials in the possession of din (a)da:hnvwi:sg(i), there is a corpus of charms, chiefly pertaining to hunting, that was once, and perhaps to a certain extent still is, employed by the laity. As pointed out in Kilpatrick and Kilpatrick (1967) for some reason as yet undetermined the aboriginal Cherokee hunting charms were largely supplanted by those of Muskogean origin.

As one might expect, Muskogean medicomagic is most commonly encountered in the southern part of the territory of the Oklahoma Cherokees, a region containing several clearly defined and long-established Muskogean enclaves.

Displaying 31 - 40 from the 61 total records