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Articulated Coralline Algae of the Gulf of California, Mexico, I: Amphiroa Lamouroux
James N. Norris and H. William Johansen
155 pages, 143 figures, 2 maps
1981 (Date of Issue: 7 October 1981)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Amphiroa (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) is a tropical and subtropical genus of articulated coralline algae and is prominent in shallow waters of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Taxonomic and distributional investigations of Amphiroa from the Gulf have revealed the presence of seven species: A. beauvoisii Lamouroux, A. brevianceps Dawson, A. magdalensis Dawson, A. misakiensis Yendo, A. rigida Lamouroux, A. valonioides Yendo, and A. van-bosseae Lemoine. Only two of these species names are among the 16 taxa of Amphiroa previously reported from this body of water; all other names are now considered synonyms. Of the seven species in the Gulf of California, A. beauvoisii, A. misakiensis, A. valonioides and A. van-bosseae are common, while A. brevianceps, A. magdalensis, and A. rigida are rare and poorly known. None of these species is endemic to the Gulf, and four of them, A. beauvoisii, A. misakiensis, A. valonioides, and A. rigida, also occur in Japan.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities
Klaus Ruetzler and Ian G. Macintyre, editors
109 pages, 16 figures, 20 plates, 9 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 10 June 1982)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.12.539
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The results of the first series of multidisciplinary investigations of the Caribbean barrier reef complex near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, are reported in 34 papers in this volume, which begins with a summary of past work on the Belizean reefs and cays. The first section treats the structure of barrier reef habitats in the vicinity of Carrie Bow Cay, influential physical parameters such as tides and currents, geological and sedimentological history of lagoon, reef, and island substrates, and the island's environment, including its climate and the effects of hurricanes. Subsequent papers analyze the distribution of endolithic microorganisms in carbonate substrates, and the diversity, standing crop, and production in selected lagoon and back-reef habitats. Related contributions report on the benthos of an unusual submarine cave and on the surface zooplankton over reef and lagoon bottoms. One section is devoted to the systematics and local distribution of flora and fauna. Marine plants covered are plankton diatoms, benthic algae—including a detailed study of the red alga Polysiphonia—and sea grasses. Faunistic studies focus on hydroids, medusae, stony corals, octocorals, sipunculans, anthurid isopods, pycnogonids, a marine chironomid, ophiuroids, and crinoids. In the papers on Polysiphonia, hydroids, stony corals, and anthurids, all species are illustrated for identification by nonspecialists; figures of important or unusual examples are shown in the other systematic contributions. New species are described among anthurids, pycnogonids, and ophiuroids. A section on ecological responses discusses the reaction of algae to grazing pressure, the life history of an ichthyo-parasitic hydroid, the growth response of the reef coral Montastrea annularis to a light gradient, and associations between zoanthids and their sponge hosts. Included in this section are discussions of the ecology of the zoanthid Isaurus duchassaingi, settlement behavior and development of the bivalve Malleus candeanus, and behavioral ecology of two closely related reef fishes, genus Acanthemblemaria. The volume concludes with two general surveys of the barrier reef and cays, which discuss the Carrie Bow reef section and cay in relation to the overall barrier reef complex.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, II: Kinorhyncha
Robert P. Higgins
487 pages, 51 figures, 78 plates, 11 tables
1983 (Date of Issue: 18 May 1983)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.18.1
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Eighteen new species, including one new genus of Kinorhyncha, are described from the reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Pycnophyes neapolitanus Băcescu, 1968, is considered a junior synonym of P. ponticus Zelinka. Pycnophyes quadridentatus Zelinka, 1928, and P. flagellatus Zelinka, 1928, are synonymized under the former taxon and placed in Paracentrophyes, new genus (Neocentrophyidae), represented by a new species from the study area. Other genera represented by the remaining new species are extensively reviewed, species names are corrected to agree in gender, distribution records and keys to adults are compiled, and phylogeny discussed. Species distribution and richness are discussed. A maximum of 13 species representing four genera were found in a single local sample. This is contrasted with similar data from other parts of the world. Certain local species appeared to prefer or were restricted to fine, organically rich, low energy mangrove sediments as opposed to the more heterogeneous sediments with Thalassia beds and the even higher energy sediments of the coral reef proper.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, III: New Marine Isopoda
Brian Kensley
497 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1984 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1984)
Number 24, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.24.1
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One new genus, Chalixanthura, and twenty-four new species of isopods are described and figured. These include Chalixanthura scopulosa, Eisothistos petrensis, Accalathura setosa, Apanthura cracenta, Pendanthura hendleri, Cymodoce ruetzleri, Dynamenella quadrilirata, Paracerceis cohenae, Paracerceis glynni, Metacirolana agaricicola, Metacirolana halia, Metacirolana menziesi, Gnathia rathi, Astacilla regina, Stenetrium bowmani, Stenetrium patulipalma, Stenetrium spathulicarpus, Bagatus punctatus, Angliera psamathus, Microcharon sabulum, Joeropsis bifasciatus, Joeropsis personatus, Munna petronastes, and Microcerberus syrticus. Figures and/or descriptions are also provided for Stenetrium minocule Menzies and Glynn, Stenetrium stebbingi Richardson, Joeropsis coralicola Schultz and McCloskey, and Joeropsis rathbunae Richardson. With a few exceptions, all material comes from the coral reef system at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Depth and ecological data, where available, are provided.


Case Study of Natural Population Collapse: Post-Hurricane Predation on Jamaican Staghorn Corals
Nancy Knowlton, Judith C. Lang and Brian D. Keller
136 pages, Vol. 3, 50 figures, 2–32 plates, 15
1990 (Date of Issue: 28 June 1990)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.31.1
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The staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, formerly a dominant reef builder at intermediate depths along the Jamaican north coast, was devastated in 1980 by Hurricane Allen and its short-term aftereffects. Between 1982 and 1987, populations of A. cervicornis generally continued to decline at three monitored areas, approaching local extinction at one site. Feeding by the snail Coralliophila and the polychaete Hermodice carunculata, and “gardening” behavior of the damselfish Stegastes planifrons played important roles in the collapse of staghorn populations. All three consumers remained abundant seven years after the hurricane. Growth of algae following die-off of the urchin Diadema antillarum in 1983 and perhaps disease also contributed to the failure of A. cervicornis to recover. Although the timing and relative importance of these factors differed among sites, collapse of all three populations and substantial predator-associated mortality were the most striking features of these results. Threshold models of predation suggest that the hurricane increased the relative importance of predators, causing coral populations to continue to decline rather than return to their previous high densities. The generally patchy distribution of A. cervicornis in space and time throughout its range may reflect an ability to persist at either low or high densities with predators, interacting with fluctuations in density caused by extrinsic perturbations (e.g., storms, epidemic disease). Preliminary surveys provide evidence of events elsewhere in the Caribbean that are comparable to those documented for Jamaica. Sensitive coupling of unusually severe disturbance with routine biological processes may have long-term effects that limit our ability to explain local patterns of distribution, abundance and diversity in areas where this species has the potential to dominate.


Catalog of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Philippines
Paul C. Silva, Ernani G. Menez and Richard L. Moe
234 pages, Vol. 1, 115 figures, 196 plates, 30
1987 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1987)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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All published records of benthic marine algae from the Philippines are assembled in a catalog with the taxa arranged according to an assumed phylogenetic scheme to the rank of family. The taxonomic framework takes into consideration recently published opinions. Each taxonomic synonym is accompanied by a citation of the author who first proposed the synonymy. Additional taxonomic and nomenclatural notes are provided where deemed useful. Type localities are indicated for all accepted names and taxonomic synonyms.

Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) comprise 19 genera with 61 species. They are arranged according to the Geitlerian system, accompanied by a reconciliation with the Drouetian system. Their nomenclature is based on a 1753 Linnaean starting point rather than the later starting points specified by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Rhodophyceae (red algae) comprise 130 genera with 506 specific or infraspecific taxa, of which 35 have Philippine type localities.

Phaeophyceae (brown algae) comprise 23 genera with 154 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 27 have Philippine type localities.

Chlorophyceae (green algae) comprise 37 genera with 251 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 20 have Philippine type localities.

Portieria Zanardini 1851 is adopted in place of Chondrococcus Kützing 1847, Eupogodon Kützing 1845 in place of Dasyopsis (Montagne) Montagne 1847, and Hincksia J.E. Gray 1864 in place of Giffordia Batters 1893. In addition, new binomials are proposed in Gelidium, Halymenia, Callophyllis, Sporolithon, Gracilaria, Ceramium, Polysiphonia, and Hormophysa.

The catalog is preceded by a brief history of Philippine phycology.


The Coralline Genus Clathromorphum Foslie emend. Adey: Biological, Physiological, and Ecological Factors Controlling Carbonate Production in an Arctic-Subarctic Climate Archive
Walter H. Adey, Jochen Halfar, and Branwen Williams
46 pages (iv + 42), 29 figures, 1 table
2013 (Date of Issue: 9 December 2013)
Number 40, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.1943667X.40.1
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Abstract
The coralline algal genus Clathromorphum is a dominant calcifier in the rocky Subarctic biogeographic region, stretching through the lower Arctic from the Labrador Sea to the Bering Sea. Although commonly 2–10 cm in thickness, Clathromorphum can reach a thickness of up to 50 cm while forming an annually layered structure that can reach currently documented ages of up to 850 years. Geochemical and growth information archived in annual growth bands of Clathromorphum sp. has been used to provide long time series of past environmental conditions in regions that are poorly understood major drivers of Northern Hemisphere climate. However, information on Clathromorphum calcification, growth, and ecology that would allow interpretation of these records has previously been quite limited. Here we relate extensive field and laboratory data on the biology, physiology, and ecology of species of this genus and their controlling environmental parameters. We show that Clathromorphum has evolved a unique mode of double calcification, with high-magnesium calcite crystals, that enhances long life and leads to a multielement climate archive. Growth rates are controlled by temperature, and carbonate density is controlled by light, determined by both latitude and sea ice cover, whereas carbonate buildup and ultimate thickness are determined by local geomorphology and faunal interactions. Reproduction is complexly linked to vegetative anatomy. Precise paleoenvironmental information can be retrieved from Clathromorphum because of its unique cytological and anatomical structures, described and modeled for the first time in this volume.

The Crustose Coralline Algae (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae) of the Hawaiian Islands
Walter H. Adey, Roberta A. Townsend and William T. Boykins
706 pages, 52 figures, 66 plates, 3 maps
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 December 1982)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.15.1
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Crustose corallines were collected from a wide range of depths (intertidal to about 300 m) throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. A total of 25 species in 10 genera are recognized on the basis of habit, anatomy, morphology, and ecology, including one new genus and 10 new species. Generic and specific keys for the differentiation of the Hawaiian crustose corallines are also provided.

The ecology of each species, in terms of depth distribution and habitat, is also given, and the potential use of these plants in determining paleoenvironments in the Hawaiian Neogene is discussed.

The Caribbean and Hawaiian crustose coralline floras are briefly compared. The large number of “pair species” and the parallelism in subfamily, generic, and “pair species” ecology indicate that coralline evolution is very slow. The crustose corallines are potentially excellent paleoecological indicators for the Tertiary.


Distribution and Systematics of Foraminifera in the Indian River, Florida
Martin A. Buzas and Kenneth P. Severin
598 pages, 5 figures, 5 maps, 6 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 22 November 1982)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.16.1
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The Indian River, a shallow, 195 km long estuary, is bounded on the east by a barrier island. Three inlets divide the barrier island, providing exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. Twelve areas covering the length of the estuary were sampled for living foraminifera. Altogether, 17,348 individuals belonging to 94 species were identified. The mean number of individuals and the number of species generally increase from north to south.

The densities of the 15 most abundant species, comprising 95% of the total number of living individuals, were analyzed by canonical variate analysis. The first canonical axis discriminated the inlets and the northernmost (Haulover) area from the rest. On the second canonical axis, the 12 areas were arranged in a north-to-south series. Examination of the data confirms that the analysis succinctly summarizes foraminiferal distribution in the Indian River.

Taxonomic notes are given for each species, and almost all species are illustrated. Ishamella apertura, new genus and species, is described and illustrated.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera in the Caribbean Region
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
iii, 382 p., maps, ill.
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 November 1982)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.14.1
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A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region was constructed from 99 papers published since 1839. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 131 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 140 years, 1868 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 1189, of which 130 occur at 13 or more of the 338 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 130 most commonly recorded species.

The majority of these species were assigned to a ubiquitous geographic distribution category and, because most samples are restricted to shallow shelf areas, to a shallow shelf depth distribution category. Only 14 species do not conform to these distribution patterns.

Because of the sample framework, no conclusions can be reached with regard to possible foraminiferal provincial subdivisions within the Caribbean region.


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