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Displaying 21 - 30 from the 41 total records
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Systematics and Ecology of the Sea-Urchin Genus Centrostephanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans
David L. Pawson and John E. Miller
15 pages, 5 figures, 5 tables
1983 (Date of Issue: 26 September 1983)
Number 20, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.20.1
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Abstract

Surveys by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersibles have revealed the presence of large populations of black Centrostephanus, superficially resembling Diadema antillarum Philippi, along the shelf edge prominences off the east coast of Florida in depths of 48-80 meters. Typical habitats are aggregations of dead coral rubble, with seasonal growths of leafy red algae. Some aspects of the biology of these echinoids are described.

We affirm that only a single species of the genus, Centrostephanus longispinus (Philippi), occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. As Fell (1975) and Serafy (1979) have shown, western Atlantic populations can be referred to the subspecies Centrostephanus longispinus rubicingulus H.L. Clark, which usually differs from the typical subspecies in possessing uniformly black spines rather than banded purple and yellowish white spines when fully grown. C. besnardi Bernasconi from Isla Trindade, Brazil, is herein synonymized with C. longispinus rubicingulus. C. coronatus (Verrill) from California and the Galapagos Islands differs little from C. longispinus and the two species may yet prove to be subjective synonyms. There is some evidence to suggest that Gulf of California populations of C. coronatus differs from California populations at the subspecies level.


Seagrasses from the Philippines
Ernani G. Menez, Ronald C. Phillips and Hilconida P. Calumpong
40 pages, 26 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1983)
Number 21, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.21
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Abstract

Seagrasses were collected from various islands in the Philippines during 1978-1982. A total of 12 species in seven genera are recorded. Generic and specific keys, based on vegetative characters, are provided for easier differentiation of the seagrasses. General discussions of seagrass biology, ecology, collection and preservation are presented. Local and world distribution of Philippine seagrasses are also included.


Neogene to Recent Displacement and Contact of Sardinian and Tunisian Margins, Central Mediterranean
Maurice G. Gennesseaux and Daniel Jean Stanley
21 pages, 9 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 14 December 1983)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.23
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Abstract

The seafloor between Sardinia, Tunisia, and Sicily occupies a key sector essential for understanding the geological evolution of the central Mediterranean. Although plate motion is generally considered as an explanation, this structurally complex region remains poorly defined. To interpret better the Neogene evolution, we prepared a detailed bathymetric chart and a map showing structural provinces and post-Miocene sediment patterns, which are constructed on the basis of seismic data (primarily a dense network of 30 KJ Sparker and 3.5 kHz profiles). The data suggest that the present-day configuration of the Tunisian and Sardinian margins results, in large part, from the contact of the southern part of the Corsican-Sardinian microplate with North Africa.

Several dominant structural-stratigraphic trends are recognized in this study area: (1) NNW-SSE and NW-SE trends in the northwestern part of the study area are most likely related to the formation of the Algéro-Balearic Basin since the late Oligocene. (2) Pronounced NNE-SSE trending structural axes (largely normal faults) are related to the near-parallel (N-S) tilted fault blocks in the Tyrrhenian Sea east of Sardinia. One of these tectonic structures on the margin east of Sardinia may possibly extend southward (190°-200°) onto, and across, the Tunisian margin. The largest, most obvious physiographic features south of Sardinia, including seamounts, ridges, and canyons, are associated with these trends. These features, for the most part of middle to upper Miocene age, are believed closely related to the opening and subsidence of the Tyrrhenian Sea. (3) Morphological, structural, and stratigraphic-sedimentary trends, particularly off Tunisia, suggest Pliocene-Quaternary compression (E-W trending tectonics and depositional axes), resulting from the northward movement of Africa. (4) Important NW-SE structural-depositional trends (many extensional, some strike-slip) of Miocene to Quaternary age dominate the Strait of Sicily area east of Tunisia and south of Sicily. These may be related to displacement along the Calabrian-Sicilian Arc and to a collisional regime between the arc, the Corsican-Sardinian block, and African margin.

We believe that the present configuration of the two margins resulted from plate contact and welding during several major Miocene events and also from subsidence, first, of the Algéro-Balearic Basin and, then, of the Tyrrhenian Sea. In theory, the Tunisian margin and adjacent land have been subjected to compression as a result of seafloor spreading and collision. The physiographic trends and subsurface structural-stratigraphic configuration we map, however, reveal a predominance of Neogene to Recent structures, primarily of extensional origin.


The Red Algal Genus Audouinella Bory (Nemaliales: Acrochaetiaceae) from North Carolina
Craig W. Schneider
25 pages, 3 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1983)
Number 22, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.22
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Abstract

A monographic study of Audouinella in the Atlantic waters of North Carolina reports 15 taxa from coastal and continental shelf habitats. Three of these, A. affinis, A. hoytii, and A. ophioglossa, herein described as a new species, are endemic. Audouinella bispora and A. daviesii are reported from the Carolina flora for the first time. The taxonomy from several historical reports is elucidated, and taxonomic confusions in this complex are clarified.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, III: New Marine Isopoda
Brian Kensley
497 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1984 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1984)
Number 24, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.24.1
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Abstract

One new genus, Chalixanthura, and twenty-four new species of isopods are described and figured. These include Chalixanthura scopulosa, Eisothistos petrensis, Accalathura setosa, Apanthura cracenta, Pendanthura hendleri, Cymodoce ruetzleri, Dynamenella quadrilirata, Paracerceis cohenae, Paracerceis glynni, Metacirolana agaricicola, Metacirolana halia, Metacirolana menziesi, Gnathia rathi, Astacilla regina, Stenetrium bowmani, Stenetrium patulipalma, Stenetrium spathulicarpus, Bagatus punctatus, Angliera psamathus, Microcharon sabulum, Joeropsis bifasciatus, Joeropsis personatus, Munna petronastes, and Microcerberus syrticus. Figures and/or descriptions are also provided for Stenetrium minocule Menzies and Glynn, Stenetrium stebbingi Richardson, Joeropsis coralicola Schultz and McCloskey, and Joeropsis rathbunae Richardson. With a few exceptions, all material comes from the coral reef system at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Depth and ecological data, where available, are provided.


Geomorphologic Trends in a Glaciated Coastal Bay: A Model for the Maine Coast
R. Craig Shipp, Stephanie A. Staples and Walter H. Adey
178 pages, 14 figures
1985 (Date of Issue: 24 June 1985)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.25.1
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Abstract

A detailed geomorphic study was conducted along the glaciated shoreline of Gouldsboro Bay, Maine. The purpose of this study was to classify and map the geomorphic features as a preliminary step in the investigation of the late Quaternary evolution of the area. The distribution of geomorphic features was determined by the interpretation of vertical and oblique aerial photographs and ground-truth maps.

For easier descrimination, the dominant coastal geomorphic features are separated into high- and low-intertidal regions. The high-intertidal features are defined by a distinct combination of sediment/bedrock type, geometry, and size. The major feature in this intertidal region are pocket beach, linear fringing beach, marsh, and exposed bedrock. The low-intertidal features are distinguished by differences in sediment type and grain size. Mud flat, mud/rock flat, sand/rock flat, rock ledge, and mussel bar are the significant features in this intertidal region.

The geomorphology of Gouldsboro Bay is a function of three components. First, the Paleozoic bedrock lithology and structure, modified by late Cenozoic dissection and erosion, is the major component determining the regional coastal geomorphology. Second, the distribution pattern of late Wisconsin glacial moraines controls the dispersion of sediment, which strongly influences the local shoreline geomorphology. Third, the physical factors of wave exposure and winter ice effects are important processes that modify shoreline geomorphology. In turn, the degree of influence by these two physical factors is a function of shoreline orientation and fetch. Based on the interaction of these three components, Gouldsboro Bay can be broken into three distinct geomorphic zones: an exposed, seaward zone, a semi-exposed, central zone, and a protected, landward zone. This geomorphic classification appears suitable for the remainder of coastal Maine, and may have a wide application in areas such as the interpretation of stratigraphic sequences and the distribution of biological communities.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast from Oregon to Alaska
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
iii, 234 p. , maps
1985 (Date of Issue: 30 August 1985)
Number 26, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.26.1
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast (Oregon to Alaska) was constructed from 31 papers published since 1886. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 139 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 100 years, 523 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 404, of which 138 occur at 6 or more of the 157 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 138 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distribution through visual examination of the maps. Eight species are coastal in their distribution, 63 occur mainly at depths of less than 200 m, 27 at depths greater than 200 m, and 40 are ubiquitous with depth. Many species appear to alter their depth distribution with latitude, but this may be due to a poor sampling framework.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into three categories. Forty-two species occur mainly to the north of 52°-55°N, 22 species occur mainly to the south of 52°-55°N, and 74 species are latitudinally ubiquitous within the area of study. This preliminary analysis indicates a possible faunal break in the region of Queen Charlotte Island.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast from California to Baja
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
479 pages, 765 figures, 14 tables
1986 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1986)
Number 28, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.28.1
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the recent, living and dead benthic foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast (California and Baja California) was constructed from 89 papers published since 1896. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 131 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 90 years, 1117 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 798, of which 130 occur at 35 or more of the 875 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 130 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distributions through visual examination of the maps. Sixty-five species are restricted to depths of less than 200 m, 45 occur mainly at depths of less than 2000 m, 2 only at depths of greater than 200 m, and 18 are ubiquitous with depth. The depth distribution for many species changes with latitude, but this may be due to a poor sampling framework.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into seven categories. Forty-two species are latitudinally ubiquitous to the study area (Cape Mendocino to Cape San Lucas and the Gulf of California), 52 species occur from Point Conception to Cape San Lucas and in the Gulf of California, 5 species range from Point Conception to Punta Eugenia and are also found in the Gulf of California, 5 species occur from Cape San Lucas to Punta Eugenia and in the Gulf of California, 5 species range from Cape Mendocino to Cape San Lucas, 10 species range from Cape Mendocino to Punta Eugenia, and 11 species occur from Point Conception to Punta Eugenia. A major faunal break occurs at Point Conception.


A History and Annotated Account of the Benthic Marine Algae of Taiwan
Jane E. Lewis and James N. Norris
102 pages, 44 plates, 5 tables
1987 (Date of Issue: 8 June 1987)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.29.iv
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Abstract

Records of the benthic marine algae of the Island of Taiwan and neighboring islands have been organized in a floristic listing. All publications with citations of benthic marine green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta) in Taiwan are systematically arranged under the currently accepted nomenclature for each species. The annotated list includes names of almost 600 taxa, of which 476 are recognized today. In comparing the three major groups, the red algae predominate with 55% of the reported species, the green algae comprise 24%, and the browns 21%. Laurencia brongniartii J. Agardh is herein reported for Taiwan for the first time.

The history of modern marine phycology in the Taiwan region is reviewed. Three periods of phycological research are recognized: the western (1866-1905); Japanese (1895-1945); and Chinese (1950-present). Western phycologists have apparently overlooked the large body of Japanese studies, which included references and records of Taiwan algae.

By bringing together in one place all previous records of the Taiwanese marine flora, it is our expectation that this work will serve as a basis for further phycological investigations in the western Pacific region.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
187 pages, 166 figures, 3 maps, 109 tables
1987 (Date of Issue: 10 September 1987)
Number 30, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.30.1
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the recent, living and dead benthic foraminifera off the Mexican and Central American Pacific coast was constructed from 21 papers published since 1896. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 115 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

Over the past 90 years, 447 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 377, of which 114 occur at 5 or more of the 119 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 114 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distribution through visual examination of the maps. Thirty-two species are restricted to depths of less than 200 m, 22 occur mainly at depths of less than 2000 m, 22 at depths of greater than 200 m, 5 at depths of greater than 2000 m, 11 are found between 200 and 2000 m, and 22 are ubiquitous with depth.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into three categories. Sixty-six species are latitudinally ubiquitous in the study area, 47 species are found only to the south of Puerto Angel (16°N) and one species is found only north of Puerto Angel. Although the majority of species are ubiquitous, a faunal break is probably indicated by the species restricted to the south of Puerto Angel.


Displaying 21 - 30 from the 41 total records