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The Marine Algae of Tunisia
Ernani G. MeƱez and Arthur C. Mathieson
59 pages, 1 figure
1981 (Date of Issue: 19 October 1981)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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A taxonomic study of the marine flora of Tunisia, North Africa, was conducted during 1973-1975. A total of 169 species, 37 Chlorophyta, 36 Phaeophyta, 96 Rhodophyta, of benthic marine algae were collected from 29 sites along the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia. Of the 169 species, 57 taxa are newly reported for the country. Of these, 16 represent genera previously unreported.

Sohm Abyssal Plain: Evaluating Proximal Sediment Provenance
Daniel Jean Stanley, Patrick T. Taylor, Harrison Sheng and Robert Stuckenrath
48 pages, 23 figures, 5 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 23 October 1981)
Number 11, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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The southernmost part of the Sohm Abyssal Plain in the Northwest Atlantic Basin is geographically distal with respect to the major source of Quaternary terrigenous material transported from the Canadian Maritime Provinces. An assessment of the proportion of more locally introduced sediment relative to that derived from distal sources is based largely on size and compositional analyses of Quaternary piston core samples. These data are supplemented by radiocarbon dating of selected core samples, bottom photographs, conductivity-temperature-depth profiles, and seismic records.

The premises of the study are that (a) locally derived sediment should be most abundant near high-relief bathymetric features such as seamounts and abyssal hills, and (b) such material should contain enhanced proportions of reworked volcanic debris and alteration products. Core analyses reveal that the amounts of these are directly related to proximity of volcanic ocean-bottom features, and that a significant, although not total, amount of such volcanic materials recovered from cores are derived from submarine weathering of basalt. Associated with this assemblage are nannofossils, dating from the Quaternary to the Upper Cretaceous, reworked from older strata. This increased proportion of volcanic and related products and reworked faunas near seamounts and basement rises strongly implies that such topographic features continue to serve as major source terrains. Locally derived volcanic materials, however, are usually disseminated and masked on the Sohm Abyssal Plain, particularly in sectors receiving large amounts of terrigenous turbidites and biogenic suspensates, and/or undergoing reworking by bottom currents.

We propose that the volcanic fraction can serve as a useful index, or “yardstick,” to interpret the role of locally derived material in abyssal plain sedimentation. A sedimentation model is developed to illustrate the premise that as access to land-derived sources diminishes, the proportion of terrigenous components is reduced while pelagic and volcanic fractions are enhanced. Thus, sediment accumulating in abyssal plains almost totally isolated from terrigenous sources would comprise significant amounts of pelagic (including wind-blown) and volcanic components. Our model illustrates that even in an abyssal plain, such as the Sohm, which has had an important and direct access to abundant distally derived terrigenous sources, particularly during the Pliocene and Quaternary, the locally supplied reworked volcanic products account for a significant fraction of the total abyssal plain sediment fill.

The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities
Klaus Ruetzler and Ian G. Macintyre, editors
109 pages, 16 figures, 20 plates, 9 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 10 June 1982)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.12.539
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The results of the first series of multidisciplinary investigations of the Caribbean barrier reef complex near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, are reported in 34 papers in this volume, which begins with a summary of past work on the Belizean reefs and cays. The first section treats the structure of barrier reef habitats in the vicinity of Carrie Bow Cay, influential physical parameters such as tides and currents, geological and sedimentological history of lagoon, reef, and island substrates, and the island's environment, including its climate and the effects of hurricanes. Subsequent papers analyze the distribution of endolithic microorganisms in carbonate substrates, and the diversity, standing crop, and production in selected lagoon and back-reef habitats. Related contributions report on the benthos of an unusual submarine cave and on the surface zooplankton over reef and lagoon bottoms. One section is devoted to the systematics and local distribution of flora and fauna. Marine plants covered are plankton diatoms, benthic algae—including a detailed study of the red alga Polysiphonia—and sea grasses. Faunistic studies focus on hydroids, medusae, stony corals, octocorals, sipunculans, anthurid isopods, pycnogonids, a marine chironomid, ophiuroids, and crinoids. In the papers on Polysiphonia, hydroids, stony corals, and anthurids, all species are illustrated for identification by nonspecialists; figures of important or unusual examples are shown in the other systematic contributions. New species are described among anthurids, pycnogonids, and ophiuroids. A section on ecological responses discusses the reaction of algae to grazing pressure, the life history of an ichthyo-parasitic hydroid, the growth response of the reef coral Montastrea annularis to a light gradient, and associations between zoanthids and their sponge hosts. Included in this section are discussions of the ecology of the zoanthid Isaurus duchassaingi, settlement behavior and development of the bivalve Malleus candeanus, and behavioral ecology of two closely related reef fishes, genus Acanthemblemaria. The volume concludes with two general surveys of the barrier reef and cays, which discuss the Carrie Bow reef section and cay in relation to the overall barrier reef complex.

Uniform Mud (Unifite) Deposition in the Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean
Christian Blanpied and Daniel Jean Stanley
40 pages, 15 figures, 2 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1981)
Number 13, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Unifites are nearly structureless, often thick, layers of clayey silt and silty clay that appear compositionally homogeneous and generally show a subtle fining-upward trend. Formed by uniform and faintly laminated muds, unifites are deposited from rapidly emplaced single gravity-flow events. Along the Hellenic Arc, unifites are restricted to small trench basins and interpreted as an end-member gravity-emplaced facies. Unifites are not truly homogeneous and the petrological distinctions observed are closely related with the trench basin depositional site relative to steep margins bounding the trench plain. The faintly laminated portions of unifites contain a higher silt content; the uniform mud portions are slightly better sorted and display an upward increase of planktonic tests. The sand fraction is dominated by clastic aggregates eroded from older margin sediments; unifites also comprise a large silt-size nannofossil content (including reworked forms).

The increased uniformity basinward of unifites records deposition from turbidity current-related flows of diminished concentration that spread over large areas of a flat trench floor. Faint laminae may be related to phases of flocculation and depositional sorting of the sediment load during transport, and to the hydraulic jump affecting a flow upon its arrival on a near-flat basin floor. The slower-moving tail releases the uppermost nonlaminated, graded unifite mud term. The thickness of Hellenic unifites is a function of entrapment of moderate amounts of material in small trench plains. The homogenization process essential for unifite deposition involves relief bypass, i.e., the preferential entrapment of coarser or denser fractions in slope depressions, while finer or less dense particles are transported further downslope across irregular seafloor features. Unifite deposition records the interplay of: (1) complexity of dispersal paths and accessibility of sediment to the trench basin, (2) redepositional processes, grain-support mechanisms and gravity-induced flow characteristics, (3) type of material transported, (4) extent of textural segregation and compositional sorting during flow, (5) slope relief bypassing process, and (6) selective entrapment of essentially fine-grained particles in the more distal trench catchment basins. Mediterranean unifites can serve to interpret uniform mud facies on both active and passive margins and in the rock record.

Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera in the Caribbean Region
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
iii, 382 p., maps, ill.
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 November 1982)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.14.1
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A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region was constructed from 99 papers published since 1839. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 131 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 140 years, 1868 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 1189, of which 130 occur at 13 or more of the 338 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 130 most commonly recorded species.

The majority of these species were assigned to a ubiquitous geographic distribution category and, because most samples are restricted to shallow shelf areas, to a shallow shelf depth distribution category. Only 14 species do not conform to these distribution patterns.

Because of the sample framework, no conclusions can be reached with regard to possible foraminiferal provincial subdivisions within the Caribbean region.

The Crustose Coralline Algae (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae) of the Hawaiian Islands
Walter H. Adey, Roberta A. Townsend and William T. Boykins
706 pages, 52 figures, 66 plates, 3 maps
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 December 1982)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.15.1
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Crustose corallines were collected from a wide range of depths (intertidal to about 300 m) throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. A total of 25 species in 10 genera are recognized on the basis of habit, anatomy, morphology, and ecology, including one new genus and 10 new species. Generic and specific keys for the differentiation of the Hawaiian crustose corallines are also provided.

The ecology of each species, in terms of depth distribution and habitat, is also given, and the potential use of these plants in determining paleoenvironments in the Hawaiian Neogene is discussed.

The Caribbean and Hawaiian crustose coralline floras are briefly compared. The large number of “pair species” and the parallelism in subfamily, generic, and “pair species” ecology indicate that coralline evolution is very slow. The crustose corallines are potentially excellent paleoecological indicators for the Tertiary.

Distribution and Systematics of Foraminifera in the Indian River, Florida
Martin A. Buzas and Kenneth P. Severin
598 pages, 5 figures, 5 maps, 6 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 22 November 1982)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.16.1
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The Indian River, a shallow, 195 km long estuary, is bounded on the east by a barrier island. Three inlets divide the barrier island, providing exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. Twelve areas covering the length of the estuary were sampled for living foraminifera. Altogether, 17,348 individuals belonging to 94 species were identified. The mean number of individuals and the number of species generally increase from north to south.

The densities of the 15 most abundant species, comprising 95% of the total number of living individuals, were analyzed by canonical variate analysis. The first canonical axis discriminated the inlets and the northernmost (Haulover) area from the rest. On the second canonical axis, the 12 areas were arranged in a north-to-south series. Examination of the data confirms that the analysis succinctly summarizes foraminiferal distribution in the Indian River.

Taxonomic notes are given for each species, and almost all species are illustrated. Ishamella apertura, new genus and species, is described and illustrated.

The Genus Caulerpa from Central Visayas, Philippines
Ernani G. Menez and Hilconida P. Calumpong
427 pages, 11 figures, 8 maps
1982 (Date of Issue: 5 October 1982)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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This taxonomic study of Caulerpa shows 20 taxa occurring in Central Visayas, Philipines, including Caulerpa reyesii, new species. Of these, three are newly reported from the Philippines and seven taxa are new records from Central Visayas.

The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, II: Kinorhyncha
Robert P. Higgins
487 pages, 51 figures, 78 plates, 11 tables
1983 (Date of Issue: 18 May 1983)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.18.1
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Eighteen new species, including one new genus of Kinorhyncha, are described from the reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Pycnophyes neapolitanus Băcescu, 1968, is considered a junior synonym of P. ponticus Zelinka. Pycnophyes quadridentatus Zelinka, 1928, and P. flagellatus Zelinka, 1928, are synonymized under the former taxon and placed in Paracentrophyes, new genus (Neocentrophyidae), represented by a new species from the study area. Other genera represented by the remaining new species are extensively reviewed, species names are corrected to agree in gender, distribution records and keys to adults are compiled, and phylogeny discussed. Species distribution and richness are discussed. A maximum of 13 species representing four genera were found in a single local sample. This is contrasted with similar data from other parts of the world. Certain local species appeared to prefer or were restricted to fine, organically rich, low energy mangrove sediments as opposed to the more heterogeneous sediments with Thalassia beds and the even higher energy sediments of the coral reef proper.

Parallel Laminated Deep-Sea Muds and Coupled Gravity Flow-Hemipelagic Settling in the Mediterranean
Daniel Jean Stanley
19 pages, 7 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 31 March 1983)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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The origin of fine-grained deep-sea facies is often blurred because of interplay of diverse transport mechanisms: sediment gravity flow, traction related to fluid-driven circulation, and pelagic and hemipelagic “rain” mechanisms. Physical and chemical attributes of the Mediterranean amplify petrologic differences, thus facilitating distinction between mud types in this sea. Important attributes include small distances between sediment input and depositional site, generally low bottom current velocities in the deep basins, and shallow depths that permit preservation of carbonate components, an important criterion for mud facies definition. Particularly important in the Mediterranean are periodic development of intense water mass stratification and pycnoclines which act as sediment barriers, i.e., deviation of low concentration sediment gravity flows, and temporary retention of particles from turbid layer flows and hemipelagic settling. Release and differential settling of terrigenous silt and clay flocs and reworked benthic and planktonic (largely coccolith and foraminifera) components from well-marked density interfaces occur in a manner such that particles are segregated according to size and density. The resulting varve-like deposits display fine parallel laminae of alternating coccolith- and terrigenous-rich layers that show diverse fining-upward trends. Finely laminated sections of this type accumulate more rapidly than hemipelagites and are distributed over larger surfaces than mud turbidites. Analysis of bedform, texture-fabric, composition, geometry, and rates of sedimentation help distinguish (1) fine parallel laminated muds derived from coupled sediment gravity flow and hemipelagic settling from (2) laminated mud turbidites, (3) laminated hemipelagites, and (4) contourites as commonly defined. Study of mud lithofacies in small to moderate size seas, such as the Mediterranean, holds promise for better interpretation of deep-marine fine-grained deposits.

Displaying 11 - 20 from the 41 total records