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Catalog of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Philippines
Paul C. Silva, Ernani G. Menez and Richard L. Moe
234 pages, Vol. 1, 115 figures, 196 plates, 30
1987 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1987)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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All published records of benthic marine algae from the Philippines are assembled in a catalog with the taxa arranged according to an assumed phylogenetic scheme to the rank of family. The taxonomic framework takes into consideration recently published opinions. Each taxonomic synonym is accompanied by a citation of the author who first proposed the synonymy. Additional taxonomic and nomenclatural notes are provided where deemed useful. Type localities are indicated for all accepted names and taxonomic synonyms.

Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) comprise 19 genera with 61 species. They are arranged according to the Geitlerian system, accompanied by a reconciliation with the Drouetian system. Their nomenclature is based on a 1753 Linnaean starting point rather than the later starting points specified by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Rhodophyceae (red algae) comprise 130 genera with 506 specific or infraspecific taxa, of which 35 have Philippine type localities.

Phaeophyceae (brown algae) comprise 23 genera with 154 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 27 have Philippine type localities.

Chlorophyceae (green algae) comprise 37 genera with 251 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 20 have Philippine type localities.

Portieria Zanardini 1851 is adopted in place of Chondrococcus Kützing 1847, Eupogodon Kützing 1845 in place of Dasyopsis (Montagne) Montagne 1847, and Hincksia J.E. Gray 1864 in place of Giffordia Batters 1893. In addition, new binomials are proposed in Gelidium, Halymenia, Callophyllis, Sporolithon, Gracilaria, Ceramium, Polysiphonia, and Hormophysa.

The catalog is preceded by a brief history of Philippine phycology.

Hydrographic and Meteorological Studies of a Caribbean Fringing Reef at Punta Galeta, Panamá: Hourly and Daily Variations for 1977-1985
John D. Cubit, Ricardo C. Thompson, Hugh M. Caffey and Donald M. Windsor
53 pages, 28 figures, 31 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 18 April 1988)
Number 32, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.32.1
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This report describes hourly and daily conditions of hydrographic and meteorological factors monitored on a fringing coral reef on the Caribbean coast of the Republic of Panamá from January 1977 through December 1985. The methods of monitoring are described in detail, including the performance of various types of equipment under the harsh physical conditions at this site. The data include the following variables: mean hourly wind speed and direction; maximum hourly wind speed and direction; daily maximum and minimum air temperature; hourly air temperature; hourly solar radiation; hourly rainfall; hourly water level; hourly upstream and downstream sea temperatures; and daily salinity. These values are listed directly, with statistical summaries for time of day, days, and months.

Turbidites Reworked by Bottom Currents: Upper Cretaceous Examples from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Daniel Jean Stanley
79 pages, 63 figures, 3 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 2 June 1988)
Number 33, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Sedimentological study of the Late Cretaceous volcaniclastic deposits in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, emphasizing primary structures and bedforms, reveals a remarkable suite of sandy lithofacies. An inventory of the different sand types in several formations shows that a natural continuum of deposits exists between downslope-directed gravity flow and bottom current-tractive “end-member” deposits. Most sandy strata, herein termed “intermediate variants,” record primary emplacement by turbidity currents, probably from the north, and a subsequent reworking of these layers by bottom currents flowing toward the west. The sand layers accumulated in a proximal setting, perhaps slope aprons, and these were then reworked along bathymetric contours. The lower portion of sand layers typically displays the original graded (A) turbidite division, while the texturally cleaner mid and upper parts of such strata usually show structures more typically associated with tractive transport. Photographs of polished slabs and large thin sections of the diverse Cretaceous sand layer types on St. Croix, reproduced at a 1:1 scale, may serve as a basis for comparison with other deep-water formations in the modern and ancient record. They may be most useful in interpreting sequences such as those on St. Croix where a solely turbidite or gravity-emplaced interpretation is inadequate.

This petrologic investigation also sheds further light on the paleogeography of the region. Examination of the sandy volcaniclastic sequences supports earlier hypotheses that they accumulated in a tectonically active island-arc setting. A strong tectonic and volcanic imprint is displayed by the syndepositional deformation of fabric, bedforms, and primary structures. Paleocurrent analyses indicate that, in what was to become the northeastern part of the Caribbean, the predominant bottom-current trend during Late Cretaceous time was roughly parallel to the surface circulation pattern, i.e., directed toward the west. The vigorous reworking of coarse sand and granule turbidites, and the development of bioturbation structures in tractive deposits indicate that, although the paleo-Atlantic was geographically much narrower, bottom-water circulation in this region was not restricted nor were bottom waters anoxic. Recognition here of the diverse suite of reworked sandy turbidite lithofacies, poorly documented to date, can hopefully serve to clarify other cases in both the modern and rock record where there has been interaction between bottom currents and turbidity currents.

Ronald C. Phillips and Ernani G. Menez
104 pages, 57 figures, 39 maps, 4 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1988)
Number 34, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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This work presents general and current information on seagrass ecology, physiology, biology, distribution and evolution. Additionally, all known taxa of seagrasses are keyed to recognized species. Forty-eight species are described and illustrated, with accompanying maps to indicate their world distribution.

Swimming Sea Cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea): A Survey, with Analysis of Swimming Behavior in Four Bathyal Species
John E. Miller and David L. Pawson
18 pages, 4 figures
1990 (Date of Issue: 1 June 1990)
Number 35, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.35.1
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New information on swimming behavior of four species of deep-sea holothurians has been obtained using the research submersibles Johnson-Sea-Link (Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution) and Pisces V (University of Hawaii, HURL Program). Hansenothuria benti Miller and Pawson and Enypniastes eximia Theel were studied off the Bahama Islands, Paelopatides retifer Fisher off the Hawaiian Islands, and Pelagothuria natatrix Ludwig off the Galapagos Islands. Video recordings were made of swimming behavior, and individuals of all species were collected at the time of observation. Four contrasting life modes are represented: H. benti lives and feeds on the seafloor, but when disturbed it can swim vigorously for several minutes by rapidly flexing the anterior and posterior ends of the body into S curves. Enypniastes eximia swims almost continuously, briefly settling to the seafloor to ingest surface sediments. The bulbous body is propelled upwards by rhythmic pulsation of a webbed anterodorsal veil; stability during swimming is maintained by counteractive flexing of posterolateral veils. Paelopatides retifer lives on or near the seafloor and has been found up to 300 meters above the seafloor. The swimming behavior of this species combines locomotory movements of the two preceding species. An anterior veil pulsates, and the posterior half of the body flexes into S curves. Pelagothuria natatrix is truly pelagic, floating or drifting near the seafloor or high in the water column. Swimming is effected by infrequent and irregular pulsation of an enormous anterior veil. There is no evidence to suggest that P. natatrix descends to feed on the seafloor.

Published data on the approximately 25 known species of swimming holothurians are summarized. Probable reasons for swimming behavior are discussed. Swimming appears to be most useful in predator avoidance, escape from physical hazards, locomotion, seeking out suitable substrata for feeding, and dispersal of juveniles or adults.

Case Study of Natural Population Collapse: Post-Hurricane Predation on Jamaican Staghorn Corals
Nancy Knowlton, Judith C. Lang and Brian D. Keller
136 pages, Vol. 3, 50 figures, 2–32 plates, 15
1990 (Date of Issue: 28 June 1990)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.31.1
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The staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, formerly a dominant reef builder at intermediate depths along the Jamaican north coast, was devastated in 1980 by Hurricane Allen and its short-term aftereffects. Between 1982 and 1987, populations of A. cervicornis generally continued to decline at three monitored areas, approaching local extinction at one site. Feeding by the snail Coralliophila and the polychaete Hermodice carunculata, and “gardening” behavior of the damselfish Stegastes planifrons played important roles in the collapse of staghorn populations. All three consumers remained abundant seven years after the hurricane. Growth of algae following die-off of the urchin Diadema antillarum in 1983 and perhaps disease also contributed to the failure of A. cervicornis to recover. Although the timing and relative importance of these factors differed among sites, collapse of all three populations and substantial predator-associated mortality were the most striking features of these results. Threshold models of predation suggest that the hurricane increased the relative importance of predators, causing coral populations to continue to decline rather than return to their previous high densities. The generally patchy distribution of A. cervicornis in space and time throughout its range may reflect an ability to persist at either low or high densities with predators, interacting with fluctuations in density caused by extrinsic perturbations (e.g., storms, epidemic disease). Preliminary surveys provide evidence of events elsewhere in the Caribbean that are comparable to those documented for Jamaica. Sensitive coupling of unusually severe disturbance with routine biological processes may have long-term effects that limit our ability to explain local patterns of distribution, abundance and diversity in areas where this species has the potential to dominate.

Foraminiferal Densities and Pore Water Chemistry in the Indian River, Florida
Martin A. Buzas and Kenneth P. Severin
iii, 38 p. : ill.
1993 (Date of Issue: 19 May 1993)
Number 36, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.36.1
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Two stations were established about 10 m apart at a depth of about 1 m at Link Port, Florida. One consisted of quartz sand and the other of quartz sand with a dense stand of seagrass. At the surface of each station and at a depth of 10 cm at the grass site, four replicate samples consisting of 5 ml each were taken every fortnight from 27 March to 6 November 1978 (17 sampling times, 204 samples). The taxa Quinqueloculina, Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina, and Ammobaculites comprising 98% of the fauna were enumerated. In addition, pore water chemistry was measured for temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, Eh, NH3, PO4, Si, NO2, and NO2, + NO3.

General linear models were used to analyze the bare surface-grass surface, and grass surface-grass 10 cm data sets. Foraminiferal densities were evaluated for differences between sites, periodicity, sites × periodicity (interaction), and environmental variables.

Differences in overall density between the bare surface-grass surface sites were not significant for the three most abundant taxa (Quinqueloculina, Elphidium, and Ammonia). At the grass site the density for all taxa were significantly lower at 10 cm than at the surface (very few individuals were observed at 10 cm).

Hypotheses for periodicity and interaction were significant for all taxa in all comparisons except for Bolivina in the bare surface-grass surface analysis. At the bare surface, maximum densities occurred in spring while at the grass surface in summer. Although densities were low at 10 cm, no synchronization between the grass surface and 10 cm was evident.

The environmental variables were significant for all taxa in both comparisons. The environmental variables are, however, highly correlated. To alleviate this difficulty, a principal component analysis was performed on these variables. The first three components included all of the 10 variables. Subsequent multiple regression of foramineferal densities and the principal components indicated that usually at least two components, accounting for most of the variables, were statistically significant. Thus, no simple relationship between pore water chemistry and density is apparent. The very large difference in density between the grass surface and 10 cm depth is much more strongly related to the pore water chemistry than the smaller differences with time at the surface sites.

Nile Delta Drill Core and Sample Database for 1985-1994: Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program
Daniel Jean Stanley, James E. McRea, Jr. and John C. Waldron
428 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 6 December 1996)
Number 37, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.37.1
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This document is designed to serve as the catalog for a complete set of lithologic logs of 87 sediment borings drilled in the northern Nile delta of Egypt in the course of the Nile Delta Project, from 1985 to 1994. The project, part of the Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program, was initiated to interpret the recent geological evolution of this depocenter, from the time of its formation about 8000 years ago to the present. The data set includes the major petrologic attributes of these borings, which range in length from ∼20 to 60 m. The results of textural and sand-sized compositional analyses of 2500 core samples are provided, as well as the ages of 358 radiocarbon-dated samples to as old as ∼35,000 years before present. These data constitute the foundation of the Nile Delta Project's investigation. A review of the methods employed in the field and laboratory and an inventory of published articles and theses completed through 1994 as part of this multidisciplinary and multinational effort also are presented. This database facilitates the distinction between anthropogenic and natural factors that determine the evolution of the delta. It is intended to provide a comprehensive record of subsurface deposits in the northern delta, accumulating in late Pleistocene to Holocene time, to be used by those agencies and specialists responsible for monitoring the rapidly changing Nile delta depocenter.

The information published in this document is accessible electronically on the Internet from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History Gopher Server at URL “gopher://” or via hypertext document (http) at “” Further information can be obtained from the National Museum of Natural History's Collection and Research Information System (CRIS) Program, Washington, D.C. 20560.

Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium
Michael A. Lang, Ian G. Macintyre, and Klaus Rützler, Editors
xii + 529 pages
2009 (Date of Issue: 23 November 2009)
Number 38, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.01960768.38.1
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The Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium was held on 15?16 November 2007 in Washington, D.C. It represented the first major dissemination of marine research results since the establishment of the Smithsonian Marine Science Network (MSN). The 39 papers in this volume represent a wide range of marine research studies that demonstrate the breadth and diversity of science initiatives supported by the MSN. The first section contains an overview of the MSN along with papers describing the multidisciplinary investigations spanning more than 37 years for the four Smithsonian marine facilities that constitute the Network: the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center at the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland; the National Museum of Natural History?s Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida; the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program, with its Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize; and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. Subsequent papers represent findings by Smithsonian scholars and their collaborators on overarching topics of marine biodiversity, evolution, and speciation; biogeography, invasive species, and marine conservation; and forces of ecological change in marine systems.

Research and Discoveries: The Revolution of Science through Scuba
Michael A. Lang, Roberta L. Marinelli, Susan J. Roberts, and Phillip R. Taylor, editors
vi + 258 pages, 111 figures
2013 (Date of Issue: 21 October 2013)
Number 39, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
DOI: 10.5479/si.1943667X.39
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The Smithsonian Institution, the National Science Foundation, and the Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council convened the “Research and Discoveries: The Revolution of Science through Scuba” symposium on 24–25 May 2010 in Washington, D.C., to celebrate the advances and scientific contributions of research using self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba). This volume presents 19 papers by 60 scholars of research findings, with particular focus on the scientific contributions accomplished using scuba. It is the first major effort to highlight and validate the use of scuba in science by evaluating the output of scientific research in high-impact journal publications. Thirteen papers report research findings and discoveries from around the world in environments such as coral reefs, oceanic blue water, under-ice polar habitats, and temperate kelp forests, providing perspectives on ecological scales and function, physiology, symbiosis and chemistry, biodiversity and behavior, and structured populations. The final six papers are illustrative of underwater research that was not only greatly facilitated by scuba, but could perhaps not have been accomplished without it. Topics range from biological studies on the coral holobiont to ecological roles of major algal groups on reefs and the functional role of small and cryptic metazoans. The research facilitated by scuba and reported in these papers focuses on the scientific results, not necessarily on the research methodologies using scuba to obtain those data and observations, and includes several case studies. Where appropriate, laboratory studies complementary to underwater field observations are referenced. The symposium showed the strong integration and validation of scientific diving within the overall science domain since the introduction of scuba to the science community in 1951. Overarching symposium themes celebrated past, present, and future scientific diving contributions, and evaluated the accomplishments and impact of underwater research on the overall understanding of nature and its processes. Enduring materials from the symposium, including abstracts, speaker biographies, and webcast videos of presentations, have been posted at

Displaying 31 - 40 from the 41 total records