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Atlas of Hairs for Neotropical Melastomataceae
John J. Wurdack
80 pages, 244 figures
1986 (Date of Issue: 30 May 1986)
Number 63, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.63
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Abstract

Hairs of 412 taxa representing 66 genera of New World Melastomataceae were examined by SEM. Representatives for each hair type are illustrated by SEM micrographs. Epicuticular waxes are illustrated. Unusual “stomatal” apertures on intersepalar hairs in the genera Pterolepis and Tibouchina were found. Parallel evolution of hairs in different genera and subgeneric divisions has occurred frequently. Hair diversity probably is the result of evolution for protection against arthropod predators.


BEGONIACEAE, Part I: Illustrated Key, Part II: Annotated Species List
Lyman B. Smith, Dieter C. Wasshausen, Jack Golding and Carrie E. Karegeannes
584 pages, 1183 figures
1986 (Date of Issue: 25 July 1986)
Number 60, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.60
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In Part I, all known taxa of Begoniaceae (exclusive of hybrids and cultivars) are initially keyed into 34 subkeys and are subsequently keyed to all recognized species, with each species illustrated from a photo of the holotype or type specimen. Part II lists, in alphabetical order, all verified species and varietal epithets, including complete synonymy, literature citations, and geographical distribution. All the recognized species are cross referenced to the subkeys in Part 1 by the illustration numbers.


A Bibliography of Plant Collectors in Bolivia
V. A. Funk and Scott A. Mori
20 pages, 1 figure
1989 (Date of Issue: 27 January 1989)
Number 70, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.70
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Despite substantial plant collecting in Bolivia, there is no general reference that summarizes information about collectors. Here, we list individuals known to have collected plants in Bolivia and for whom there is published information concerning their lives or their Bolivian collections. For each, we include biographical information, dates of Bolivian collections, herbaria containing the Bolivian specimens, and pertinent references to publications by the collector, or about the collector, the specimens, or the expedition. We also include a section of general references which pertain to several collectors; these are cross-referenced under the discussion of each collector. The type of information available from each general reference is briefly described.


Caryopsis Morphology and Classification in the Triticeae (Pooideae: Poaceae)
Edward E. Terrell and Paul M. Peterson
25 pages, 12 figures, 3 tables
1993 (Date of Issue: 1 June 1993)
Number 83, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.83
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Detailed descriptions and drawings of caryopses are presented for 35 species representing 18 genera in the Triticeae. We studied the morphological variation in non-embryo characters involving the length, shape, compression, lateral ridges, sulcus development, coronas, and apical hairs of the caryopsis. Based on shared characters of the caryopses, we recognize three groups of genera as two major subtribes and one monogeneric subtribe. The Hordeinae includes Agropyron, Crithopsis, Elymus, Elytrigia, Eremopyrum, Hordelymus, Hordeum, Leymus, Psathyrostachys, and Taeniatherum; Triticinae includes Aegilops, Amblyopyrum, Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium, Secale, and Triticum; and Henrardiinae includes Henrardia. Similarities among the caryopses of 14 species of Elymus, Elytrigia, Leymus, and Psathyrostachys support a broad interpretation of Elymus. The caryopses of Brachypodium resemble those of the genera in the Hordeinae and to some extent Bromus.


Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies
Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez and Mark T. Strong
i–xxv, 1–1,192
2012 (Date of Issue: 1 January 2012)
Number 98, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.98.1
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The catalogue enumerates all taxa of Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons, and Monocotyledons occurring in the West Indies archipelago excluding the islands off the coast of Venezuela (Netherlands Antilles, Venezuelan Antilles, Tobago, and Trinidad). For each accepted taxon, nomenclature (including synonyms described from the West Indies and their references to publication), distribution in the West Indies (including endemic, native, or exotic status), common names, and a numerical listing of literature records are given. Type specimen citations are provided for accepted names and synonyms of Cyperaceae, Sapindaceae, and some selected genera in several families including the Apocynaceae (Plumeria), Aquifoliaceae (Ilex), and Santalaceae (Dendrophthora). More than 30,000 names were treated comprising 208 families, 2,033 genera, and 12,279 taxa, which includes exotic and commonly cultivated plants. The total number of indigenous taxa was approximately 10,470 of which 71% (7,446 taxa) are endemic to the archipelago or part of it. Fifteen new names, 37 combinations, and 7 lectotypifications are validated. A searchable website of this catalogue, maintained and continuously updated at the Smithsonian Institution, is available at http://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/.

Chromosome Numbers in Compositae, XII: Heliantheae
Harold Robinson, A. Michael Powell, Robert M. King and James F. Weedin
28 pages, 3 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 30 October 1981)
Number 52, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.52
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Chromosome reports are provided for 145 populations, including first reports for 33 species and three genera, Garcilassa, Riencourtia, and Helianthopsis. Chromosome numbers are arranged according to Robinson's recently broadened concept of the Heliantheae, with citations for 212 of the ca. 265 genera and 32 of the 35 subtribes. Diverse elements, including the Ambrosieae, typical Heliantheae, most Helenieae, the Tegeteae, and genera such as Arnica from the Senecioneae, are seen to share a specialized cytological history involving polyploid ancestry. The authors disagree with one another regarding the point at which such polyploidy occurred and on whether subtribes lacking higher numbers, such as the Galinsoginae, share the polyploid ancestry. Numerous examples of aneuploid decrease, secondary polyploidy, and some secondary aneuploid decreases are cited. The Marshalliinae are considered remote from other subtribes and close to the Inuleae. Evidence from related tribes favors an ultimate base of X = 10 for the Heliantheae and at least the subfamily Asteroideae.


Classification of the Outlying Species of New World Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae)
Fernando O. Zuloaga and Thomas R. Soderstrom
63 pages, 25 figures, 2 tables
1985 (Date of Issue: 10 May 1985)
Number 59, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.59
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In the present study a number of species originally assigned to Panicum but not fitting well within its boundaries have been examined. Some of the characters that have been used in the past to distinguish genera in the tribe have been re-examined, including type of hilum, spikelet compression, relative length of the glumes, consistency of the upper anthecium and whether crested or not, and carriage of the spikelet relative to the axis. Further characters of taxonomic importance have been revealed by studies made with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) at higher magnifications than previously possible. The results of these studies indicate that several species should be removed from Panicum and transferred to other genera. Accordingly the following changes have been made: P. megastachyum Nees ex Trinius and P. albicomum Swallen & García Barriga have been transferred to Brachiaria, P. glutinosum Swartz and P. villaricense Mez to Homolepis, P. grandifolium Doell to Ichnanthus, P. killipii Hitchcock to Paspalum, and P. macranthum Trinius to Streptostachys. Panicum arnacites Trinius forms the basis of a new genus, Tatianyx. With these changes in content the descriptions of Homolepis and Streptostachys are emended, two new species—Brachiaria tatianae and Streptostachys ramosa—are described, and the unusual species P. aristellum Doell is characterized and a possible relationship discussed. A chart is presented that compares the characters of the genera covered in the present investigation, P. aristellum and the two new species are illustrated, and SEM photomicrographs of all taxa are included.


Classification, Evolution, and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons
Aaron Goldberg
314 pages, 164 figures, 2 tables
1986 (Date of Issue: 22 August 1986)
Number 58, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.58
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To some extent classification is subjective. Taxonomists differ in the relative importance they ascribe to particular characters and in the degree of difference between related taxa they deem sufficient to constitute family or ordinal rank. About 1000 dicot family names have been published. Those who have attempted an overview of the system at the family level and above in the last quarter century recognize between 274 and 455 dicot families in 39 to 82 orders. I accept 334 families and 59 orders. In Table 1 I give my ordinal allocation of the families and that of 11 recent authors to indicate where there is agreement and where there are differences to be resolved. I have also constructed a dendrogram to suggest relationships and degree of advancement of the orders.

I have written concise, uniform descriptions of all the families of dicots, emphasizing those characters that show trends between families or occur in more than one family. Each family is illustrated by analytical drawings of the flower, fruit, seed and usually inflorescence. Several species are usually used to show the range of major variation within families and trends toward related families.

Angiosperms probably arose from gymnosperms, so characters or character states universal in gymnosperms or considered primitive in them would also be considered primitive in angiosperms.

My approach to understanding evolutionary trends in characters is to relate them to the ecological factors that might be responsible for them by their selective action. The dicots probably originated under warm temperate conditions favorable for growth. A major evolutionary trend in them has been the gradual development of characters and character states enabling them to cope with dry and hot or cold conditions and colonize generally unfavorable regions.

A second major trend has been from wind pollination to progressively better adaptation for insect pollination. The primitive insect pollinated dicots often have flowers with numerous spirally arranged parts; plants having flowers with few, opposite or whorled parts are derived.

The floral organs are homologous with leaves. Like leaves the parts were initially separate. The connate and adnate conditions are derived.

General character states are primitive; specialized states are derived. In attempting to determine which primitive states are most primitive I considered their occurrence among the families. The fewer the families with a particular primative state, the more primitive the state. This is important in deciding whether a family is low or high on the family tree and the position within its particular order.

In accordance with the above rationale, I have constructed a table giving the primitive and derived states for about 100 characters. I also indicate the extent to which I consider the states reversible.

To determine a family's phylogeny, it must be compared with other families considered to be close to it. In general, the more characters and character states in common, particularly uncommon ones, the more likely are the subject families to be related. All parts of the plant and many characters should be considered. If a family has more than one state of a character, the state considered primitive for the particular taxon rather than the derived one should be considered in attempting to determine the extant family closest to its ancestor. A descendant has at least one more derived character or character state than its ancestor.


Classification, Evolution, and Phylogeny of the Families of Monocotyledons
Aaron Goldberg
74 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1989 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1989)
Number 71, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.71
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To some extent classification is subjective. Taxonomists differ in the relative importance they ascribe to particular characters and in the degree of difference between related taxa they deem sufficient to constitute family or ordinal rank. About 250 monocot family names have been published. Those who have attempted an overview of the system at the family level and above in the last quarter century recognize between 45 and 103 monocot families in 14 to 38 orders. I accept 57 families in 18 orders. In Table 1 I give my ordinal allocation of the families and that of 11 recent authors to indicate where there is agreement and where there are differences to be resolved. I have constructed a dendrogram to suggest relationships and degree of advancement of the orders.

I have written concise, uniform descriptions of all the families of monocots emphasizing those characters that show trends between families or occur in more than one family. Each family is illustrated by analytical drawings of the flower, fruit, seed, and usually inflorescence. Several species are usually used to show the range of major variation within families and trends toward related families.

Monocots and dicots have existed concurrently for most of their history, have been subjected to many of the same ecological pressures, and consequently show similar evolutionary trends. My approach to understanding evolutionary trends in characters is to relate them to the ecological factors that might be responsible for them by their selective action. The monocots probably originated under warm temperate or subtropical conditions favorable for growth. A major evolutionary trend in them has been the gradual development of characters and character states enabling them to cope with dry and hot or cold conditions and colonize generally unfavorable habitats.

A second major trend has been progressively greater specialization for insect pollination. The primitive monocots have flowers with numerous spirally arranged parts; those having flowers with few, opposite or whorled parts are derived.

The floral organs are homologous with leaves. Like leaves the parts were initially separate. The connate and adnate conditions are derived.

General character states are primitive; specialized states are derived. In attempting to determine which primitive states are most primitive I considered their occurrence among the families. The fewer the families with a particular primitive state, the more primitive the state. This is important in deciding whether a family is low or high on the family tree and the position within its particular order.

In accordance with the above rationale, I have constructed a table giving the primitive and derived states for about 85 characters. I also indicate the extent to which I consider the states reversible.

To determine a family's phylogeny, it must be compared with other families considered to be close to it. In general, the more characters and character states in common, particularly uncommon ones, the more likely are the subject families to be related. All parts of the plant and many characters should be considered. If a family has more than one state of a character, the state considered primitive for the particular family should be used in attempting to determine the extant family closest to its ancestor. A descendant has at least one more derived character or character state than its ancestor.


Commercial Timbers of West Africa
Edward S. Ayensu and Albert Bentum
69 pages, 28 plates, 2 tables
1974 (Date of Issue: 8 August 1974)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to Botany
DOI: 10.5479/si.0081024X.14
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The xylem anatomy of 28 species of commercially and potentially commercial timbers of West Africa is described together with information pertaining to seasoning qualities, durability and working properties, as well as the uses of wood. A comprehensive discussion on the mechanical properties, establishing the methodologies for evaluating the potential utilization of these woods, has been included. Shrinkage and swelling in wood have always presented problems in the utilization of woods. A discussion relating to the differences among (a) moisture content change and shrinkage, (b) the effect of drying conditions on shrinkage and (c) the variation in shrinkage in different species is presented. To aid both beginning students and to refresh the minds of practicing wood technologists, a glossary of the principal terms used in describing the minute features of timbers has also been added.


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