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Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic Foraminifera
Richard K. Olsson, Christoph Hemleben, William A. Berggren and Brian T. Huber, editors
252 pages, 37 figures, 71 plates
1999 (Date of Issue: 3 March 1999)
Number 85, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.85.1
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Sixty-seven species of Paleocene planktonic foraminifera are described and illustrated, including three species of Eoglobigerina, four species of Parasubbotina, five species of Subbotina, two species of Hedbergella, 10 species of Globanomalina, six species of Acarinina, 12 species of Morozovella, three species of Igorina, four species of Praemurica, one species of Guembelitria, one species of Globoconusa, three species of Parvularugoglobigerina, two species of Woodringina, six species of Chiloguembelina, one species of Rectoguembelina, and four species of Zeauvigerina. Taxonomic classification of normal perforate taxa are organized according to wall texture. Spinose cancellate genera include Eoglobigerina, Parasubbotina, and Subbotina; cancellate nonspinose genera include Igorinina and Praemurica; smooth-walled genera include Hedbergella and Globanomalina; and muricate genera include Acarinina and Morozovella. Taxonomic classification of microperforate taxa (including Guembelitria, Globoconusa, Parvularugoglobigerina, Woodringina, Chiloguembelina, Rectoguembelina, and Zeauvigerina) are organized according to test morphology.

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of type species described by Morozova in the collections of the Geological Institute, Academy of Sciences (GAN), Moscow, and the type material described by Subbotina in the collections of the All Union Petroleum Scientific Research Geological Prospecting Institute (VNIGRI), St. Petersburg, are shown on Plates 8-12. Twelve species described by Morozova, nine species described by Subbotina, and one species described by Bykova are illustrated. In addition, SEM images of 28 holotypes and two paratypes from the Smithsonian Institution collections are shown on Plates 13-17, and the lectotype for Globigerina compressa Plummer, 1926, and the neotype for Globorotalia monmouthensis Olsson, 1961, are designated and illustrated with SEM images.

Paleobiogeographic maps showing the global distribution of 29 commonly occurring Paleocene taxa are included in the atlas, as well as figures showing the stratigraphic ranges of species by genus and stratigraphic first and last appearances. The biostratigraphic framework used in the atlas is the revised biostratigraphy given in Berggren et al., 1995, which is summarized in the atlas. Wall texture and morphological relationships between species and genera form the basis of phylogenetic interpretations. This is discussed in the section “Wall Texture, Classification, and Phylogeny” and is referenced to Plates 1-7.

The Autochthonous North American Musk Oxen Bootherium, Symbos, and Gidleya (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae)
Jerry N. McDonald and Clayton E. Ray
77 pages, 64 figures, 4 tables
1989 (Date of Issue: 8 June 1989)
Number 66, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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The history of taxonomy of the autochthonous genera of North American musk oxen—Bootherium, Symbos, and Gidleya—is reviewed. The bases upon which taxonomic judgments within the group have been made are identified. These bases are reevaluated in the light of current information on patterns of ontogenesis, sexual dimorphism, postmortem alteration of skeletal remains, and spatial and temporal distribution of musk ox records. The bases used by taxonomists in the past to justify separation of this musk ox group into multiple genera and species can be explained best as indices of sexual dimorphism or postmortem weathering and abrasion. All nominal species within Bootherium, Symbos, and Gidleya are, therefore, placed in synonymy with the senior name in the group, Bootherium bombifrons (Harlan, 1825). A revised diagnosis is provided for the monotypic species.

Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington D.C., 4-7 June 1996
Storrs L. Olson, editor
344 pages, 169 figures, 49 tables
1999 (Date of Issue: 14 December 1999)
Number 89, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.89.1
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The 32 papers collected herein reflect the great diversity and interest that the study of fossil birds has generated in recent years. The first seven papers (Mourer-Chauviré et al., Worthy and Jouventin, Seguí and Alcover, Steadman and Hilgartner, Millener, Worthy, Pavia) relate to late Quaternary birds from islands, where human intervention in the last few thousand years has caused many heretofore unrecorded extinctions. Three papers on Quaternary avifaunas of continental Europe deal with distributional changes and cultural use of birds by humans in Siberia (Potapova and Panteleyev), the utility of patterns of seabird distribution in determining former marine climatic conditions (Tyrberg), and temporal changes in morphology of ptarmigans (Lagopus) through the late Pleistocene (Stewart). Three papers deal with late Cenozoic raptors (Campbell et al., Tambussi and Noriega, Emslie and Czaplewski). New genera from Paleogene deposits are described by Boles and Ivison, Karhu, and Peters. Five papers deal with ancient waterfowl. Alvarenga describes the first fossil screamer (Anhimidae) from the Oligocene of Brazil. Olson provides the first fossil records of the Anseranatidae, with the description of a new species from the early Eocene of England, which is referred to Anatalavis from the Paleocene/Cretaceous of New Jersey. Ericson provides the means to distiguish Eocene fossils of the duck-like Presbyornis from the flamingo-like Juncitarsus and gives new records of the latter. Benson shows that the Paleocene Presbyornis isoni once ranged from Maryland to North Dakota, and he gives records of other Paleocene birds from North Dakota. Hope names a new, larger species of Graculavus, extending the range of the genus from New Jersey to the Cretaceous of Wyoming.

The early history and evolution of birds receives great attention. Dzerzhinsky expands upon the significance of cranial morphology in paleognathous birds. Kurochkin relates the early Cretaceous genus Ambiortus to the Chinese Otogornis, which are supposed to be on a line with modern birds, as opposed to the Enantiornithes. Bochenski uses paleogeography to suggest that the Enantiornithes must antedate Archaeopteryx. Zhou and Martin show that the manus of Archaeopteryx is more bird-like than previously realized. Martin and Stewart use bird teeth to argue against dinosaurian origins for Aves, whereas Elzanowski diverges on various aspects of dinosaurian cranial morphology and that of early birds that may have evolutionary significance. Witmer, Chiappe, and Goslow present summaries of three sessions of a roundtable discussion on avian origins, early evolution of birds, and the origins of flight, which was held on June 7, the last day of the meeting, and which covered much controversial territory.

Bibliography and Index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia
Daryl Paul Domning
611 pages
1996 (Date of Issue: 25 July 1996)
Number 80, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.80.1
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The significant published literature on the neobiology, paleobiology, and ethnobiology of the mammalian orders Sirenia and Desmostylia is exhaustively cataloged in approximately 4590 main entries alphabetized by author. Both technical and popular works are included, and many entries are annotated. The earliest work cited is a letter by N. Syllacio published in 1494 or 1495, describing Columbus's second voyage to the New World. The effective closing date of the bibliography was 1 May 1994.

Six appendices list serial publications devoted to Sirenia, additional sources for history of sirenology and sirenian conservation, coins and postage stamps depicting sirenians, a comprehensive classification and synonymy of sirenians and desmostylians, a summary of the nomenclature of the Recent species of sirenians, and an alphabetical list of the species-group names that have been applied to sirenians and desmostylians.

An extensive index is provided, employing 1059 subject headings and cross references; the subject headings include all Linnaean names and combinations ever employed for sirenians and desmostylians, as well as names of all reported sirenian food plants and parasites. More than 40% of the main entries are fully indexed, and many others are partially indexed, yielding a total of over 13,950 index entries. Each complete index entry includes author and date of the work cited, a brief annotation describing the content of the work as it pertains to the indexed subject, and a page reference for the material pertaining to that subject.

Brachiopoda from the Gulf of Gascogne, France (Recent)
G. Arthur Cooper
35 pages, 5 figures, 3 plates
1981 (Date of Issue: 17 December 1981)
Number 44, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.44.1
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Brachiopods collected during the operations of Biogas and Polygas, Gulf of Gascogne Abyssal Survey, and Thalassa, Gulf of Gascogne Bathyal Survey of the Centre Océanologique de Bretagne, are recorded and data concerning them noted. Most of the specimens taken in Biogas and Polygas are from depths ranging from 1010 meters to 4459 meters. The specimens taken by Thalassa are mostly from waters less than 1000 meters in depth. Twenty-one species in 14 genera are recognized, six of them, including a new species, hitherto not recorded from the Gulf of Gascogne, are starred: *Pelagodiscus atlanticus (King), Crania anomala (Müller), C. anomala turbinata (Poli), *Cryptopora gnomon Jeffreys, Hispanirhynchia cornea (Fischer), Eucalathis ergastica Fischer and Oehlert, E. tuberata (Jeffreys), Terebratulina retusa (Linné), T. retusa emarginata (Risso), Gryphus vitreus (Born), *G.? cooperi d'Hondt, Dallithyris? aff. D.? sphenoidea (Jeffreys), Platidia anomioides (Scacchi and Philippi), Megerlia truncata (Linné), M. echinata (Fischer and Oehlert), Pantellaria monstruosa (Scacchi), Macandrevia cranium (Müller), *M. novangliae Dall, *Fallax dalliniformis Atkins, Dallina septigera (Lovén), and *D. parva, new species. Five described species not previously recorded from the Gulf of Gascogne are: Pelagodiscus atlanticus (King), a world-wide abyssal form; Cryptopora gnomon (Jeffreys), widespread in the northern Atlantic; Macandrevia novangliae Dall, hitherto only known from deep water off the coast of New England, United States; Fallax dalliniformis Atkins, newly discovered in the approaches to the English Channel; and Gryphus? cooperi d'Hondt recently described. The first four were taken in deep water in the Biogas operations; the fifth was taken by Thalassa. Specimens taken by Thalassa are mostly small or immature forms that are usually difficult to identify generically. Specimens of the rare genus Eucalathis appeared in several lots taken by Thalassa as well as the new species, Dallina parva. Not included in the above lists is a fossil brachiopod, dredged by Thalassa, that is assigned with a query to the Cretaceous genus Meonia.

Brachiopoda from the Southern Indian Ocean (Recent)
G. Arthur Cooper
93 pages, 30 figures, 14 plates, 1 table
1981 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1981)
Number 43, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.43.1
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Specimens collected from 120 stations around and between the subantarctic islands: Marion, Prince Edward, Crozet, Kerguelen, Heard, Amsterdam, and St. Paul by the M/S Marion Dufresne with the support of Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises, Paris, greatly increase our knowledge of the brachiopoda of the Indian Ocean. Eighteen species are recognized that include 16 genera, 2 of them new: Pemphixina and Xenobrochus; 11 new species: Basiliola arnaudi; Eucalathis magna, E. costellata, E. rotundata, Xenobrochus australis, X. anomalus; Dallithyris? dubia; Dyscolia? radiata, Platidia marionensis; Ecnomiosa inexpectata, and Thecidellina minuta. Seven hitherto described species are recorded: Pelagodiscus atlanticus (King); Pemphixina pyxidata (Davidson); Liothyrella moseleyi (Davidson); Megerlina davidsoni (Vélain); Megerlia gigantea (Deshayes); Aerothyris kerguelenensis (Davidson), and A. aff. A. macquariensis (Thomson). Six genera, which could not be identified specifically, were also taken: Crania, Basiliola, Tegulorhynchia, Eucalathis, Liothyrella, and Aerothyris. Genera recognized in the Indian Ocean for the first time are: Tegulorhynchía, Basiliola, and Ecnomiosa, the last hitherto known only from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

Brachiopods Near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in South China
Guirong Xu and Richard E. Grant
68 pages, 54 figures, 7 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 24 March 1994)
Number 76, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.76.1
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Sixty-eight genera and 164 species in the Changxingian Stage and 12 genera and 20 species in the lower Griesbachian Stage are recorded on the basis of brachiopod fossils collected from 32 sections in South China and from review of the Chinese literature. Of these, 24 genera and 34 species are described here, including three new genera (Fanichonetes, Prelissorhynchia, and Rectambitus) and 24 new species (Acosarina strophiria, Enteletes asymmatrosis, Peltichia schizoloides, Derbyia pannuciella, Perigeyerella altilosina, Chonetinella cursothonia, C. volitanliopsis, Fanichonetes campigia, Cathaysia spiriferoides, Uncinunellina multicostifera, Prelissorhynchia triplicatioid, Cyrolexis antearcus, Cyrolexis beccojectus, Cartorhium xikouensis, C. twifurcifer, Callispirina rotundella, Araxathyris subpentagulata, A. beipeiensis, Spirigerella discsella, S. ovaloides, Squamularia formilla, Hustedia orbicostata, Rostranteris ptychiventria, and Notothyris bifoldes).

The Cathaysia chonetoides-Chonetinella substrophomenoides assemblage zone and the Cathaysia sinuata-Waagenites barusiensis assemblage zone represent respectively faunas of the lower Changxingian and the upper Changxingian in clastic lithofacies; whereas the Peltichia zigzag-Prelissorhynchia triplicatioid assemblage zone and the Spirigerella discusella-Acosarina minuta assemblage zone represent faunas in limestone lithofacies. The Crurithyris pusilla-Lingula subcircularis assemblage zone and Permian-type brachiopods are present in the lower Griesbachian.

The Changxingian brachiopod fauna can be correlated with the Dorashamian fauna of Armenia; the brachiopod faunas of the Ali Bashi Formation, North-West Iran; unit 7 of the Hambast Formation, Central Iran; and the upper part of the Bellerophon Formation of the Southern Alps.

The genera Cathaysia, Peltichia, and Prelissorhynchia are especially characteristic of the Cathaysia Tethyan Subprovince. In contrast, the West Tethyan Subprovince is characterized by the genera Costiferina, Ombonia, Comelicania, and many other species. Four brachiopod ecofacies are recognized in the Changxingian of South China: (1) antibiohermal dwellers; (2) calcareous substratum dwellers; (3) biohermal dwellers; and (4) ubiquitous substrate dwellers. In the lower Griesbachian, the brachiopod fauna of Lingula and Crurithyris spreads across the entire Tethys and is called the Circum-Pangaea brachiopod fauna.

Massive extinction of brachiopod faunas occurred at the close of the Changxingian, with only a few Permian-types surviving into the early Griesbachian, and they completely vanished after the early Griesbachian except for harbingers of Mesozoic brachiopods.

The Bradleya Problem, with Descriptions of Two New Psychrospheric Ostracode Genera, Agrenocythere and Poseidonamicus (Ostracoda: Crustacea)
Richard H. Benson
138 pages, 67 figures, 14 plates, 4 tables
1972 (Date of Issue: 30 October 1972)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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The “Bradleya problem” is concerned with the discovery and definition of a group of fossil and Recent reticulate ostracodes, several of which are common to Cenozoic deep-sea sediments in many parts of the world ocean floor. These species have often been misunderstood and taxonomically confused with genera characteristic of the study of shallow-water forms. The present study attempts to resolve some of these misunderstandings by designation of several important type-specimens, description of new evidence and the proposal of a new classification based on the concept of the evolution of a reticulum in response to environmental change. A method of pattern analysis is used to define elements of the reticulum subject to evolutionary change.

Over 40 reticulate species, which would have at one time been regarded as Bradleya, were examined; only 14 of these are assigned and belong to Bradleya. Two new genera, Agrenocythere and Poseidonamicus, are described for the reception of the others, and these are placed in the new subfamily, Bradleyinae, and placed with Thaerocytherinae Hazel in a new family (Thaerocytheridae Hazel). Twenty-seven of these species are described, including Bradleya arata (Brady), B. dictyon (Brady), B. normani (Brady), Agrenocythere radula (Brady), A. pliocenica (Sequenza), and A. hazelae (van den Bold). The diagnostic characteristics of the related genera Cletocythereis, Oertliella, Jugosocythereis, and Hermanites are discussed and illustrated.

It is concluded that the psychrospheric species Agrenocythere pliocenica, which has been reported from outcrops in Italy and a long core from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor, is most closely related to A. hazelae, which became geographically widespread during the Miocene. Bradleya, Jugosocythereis, Agrenocythere, and Cletocythereis, now genera in separate families, are all thought to have been derived from a common stock of Cretaceous age.

The Carnivora of the Edson Local Fauna (Late Hemphillian), Kansas
Jessica A. Harrison
42 pages, 18 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 16 November 1983)
Number 54, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.54.1
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The late Hemphillian Edson Quarry Local Fauna contains 36 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The eight species of carnivorans are Canis davisi, a primitive dog; Osteoborus cyonoides, a large borophagine; Agriotherium species, a long-limbed bear; Plesiogulo marshalli, a wolverine; Pliotaxidea nevadensis, a badger; Martinogale alveodens, a skunk; Adelphailurus kansensis, a metailurine felid; and Machairodus coloradensis, a machairodontine felid. Edson is one of several fossil localities in Sherman County, Kansas, and was deposited in a series of fine sands within the Ogallala Formation. A secondary channel in a braided stream system is proposed as the environment of deposition. The high percentage of juveniles, as well as the vast numbers of the salamander Ambystoma kansensis, indicate accumulation during the spring of the year. The Edson Quarry Local Fauna compares very well with such typically late Hemphillian faunas as Coffee Ranch, Texas, and Optima, Oklahoma. Although only the carnivorans have been treated in depth, a listing of the vertebrate taxa is offered as well.

Catalog of the Illustrated Paleozoic Plant Specimens in the National Museum of Natural History
Arthur D. Watt
53 pages
1970 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1970)
Number 5, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.5.1
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A catalog of the illustrated Paleozoic fossils in the National Museum of Natural History is presented, updating United States National Museum Bulletin 53, part 2, section 3, 1907.

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