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Living Historical Farms Handbook
John T. Schlebecker and Gale E. Peterson
91 pages
1972 (Date of Issue: 24 April 1972)
Number 16, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.16.1
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Abstract

On living historical farms men farm as they once did during some specific time in the past. The farms have tools and equipment like those once used, and they raise the same types of livestock and plants used during the specified era. The operations are carried on in the presence of visitors.

The interest in such farms has resulted in the forming of the Association for Living Historical Farms and Agricultural Museums to which individuals and institutions may belong. Many of those engaged in the creating of living historical farms are starting fresh, with neither personal nor institutional experience to guide them. This handbook is intended to provide them with information gained by the experiences of others. The information here contained may be useful in helping them get started or in keeping going.

Some of those interested in living historical farms have had considerable experience in museum work and for them much of the information in this handbook is elementary. Indeed, it is from their experiences that the handbook has been composed. Even these museologists, however, from time to time like to know the location of others engaged in efforts like their own. The lists of persons and of enterprises provided herein will facilitate direct contact and exchange of information.

Popular interest in living historical farms has generated a large quantity of inquiries which have been nearly impossible to handle in the regular course of business. This handbook may answer most of the commonly asked questions.


Man Made Mobile: Early Saddles of Western North America
Richard E. Ahlborn, editor
147 pages, 84 figures
1980 (Date of Issue: 9 September 1980)
Number 39, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.39.1
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Abstract

This study of early forms of saddles in Western North America features four distinct discussions: major horizons (wide-spread appearances of historical prototypes) within the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries; Mexican origins of form and associated activities; development among U.S. riders before the professional cowboy era (post-Civil War); and development of equestrian equipment among the Plains Indians collateral to the emergence of the U.S. western stock saddle. The four essays are followed by an illustrated catalogue of the equestrian artifacts drawn from the Smithsonian Institution's holdings and from other important collections for an exhibition at the Renwick Gallery, 1974-1976. There is also a glossary of Spanish and English equestrian terms used in this study. It is projected that this presentation of early saddle forms with many well-documented illustrations and descriptions will provide both a reference source and also the inspiration for additional typological and social studies.


The Musical Instruments of Joseph Haydn: An Introduction
Helen Rice Hollis
33 pages, 18 figures
1977 (Date of Issue: 23 May 1977)
Number 38, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.38.1
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Abstract

This paper is concerned with the musical instruments of Joseph Haydn's time—his early experiences with the instruments and his use of them. Sections are devoted to keyboards, instrumentation of the piano trios, wind instruments, timpani, and the baryton. The paper contains material that has not appeared previously, and it includes 18 illustrations of musical instruments, some of which are in the Smithsonian collection. The latter have never been assembled for publication in this context and some have never been published at all. Dr. H. C. Robbins Landon, internationally known musicologist and recognized authority on Joseph Haydn, has written a foreword.


The Orchestra at San Petronio in the Baroque Era
Eugene Enrico
64 pages, 33 figures, 13 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 20 August 1976)
Number 35, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.35.1
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Abstract

The church of San Petronio in Bologna was one of the most important centers for the performance of instrumental music in the decades around 1700. The unique architecture of San Petronio, originally designed to be the largest church in Christendom, conditioned the nature of music performed in the church in several ways. The acoustics of San Petronio helped to determine both the balance and placement of the orchestra. Moreover, the size and semicircular shape of the cantoria, or musicians' gallery, influenced both the number and placement of musicians hired for special festival performances.

Records of payment document the size and instrumentation of both these festival orchestras and the resident ensemble permanently employed by the church. The collection of musical manuscripts still preserved in the church archives is perhaps the richest treasure of evidence central to the style of instrumental music played by the orchestra at San Petronio.


The Organs of Mexico City Cathedral
Dirk Andries Flentrop and John Fesperman, translator
53 pages, 28 figures
1986 (Date of Issue: 11 September 1986)
Number 47, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.47.1
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Published as part of Visitatio Organorum, a tribute to Dr. Maarten Vente, The Organs of Mexico City Cathedral gives a description of the two cathedral organs based on information gathered during their restoration under the author's direction.

A brief description of the first cathedral organ, made in Spain by Jorge de Sesma and set up in the Cathedral by Tiburcio Sans in 1693, is followed by a detailed account of the two existing organs, their muscial resources, and their restoration. Both instruments were probably made in Mexico by José Nassarre, a Spanish builder, and both were completed in 1735-1736. They are the largest eighteenth-century organs in the Americas and constitute a splendid monument to Spanish culture in the New World. It is likely that some parts of an earlier organ were incorporated into one or both of the present instruments, and Flentrop notes the problems of dating them precisely.

The restoration, begun in 1975 and completed in 1978, is described in detail; changes found to have been made in the original instruments are noted. Pipe scales and dispositions for both organs are given, along with other technical information about their design and construction.


Patent Models Index: Guide to the Collections of the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution – Volume 1, Listings by Patent Number and Invention Name
Barbara Suit Janssen
xviii, 357 pages, 78 figures
2010 (Date of Issue: 27 May 2010)
Number 54 v.1, Smithsonian Contributions to History and Technology
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Abstract

This two-volume catalog consists of four indexes providing information on more than ten thousand patent models housed throughout the National Museum of American History?s collections. These nineteenth century artifacts are the original models submitted to the United States Patent Office by their inventors.
In Volume 1, the Listing by Patent Number sorts the NMAH patent models chronologically by the issued patent number. The Listing by Invention Name organizes the patent models alphabetically by the name of the invention.
In Volume 2, the Listing by Inventor organizes the NMAH patent models alphabetically by the inventor?s last name. The Listing by Residence sorts the patent models by residence of the inventor at the time of patent issue by country, state, and city.
The patent number is a unique number that ties all of the indexes together. Issued by the Patent Office at the granting of a patent, the number links the model to its patent specification. The terminology used is consistent with the Subject-Matter Index of Patents for Inventions Issued by the United States Patent Office from 1790 to 1873, compiled by Mortimer D. Leggett, Commissioner of Patents in 1874.


Patent Models Index: Guide to the Collections of the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution – Volume 2, Listings by Inventor and Residence of Inventor
Barbara Suit Janssen
xviii, 359 pages, 80 figures
2010 (Date of Issue: 27 May 2010)
Number 54 v.2, Smithsonian Contributions to History and Technology
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Abstract

This two-volume catalog consists of four indexes providing information on more than ten thousand patent models housed throughout the National Museum of American History?s collections. These nineteenth century artifacts are the original models submitted to the United States Patent Office by their inventors.
In Volume 1, the Listing by Patent Number sorts the NMAH patent models chronologically by the issued patent number. The Listing by Invention Name organizes the patent models alphabetically by the name of the invention.
In Volume 2, the Listing by Inventor organizes the NMAH patent models alphabetically by the inventor?s last name. The Listing by Residence sorts the patent models by residence of the inventor at the time of patent issue by country, state, and city.
The patent number is a unique number that ties all of the indexes together. Issued by the Patent Office at the granting of a patent, the number links the model to its patent specification. The terminology used is consistent with the Subject-Matter Index of Patents for Inventions Issued by the United States Patent Office from 1790 to 1873, compiled by Mortimer D. Leggett, Commissioner of Patents in 1874.


Pianos in the Smithsonian Institution
Helen R. Hollis
47 pages, 23 figures
1973 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1973)
Number 27, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.27.1
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Abstract

This booklet will serve as an introduction to the important collection of pianos in the Smithsonian Institution. As yet no catalog has been compiled and the collection is little known, but it is one of the largest collections of instruments of this family in existence. A complete list of the keyboard collection is found in A Checklist of Keyboard Instruments at the Smithsonian Institution. It includes the predecessors of the piano, i.e., clavichords and harpsichords, along with a complete list of the pianos. The checklist is available from the Division of Musical Instruments, National Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian Institution. The selected examples discussed and illustrated herein represent many important stages in the development of the modern piano from its early beginnings.


Planispheric Astrolabes from the National Museum of American History
Sharon Gibbs and George Saliba
231 pages, 130 figures, 23 tables
1984 (Date of Issue: 14 June 1984)
Number 45, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.45.1
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This monograph describes via catalog entries and comparative analysis what has for many years been one of the five largest collections of planispheric astrolabes in the world. Until 1974, when seven instruments that had been on long term loan were returned to their owner, the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution preserved 48 examples of functioning astrolabes. This is the first detailed discussion of all 48, together referred to as the collection. The majority of the instruments, including the seven no longer on loan to the museum, once were part of the collection of Samuel Verplanck Hoffman of New York City.

An introductory chapter, using words and drawings, describes the basic elements of a planispheric astrolabe, thereby introducing terms that appear frequently in later sections. The section “Historical Perspective” emphasizes the information conveyed by the makers' names and dates inscribed on instruments in the collection. It places this information in the larger context of the history of the development of the astrolabe. Each of the functional elements incorporated into the astrolabes in the collection is discussed in detail in a chapter devoted to comparative analysis. That section illuminates distinctions between European instruments and instruments made in India or in the Muslim world. In each section, the basic features of a functional element are described and any remarkable treatments of these features are noted. In addition, the traditional function of each element is specified, relying on instructions for its use prepared by Masha allah, al-Biruni, or Chaucer. Photographs illustrate each section.

Complementing this comparative analysis is an illustrated catalog of the collection. It includes transcriptions and translations of inscriptions that appear on the instruments. Appended to the catalog are two sections that present and discuss the information conveyed by the gazetteers incorporated into many Muslim astrolabes and the star networks (or retes) included on all complete astrolabes in the collection. Finally, a third appendix describes the process used to prepare the ecliptic circle component of the astrolabe's star network. In doing so it conveys basic information about the construction of a planispheric astrolabe.


Political Cartoons in the 1848 Election Campaign
Anne Marie Serio
21 pages, 9 figures
1972 (Date of Issue: 18 October 1972)
Number 14, Smithsonian Studies in History and Technology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810258.14.1
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The Harry T. Peters “America On Stone” Lithography Collection in the Smithsonian Institution contains over 150 lithographed election cartoons and caricatures. These cartoons, dating from the mid-nineteenth century before newspapers carried editorial cartoons, are directly tied to the events of the time and reflect the opinions of the general public as well as of those who drew and published them. Nine of these cartoons were issued during the election of 1848. This study discusses these cartoons and their interrelationship with the personalities and issues of the campaign. These cartoons add a further dimension to the history of the election.


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