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Displaying 21 - 30 from the 98 total records
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Flora of the Marquesas, 1: Ericaceae-Convolvulacae
Marie-Hélène Sachet
34 pages, 1 figure
1975 (Date of Issue: 2 October 1975)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.23
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Abstract

This is the first installment of a vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). It contains floristic taxonomic treatments, keys, synonymy, descriptions, distribution, ethnobotany including uses and vernacular names, citations of geographic records, and herbarium specimens of the families Ericaceae, Epacridaceae, Myrsinaceae, Primulaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Oleaceae, Loganiaceae, Gentianaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, and Convolvulaceae. A brief introduction outlines the history of the botany of the Marquesas, the materials on which the flora is based, problems in interpreting and using some of the collections, the climatic and geographic setting of the Marquesan Archipelago, and acknowledgments. Other families will follow in future installments as they are completed.


Floral Morphology and Systematics of Lamourouxia (Scrophulariaceae: Rhinanthoideae)
Wallace R. Ernst
63 pages, 36 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 21 July 1972)
Number 6, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.6
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Relationships among the twenty-six species, having an overall range from northern Mexico to central Peru, are analyzed in regard to pollinators and for insight into the differentiation of the three taxonomic sections of the genus. Four new names are proposed, including a section, two species, and a combination. Two new chromosome numbers are reported. Descriptions for each of the species and a dichotomous key are included.


Genera of Bamboos Native to the New World (Gramineae: Bambusoideae)
F. A. McClure (edited by Thomas R. Soderstrom)
148 pages, 48 figures
1973 (Date of Issue: 11 May 1973)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.9
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Seventeen genera of bamboos native to the New World are classified, compared, and illustrated, including four new genera and four new species. The introduction of several taxonomic characters based on hitherto neglected morphological features, both vegetative and reproductive, is undertaken with the objective of improving traditional perspectives. Two reforms are urged as essential to the elevation of the level of refinement at which future taxonomic treatments of bamboos may be executed. These are (1) the general adoption of improved collecting methods correlated with more extensive and sustained field observations, and (2) the fostering, through interdisciplinary collaboration, of progressive development and integration of diversified studies of documented materials drawn from a common source for each individual taxon.


The Genera of Bambusoideae (Poaceae) of the American Continent: Keys and Comments
Cleofé E. Calderón and Thomas R. Soderstrom
27 pages
1980 (Date of Issue: 13 February 1980)
Number 44, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.44
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The history of the grass subfamily Bambusoideae is reviewed and nomenclatural problems of subfamilial and tribal level are explored. Characters are presented to distinguish the subfamily from all other grasses and differentiating features of the two major groups of bamboos—herbaceous and woody—are included. Keys are given for the tribes and genera of herbaceous American bamboos and genera of woody American bamboos, the latter based principally on vegetative characters. A conspectus of the subfamily also appears, with a list of all 37 genera recognized in the American continent, each with nomenclatural and taxonomic notes. Comments on the morphology of the bamboo plant and the systematic value of some characters, especially vegetative, are given in the introduction.


Genera of New World Eragrostideae (Poaceae: Chloridoideae)
Paul M. Peterson, Robert D. Webster and Jesus Valdes-Reyna
50 pages, 1 table
1997 (Date of Issue: 14 November 1997)
Number 87, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.87
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A comprehensive study of generic concepts, evaluation of taxonomic characters, and a revised classification is presented for the Eragrostideae of the New World. An original set of data, consisting of 88 characters recorded for 38 genera, was collected and analyzed to produce a dichotomous key, a synoptic key, and comparative descriptions. A detailed discussion is presented on the characters and the distribution of the character states. Remarks on the morphology, taxonomic history, and relationships among the species within each genus and among the genera of Eragrostideae are given. A new combination is proposed for Neeragrostis contrerasii.


Generic and Subtribal Classification of American Vernonieae
Harold Robinson
116 pages, 20 figures, 12 tables
1999 (Date of Issue: 15 October 1999)
Number 89, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.89
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The Vernonieae in America is herein defined to exclude the Liabeae and Pseudostifftia (Moquinieae), and to include elements sometimes placed in the Heliantheae (Trichospira) or Lactuceae (Stokesia). Pollen, style bases, raphids, inflorescence form, involucre, anther appendage, and chemistry are some characters used in the reclassification. Tables 1-12 indicate the distribution of these characteristics in most American genera. Vernonia s.s., with type A pollen, is typified by V. noveboracensis (L.) and occurs in the Bahamas, eastern North America, south to central Mexico and has two species in temperate South America. All other species previously placed in Vernonia need to be removed from the genus, a process that is nearly complete for neotropical species. Most American Vernonieae seem to form a single related subgroup in the tribe. Subtribes included in the related subgroup are the Lychnophorinae (x = 15, 17, 18) and Centratherinae (x = 16) with type A pollen and furoheliangolides; Piptocarphinae (x = 17) with type A pollen, deciduous inner involucre, and sometimes opposite leaves; Vernoniinae (x = 17), many with glanduliferous anther appendages (including the Lepidaploa complex mostly with echinolophate pollen); and the newly proposed subtribes Sipolisiinae with type A pollen, armed receptacles, and carbonized achenes; Chrestinae with echinolophate pollen; and Leiboldiinae (x = 19) with type A pollen, large heads, and a modified callus at the top of the achene. Of uncertain relationship to the preceding related subgroup are Stokesia (x = 7), the Elephantopodinae (x = 11, 13), and the Rolandrinae (x = 8) with echinolophate pollen; three genera with type E pollen (Pacourina, Acilepidopsis, and Mesanthophora); and the Trichospirinae with type A pollen and flattened bicornute achenes. Ten subtribes are recognized, plus four unplaced generic groups. Three of the subtribal names, Leiboldiinae, Chrestinae, and Sipolisiinae are validated in the treatment. The genus Caatinganthus of eastern Brazil, a possible relative of the Elephantopinae, is described as new. A list of the 76 accepted genera of Vernonieae, native or introduced in the New World, is provided, and a complete list of names of American Vernonieae is given with an indication of their present taxonomic dispositions and geographical distributions. Fifteen new combinations are provided.


A Generic Review of the Tribe Liabeae (Asteraceae)
Harold Robinson
69 pages, 16 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 28 April 1983)
Number 54, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.54
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The neotropical tribe Liabeae is treated with approximately 157 species aligned in 15 genera and three subtribes, the Liabinae containing Austroliabum, Cacosmia, Chionopappus, Ferreyranthus, Liabellum, Liabum, Microliabum, Oligactis, and Sinclairia; Paranepheliinae containing Paranephelius and Pseudonoseris; and Munnoziinae containing Chrysactinium, Erato, Munnozia, and Philoglossa. The latter two subtribes are formally described herein as new. The tribe is placed in the subfamily Cichorioideae, and distinctions from the Vernonieae are discussed. A phylogeny of the tribe is proposed with probable central Andean origin. Various elements of the tribe are traced phyletically and geographically. The genera are seen as unusually well isolated from one another compared to genera in most of the more successful tribes of the Asteraceae. The apparent restriction of reticulating evolution to the early development of the Liabeae is suggested as a reason for the comparatively limited success of the tribe.


The Genus Aphelandra (Acanthaceae)
Dieter C. Wasshausen
157 pages, 56 figures
1975 (Date of Issue: 5 March 1975)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.18
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The purpose of this study is to discuss, in an orderly fashion, all of the known and recognized species of Aphelandra, so that botanists in the future may be able to identify their collections of the genus and detect further undescribed species. The genus was proposed in 1810 by Robert Brown to include three disjunct species of Justicia. The only comprehensive treatment of the genus appeared in 1847, when Nees von Esenbeck published a total of 47 species in 3 genera, two of which are in synonymy. As a result of the present study, in addition to the 31 newly described species, 167 taxa (165 species and 2 varieties) are considered as adequately describing the entities in this genus. The range of the genus extends from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and Brazil, being conspicuously absent in the West Indies. It is found at elevations between sea level and 4000 meters, in extremely local distribution in virgin forests. Aphelandra, one of the larger genera of the family Acanthaceae, is completely void of cystoliths, the familiar character by which most acanthaceous plants are recognized. Its flowering spikes are often large and beautifully colored, even to the bracts and bractlets, and in certain species variegated or colored leaves occur. Important characters in the genus that link large series of species are the presence or absence of spiny interpetiolar bracts; of teeth, spiny or otherwise, on the margins of the leaf blades or flower bracts; and of ocelli on the flower bracts. These plants are, as a rule, widely scattered and are often only sparingly floriferous. Intergrades between species are unknown, and species represented by more numerous collections exhibit very few pronounced variations in appearance or in essential characters.

The history, distribution, ecology, morphology, cytology, anatomy, and taxonomy of the four species of Thrinax are presented. The objective is to demonstrate that quantitative characters, formerly believed to be important in distinguishing species, merely represent random selections from clinal patterns and are therefore of little value in distinguishing taxa. Certain characters described for the first time—leaf sheath, blade, color and puberulence of the inflorescence—have proved to be of great taxonomic value. Particular attention is given to the variability of Thrinax parviflora Sw. over a wide range of climatic conditions and to its unusual phenotypic behavior, in special situations, in the Cockpit Country and on the slopes of Mt. Diablo in Jamaica. The haploid chromosome number (determined at pollen-tube mitosis) of all four species is 18. Little difference in size or morphology of the chromosomes exists among these taxa. Anatomically all four species can be distinguished by comparison of leaf segment sections.


The Genus Colpomenia Derbès et Solier (Phaeophyta) in the Gulf of California
Michael J. Wynne and James N. Norris
18 pages, 11 figures
1976 (Date of Issue: 9 September 1976)
Number 35, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.35
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Four species of the brown algal genus Colpomenia Derbès et Solier (Scytosiphonales) are recognized as occurring within the Gulf of California: C. sinuosa (Roth) Derbès et Solier, C. tuberculata Saunders, C. ramosa Taylor, and C. phaeodactyla, new species. Some of the specimens interpreted by Dawson (1944) as Rosenvingea intricata are now referred to C. ramosa Taylor. Although recorded from the Pacific coast of Baja California, C. ramosa has not yet been reported within the Gulf. Interrelationships of the species complex of Colpomenia with related genera such as Iyengaria Boergesen, Rosenvingea Boergesen, and Scytosiphon C. Agardh are discussed.


The Genus Thrinax (Palmae: Coryphoideae)
Robert W. Read
98 pages, 57 figures, 5 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 13 March 1975)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.19
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The taxonomic portion is a thorough revision of the genus. It includes literature references, synonymy, complete descriptions, and specimens examined. Thrinax parviflora Sw. and T. excelsa Lodd. ex Griseb. are endemic to Jamaica while T. radiata Lodd. ex J. A. & J. H. Schult. occurs in the littoral of the Greater Antilles (except Puerto Rico), the Bahamas, Florida, and Mexico. Thrinax morrisii H. Wendl. occurs on most of the islands from Anegada (east of the Virgin Islands) to the islands off the coast of British Honduras, and Florida, but not in Jamaica.


Displaying 21 - 30 from the 98 total records