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Displaying 11 - 20 from the 98 total records
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Genera of Bamboos Native to the New World (Gramineae: Bambusoideae)
F. A. McClure (edited by Thomas R. Soderstrom)
148 pages, 48 figures
1973 (Date of Issue: 11 May 1973)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.9
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Abstract

Seventeen genera of bamboos native to the New World are classified, compared, and illustrated, including four new genera and four new species. The introduction of several taxonomic characters based on hitherto neglected morphological features, both vegetative and reproductive, is undertaken with the objective of improving traditional perspectives. Two reforms are urged as essential to the elevation of the level of refinement at which future taxonomic treatments of bamboos may be executed. These are (1) the general adoption of improved collecting methods correlated with more extensive and sustained field observations, and (2) the fostering, through interdisciplinary collaboration, of progressive development and integration of diversified studies of documented materials drawn from a common source for each individual taxon.


An Introduction to the Botanical Type Specimen Register
Stanwyn G. Shetler, Mary Jane Petrini, Constance Graham Carley, M. J. Harvey, Larry E. Morse and Thomas E. Kopfler, and collaborators
186 pages, 3 figures
1973 (Date of Issue: 3 August 1973)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.12
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In the first part, the development of a computer-based system for storing and retrieving information about botanical type specimens is described from its pilot stage to its present operational stage. The concept, purpose, and scope are explained, and the operational procedures are outlined. Ways of using and contributing to this computerized register of types, both in the short-run and in the long-run, are proposed. A statistical summary of the content of the Type Register as of 30 September 1972 is given. Over 13,000 specimens representing more than 10,000 taxa have been registered. The second part consists of a Catalog of more than 1,000 specimens representing over 600 taxa of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae), which are deposited in ten major American herbaria, and the Catalog is cross-indexed five different ways: by author, publication date, collector, country, and herbarium. An introduction summarizes the preparation and editing of the Catalog. This Carex Catalog represents the first published installment of the Type Register and as such is intended to serve as an example.


Swollen-Thorn Acacias of Central America
Daniel H. Janzen
131 pages, 119 figures, 8 tables
1974 (Date of Issue: 23 April 1974)
Number 13, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.13
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This nomenclatural, taxonomic, and ecological treatment of 11 Central American obligate ant-acacias (Acacia allenii, A. chiapensis, A. collinsii, A. cookii, A. cornigera, A. gentlei, A. globulifera, A. hindsii, A. mayana, A. melanoceras, and A. sphaerocephala) and one quasi-obligate ant-acacia (Acacia ruddiae) is based on extensive field study from 1963 to 1972 and on herbarium specimens where of use. The population boundaries of all species are mapped and described with respect to ecological parameters. Morphological variation, details of the interaction with the ants, and acacia reproductive biology are presented for most species.


Leaf Anatomy and Systematics of New World Velloziaceae
Edward S. Ayensu
125 pages, 24 figures, 51 plates
1974 (Date of Issue: 25 July 1974)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.15
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The leaf anatomy of 106 species of New World Velloziaceae has been studied with the purpose of providing important character-states in assessing the systematics of the family. Transverse section of the leaves have shown the type of sclerenchyma and mesophyll patterns that are assignable either to the genus Vellozia or Barbacenia (sensu lato). In addition to the light microscope, the scanning electron microscope was used to examine epidermal surfaces of the leaves as well as their internal structures. The SEM has served as a remarkable tool in allowing us to examine the topography of the leaf surface in three-dimension. Details of the structure of the stomata, the furrows in the leaf, and the types of hairs, including coalescent hairs, have been observed for the first time. The application of leaf anatomy in the taxonomy of the family has been stressed. Light and scanning electron micrographs are presented as an aid in the identification of each species.


Morden-Smithsonian Expedition to Dominica: The Lichens (Thelotremataceae)
Mason E. Hale, Jr.
46 pages, 20 figures
1974 (Date of Issue: 4 August 1974)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.16
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A revision is made of the lichen family Thelotremataceae in Dominica, based on previously published records by Elliott and on collections by the author. The family comprises 48 species in 4 genera, Leptotrema, Ocellularia, Phaeotrema, and Thelotrema. The following 15 species are described as new: Ocellularia antillensis, O. conglomerata, O. dominicana, O. maculata, O. mordenii, O. nigropuncta, O. rimosa, O. sorediata, Phaeotrema aggregatum, P. obscurum, Thelotrema confusum, T. dominicanum, T. papillosum, T. tenue, and Leptotrema deceptum. Three new combinations, Ocellularia fecunda (Vainio) Hale, Phaeotrema disciforme (Leighton) Hale, and Leptotrema occultum (Eschweiler) Hale, are also made. Morphological characters are reviewed and the chemistry of each species is presented in detail. The family is exceptionally well developed in mature rain forest.


Commercial Timbers of West Africa
Edward S. Ayensu and Albert Bentum
69 pages, 28 plates, 2 tables
1974 (Date of Issue: 8 August 1974)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.14
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The xylem anatomy of 28 species of commercially and potentially commercial timbers of West Africa is described together with information pertaining to seasoning qualities, durability and working properties, as well as the uses of wood. A comprehensive discussion on the mechanical properties, establishing the methodologies for evaluating the potential utilization of these woods, has been included. Shrinkage and swelling in wood have always presented problems in the utilization of woods. A discussion relating to the differences among (a) moisture content change and shrinkage, (b) the effect of drying conditions on shrinkage and (c) the variation in shrinkage in different species is presented. To aid both beginning students and to refresh the minds of practicing wood technologists, a glossary of the principal terms used in describing the minute features of timbers has also been added.


Partial Flora of the Society Islands: Ericaceae to Apocynaceae
Martin Lawrence Grant, F. Raymond Fosberg and Howard M. Smith
85 pages, 3 tables
1974 (Date of Issue: 20 November 1974)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.17
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Results of a botanical investigation of the Society Islands carried out by Grant in 1930 and 1931, and subsequent work on the material collected and other collections in the U.S. herbaria and other published works are reported herein. This paper is a partial descriptive flora of the Society group with a history of the botanical exploration and investigation of the area.


The Genus Aphelandra (Acanthaceae)
Dieter C. Wasshausen
157 pages, 56 figures
1975 (Date of Issue: 5 March 1975)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.18
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The purpose of this study is to discuss, in an orderly fashion, all of the known and recognized species of Aphelandra, so that botanists in the future may be able to identify their collections of the genus and detect further undescribed species. The genus was proposed in 1810 by Robert Brown to include three disjunct species of Justicia. The only comprehensive treatment of the genus appeared in 1847, when Nees von Esenbeck published a total of 47 species in 3 genera, two of which are in synonymy. As a result of the present study, in addition to the 31 newly described species, 167 taxa (165 species and 2 varieties) are considered as adequately describing the entities in this genus. The range of the genus extends from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and Brazil, being conspicuously absent in the West Indies. It is found at elevations between sea level and 4000 meters, in extremely local distribution in virgin forests. Aphelandra, one of the larger genera of the family Acanthaceae, is completely void of cystoliths, the familiar character by which most acanthaceous plants are recognized. Its flowering spikes are often large and beautifully colored, even to the bracts and bractlets, and in certain species variegated or colored leaves occur. Important characters in the genus that link large series of species are the presence or absence of spiny interpetiolar bracts; of teeth, spiny or otherwise, on the margins of the leaf blades or flower bracts; and of ocelli on the flower bracts. These plants are, as a rule, widely scattered and are often only sparingly floriferous. Intergrades between species are unknown, and species represented by more numerous collections exhibit very few pronounced variations in appearance or in essential characters.

The history, distribution, ecology, morphology, cytology, anatomy, and taxonomy of the four species of Thrinax are presented. The objective is to demonstrate that quantitative characters, formerly believed to be important in distinguishing species, merely represent random selections from clinal patterns and are therefore of little value in distinguishing taxa. Certain characters described for the first time—leaf sheath, blade, color and puberulence of the inflorescence—have proved to be of great taxonomic value. Particular attention is given to the variability of Thrinax parviflora Sw. over a wide range of climatic conditions and to its unusual phenotypic behavior, in special situations, in the Cockpit Country and on the slopes of Mt. Diablo in Jamaica. The haploid chromosome number (determined at pollen-tube mitosis) of all four species is 18. Little difference in size or morphology of the chromosomes exists among these taxa. Anatomically all four species can be distinguished by comparison of leaf segment sections.


The Genus Thrinax (Palmae: Coryphoideae)
Robert W. Read
98 pages, 57 figures, 5 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 13 March 1975)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.19
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The taxonomic portion is a thorough revision of the genus. It includes literature references, synonymy, complete descriptions, and specimens examined. Thrinax parviflora Sw. and T. excelsa Lodd. ex Griseb. are endemic to Jamaica while T. radiata Lodd. ex J. A. & J. H. Schult. occurs in the littoral of the Greater Antilles (except Puerto Rico), the Bahamas, Florida, and Mexico. Thrinax morrisii H. Wendl. occurs on most of the islands from Anegada (east of the Virgin Islands) to the islands off the coast of British Honduras, and Florida, but not in Jamaica.


Flora of Micronesia, 1: Gymnospermae
F. Raymond Fosberg and Marie-Hélène Sachet
15 pages, 1 figure
1975 (Date of Issue: 13 March 1975)
Number 20, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.20
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A brief introduction treats the scope and plan of the flora, the circumstances under which it is being written, discussions of special problems encountered, materials used, and acknowledgments. Floristic taxonomic treatments with keys, synonymy, descriptions, distribution, ethnobotany including vernacular names, and citations of geographic records and herbarium specimens are provided for Cycadaceae, Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae, and Gnetaceae. Other families will follow in future papers as they are completed.


Displaying 11 - 20 from the 98 total records