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Displaying 21 - 30 from the 41 total records
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Geomorphologic Trends in a Glaciated Coastal Bay: A Model for the Maine Coast
R. Craig Shipp, Stephanie A. Staples and Walter H. Adey
178 pages, 14 figures
1985 (Date of Issue: 24 June 1985)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.25.1
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A detailed geomorphic study was conducted along the glaciated shoreline of Gouldsboro Bay, Maine. The purpose of this study was to classify and map the geomorphic features as a preliminary step in the investigation of the late Quaternary evolution of the area. The distribution of geomorphic features was determined by the interpretation of vertical and oblique aerial photographs and ground-truth maps.

For easier descrimination, the dominant coastal geomorphic features are separated into high- and low-intertidal regions. The high-intertidal features are defined by a distinct combination of sediment/bedrock type, geometry, and size. The major feature in this intertidal region are pocket beach, linear fringing beach, marsh, and exposed bedrock. The low-intertidal features are distinguished by differences in sediment type and grain size. Mud flat, mud/rock flat, sand/rock flat, rock ledge, and mussel bar are the significant features in this intertidal region.

The geomorphology of Gouldsboro Bay is a function of three components. First, the Paleozoic bedrock lithology and structure, modified by late Cenozoic dissection and erosion, is the major component determining the regional coastal geomorphology. Second, the distribution pattern of late Wisconsin glacial moraines controls the dispersion of sediment, which strongly influences the local shoreline geomorphology. Third, the physical factors of wave exposure and winter ice effects are important processes that modify shoreline geomorphology. In turn, the degree of influence by these two physical factors is a function of shoreline orientation and fetch. Based on the interaction of these three components, Gouldsboro Bay can be broken into three distinct geomorphic zones: an exposed, seaward zone, a semi-exposed, central zone, and a protected, landward zone. This geomorphic classification appears suitable for the remainder of coastal Maine, and may have a wide application in areas such as the interpretation of stratigraphic sequences and the distribution of biological communities.

A History and Annotated Account of the Benthic Marine Algae of Taiwan
Jane E. Lewis and James N. Norris
102 pages, 44 plates, 5 tables
1987 (Date of Issue: 8 June 1987)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.29.iv
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Records of the benthic marine algae of the Island of Taiwan and neighboring islands have been organized in a floristic listing. All publications with citations of benthic marine green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta) in Taiwan are systematically arranged under the currently accepted nomenclature for each species. The annotated list includes names of almost 600 taxa, of which 476 are recognized today. In comparing the three major groups, the red algae predominate with 55% of the reported species, the green algae comprise 24%, and the browns 21%. Laurencia brongniartii J. Agardh is herein reported for Taiwan for the first time.

The history of modern marine phycology in the Taiwan region is reviewed. Three periods of phycological research are recognized: the western (1866-1905); Japanese (1895-1945); and Chinese (1950-present). Western phycologists have apparently overlooked the large body of Japanese studies, which included references and records of Taiwan algae.

By bringing together in one place all previous records of the Taiwanese marine flora, it is our expectation that this work will serve as a basis for further phycological investigations in the western Pacific region.

Hydrographic and Meteorological Studies of a Caribbean Fringing Reef at Punta Galeta, Panamá: Hourly and Daily Variations for 1977-1985
John D. Cubit, Ricardo C. Thompson, Hugh M. Caffey and Donald M. Windsor
53 pages, 28 figures, 31 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 18 April 1988)
Number 32, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.32.1
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This report describes hourly and daily conditions of hydrographic and meteorological factors monitored on a fringing coral reef on the Caribbean coast of the Republic of Panamá from January 1977 through December 1985. The methods of monitoring are described in detail, including the performance of various types of equipment under the harsh physical conditions at this site. The data include the following variables: mean hourly wind speed and direction; maximum hourly wind speed and direction; daily maximum and minimum air temperature; hourly air temperature; hourly solar radiation; hourly rainfall; hourly water level; hourly upstream and downstream sea temperatures; and daily salinity. These values are listed directly, with statistical summaries for time of day, days, and months.

The Marine Algae of Tunisia
Ernani G. Meñez and Arthur C. Mathieson
59 pages, 1 figure
1981 (Date of Issue: 19 October 1981)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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A taxonomic study of the marine flora of Tunisia, North Africa, was conducted during 1973-1975. A total of 169 species, 37 Chlorophyta, 36 Phaeophyta, 96 Rhodophyta, of benthic marine algae were collected from 29 sites along the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia. Of the 169 species, 57 taxa are newly reported for the country. Of these, 16 represent genera previously unreported.

Neogene to Recent Displacement and Contact of Sardinian and Tunisian Margins, Central Mediterranean
Maurice G. Gennesseaux and Daniel Jean Stanley
21 pages, 9 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 14 December 1983)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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The seafloor between Sardinia, Tunisia, and Sicily occupies a key sector essential for understanding the geological evolution of the central Mediterranean. Although plate motion is generally considered as an explanation, this structurally complex region remains poorly defined. To interpret better the Neogene evolution, we prepared a detailed bathymetric chart and a map showing structural provinces and post-Miocene sediment patterns, which are constructed on the basis of seismic data (primarily a dense network of 30 KJ Sparker and 3.5 kHz profiles). The data suggest that the present-day configuration of the Tunisian and Sardinian margins results, in large part, from the contact of the southern part of the Corsican-Sardinian microplate with North Africa.

Several dominant structural-stratigraphic trends are recognized in this study area: (1) NNW-SSE and NW-SE trends in the northwestern part of the study area are most likely related to the formation of the Algéro-Balearic Basin since the late Oligocene. (2) Pronounced NNE-SSE trending structural axes (largely normal faults) are related to the near-parallel (N-S) tilted fault blocks in the Tyrrhenian Sea east of Sardinia. One of these tectonic structures on the margin east of Sardinia may possibly extend southward (190°-200°) onto, and across, the Tunisian margin. The largest, most obvious physiographic features south of Sardinia, including seamounts, ridges, and canyons, are associated with these trends. These features, for the most part of middle to upper Miocene age, are believed closely related to the opening and subsidence of the Tyrrhenian Sea. (3) Morphological, structural, and stratigraphic-sedimentary trends, particularly off Tunisia, suggest Pliocene-Quaternary compression (E-W trending tectonics and depositional axes), resulting from the northward movement of Africa. (4) Important NW-SE structural-depositional trends (many extensional, some strike-slip) of Miocene to Quaternary age dominate the Strait of Sicily area east of Tunisia and south of Sicily. These may be related to displacement along the Calabrian-Sicilian Arc and to a collisional regime between the arc, the Corsican-Sardinian block, and African margin.

We believe that the present configuration of the two margins resulted from plate contact and welding during several major Miocene events and also from subsidence, first, of the Algéro-Balearic Basin and, then, of the Tyrrhenian Sea. In theory, the Tunisian margin and adjacent land have been subjected to compression as a result of seafloor spreading and collision. The physiographic trends and subsurface structural-stratigraphic configuration we map, however, reveal a predominance of Neogene to Recent structures, primarily of extensional origin.

Nile Delta Drill Core and Sample Database for 1985-1994: Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program
Daniel Jean Stanley, James E. McRea, Jr. and John C. Waldron
428 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 6 December 1996)
Number 37, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.37.1
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This document is designed to serve as the catalog for a complete set of lithologic logs of 87 sediment borings drilled in the northern Nile delta of Egypt in the course of the Nile Delta Project, from 1985 to 1994. The project, part of the Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program, was initiated to interpret the recent geological evolution of this depocenter, from the time of its formation about 8000 years ago to the present. The data set includes the major petrologic attributes of these borings, which range in length from ∼20 to 60 m. The results of textural and sand-sized compositional analyses of 2500 core samples are provided, as well as the ages of 358 radiocarbon-dated samples to as old as ∼35,000 years before present. These data constitute the foundation of the Nile Delta Project's investigation. A review of the methods employed in the field and laboratory and an inventory of published articles and theses completed through 1994 as part of this multidisciplinary and multinational effort also are presented. This database facilitates the distinction between anthropogenic and natural factors that determine the evolution of the delta. It is intended to provide a comprehensive record of subsurface deposits in the northern delta, accumulating in late Pleistocene to Holocene time, to be used by those agencies and specialists responsible for monitoring the rapidly changing Nile delta depocenter.

The information published in this document is accessible electronically on the Internet from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History Gopher Server at URL “gopher://” or via hypertext document (http) at “” Further information can be obtained from the National Museum of Natural History's Collection and Research Information System (CRIS) Program, Washington, D.C. 20560.

Parallel Laminated Deep-Sea Muds and Coupled Gravity Flow-Hemipelagic Settling in the Mediterranean
Daniel Jean Stanley
19 pages, 7 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 31 March 1983)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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The origin of fine-grained deep-sea facies is often blurred because of interplay of diverse transport mechanisms: sediment gravity flow, traction related to fluid-driven circulation, and pelagic and hemipelagic “rain” mechanisms. Physical and chemical attributes of the Mediterranean amplify petrologic differences, thus facilitating distinction between mud types in this sea. Important attributes include small distances between sediment input and depositional site, generally low bottom current velocities in the deep basins, and shallow depths that permit preservation of carbonate components, an important criterion for mud facies definition. Particularly important in the Mediterranean are periodic development of intense water mass stratification and pycnoclines which act as sediment barriers, i.e., deviation of low concentration sediment gravity flows, and temporary retention of particles from turbid layer flows and hemipelagic settling. Release and differential settling of terrigenous silt and clay flocs and reworked benthic and planktonic (largely coccolith and foraminifera) components from well-marked density interfaces occur in a manner such that particles are segregated according to size and density. The resulting varve-like deposits display fine parallel laminae of alternating coccolith- and terrigenous-rich layers that show diverse fining-upward trends. Finely laminated sections of this type accumulate more rapidly than hemipelagites and are distributed over larger surfaces than mud turbidites. Analysis of bedform, texture-fabric, composition, geometry, and rates of sedimentation help distinguish (1) fine parallel laminated muds derived from coupled sediment gravity flow and hemipelagic settling from (2) laminated mud turbidites, (3) laminated hemipelagites, and (4) contourites as commonly defined. Study of mud lithofacies in small to moderate size seas, such as the Mediterranean, holds promise for better interpretation of deep-marine fine-grained deposits.

Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium
Michael A. Lang, Ian G. Macintyre, and Klaus Rützler, Editors
xii + 529 pages
2009 (Date of Issue: 23 November 2009)
Number 38, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.38.1
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The Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium was held on 15?16 November 2007 in Washington, D.C. It represented the first major dissemination of marine research results since the establishment of the Smithsonian Marine Science Network (MSN). The 39 papers in this volume represent a wide range of marine research studies that demonstrate the breadth and diversity of science initiatives supported by the MSN. The first section contains an overview of the MSN along with papers describing the multidisciplinary investigations spanning more than 37 years for the four Smithsonian marine facilities that constitute the Network: the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center at the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland; the National Museum of Natural History?s Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida; the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program, with its Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize; and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. Subsequent papers represent findings by Smithsonian scholars and their collaborators on overarching topics of marine biodiversity, evolution, and speciation; biogeography, invasive species, and marine conservation; and forces of ecological change in marine systems.

The Red Alga Polysiphonia (Rhodomelaceae) in the Northern Gulf of California
George J. Hollenberg and James N. Norris
21 pages, 10 figures
1977 (Date of Issue: 25 August 1977)
Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.1.iii
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Taxonomic studies of Polysiphonia show 14 species to be present in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. One of these, P. sphaerocarpa var. cheloniae is described herein as a new variety, and is found growing exclusively on the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas L. This and three other species are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of California. The distribution of six other species is extended.

The Red Algal Genus Audouinella Bory (Nemaliales: Acrochaetiaceae) from North Carolina
Craig W. Schneider
25 pages, 3 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1983)
Number 22, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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A monographic study of Audouinella in the Atlantic waters of North Carolina reports 15 taxa from coastal and continental shelf habitats. Three of these, A. affinis, A. hoytii, and A. ophioglossa, herein described as a new species, are endemic. Audouinella bispora and A. daviesii are reported from the Carolina flora for the first time. The taxonomy from several historical reports is elucidated, and taxonomic confusions in this complex are clarified.

Displaying 21 - 30 from the 41 total records