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Displaying 11 - 20 from the 97 total records
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Homeomorphy in Recent Deep-Sea Brachiopods
G. Arthur Cooper
25 pages, 5 figures, 4 plates
1972 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1972)
Number 11, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.11.1
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Abstract

A collection of brachiopods from the Baja California Abyssal Plain forms a deep-sea assemblage unusual in that it contains three genera that are unrelated but externally almost identical; i.e., they are homeomorphs. One is Neorhynchia, an impunctate rhynchonellid; the second, a punctate terebratulid with short loop, is called Abyssothyris; and the third is referred to a new genus, Notorygmia, related to Macandrevia. A discussion of homeomorphy is followed by the systematics of the genera and species involved.


The Bradleya Problem, with Descriptions of Two New Psychrospheric Ostracode Genera, Agrenocythere and Poseidonamicus (Ostracoda: Crustacea)
Richard H. Benson
138 pages, 67 figures, 14 plates, 4 tables
1972 (Date of Issue: 30 October 1972)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.12.1
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Abstract

The “Bradleya problem” is concerned with the discovery and definition of a group of fossil and Recent reticulate ostracodes, several of which are common to Cenozoic deep-sea sediments in many parts of the world ocean floor. These species have often been misunderstood and taxonomically confused with genera characteristic of the study of shallow-water forms. The present study attempts to resolve some of these misunderstandings by designation of several important type-specimens, description of new evidence and the proposal of a new classification based on the concept of the evolution of a reticulum in response to environmental change. A method of pattern analysis is used to define elements of the reticulum subject to evolutionary change.

Over 40 reticulate species, which would have at one time been regarded as Bradleya, were examined; only 14 of these are assigned and belong to Bradleya. Two new genera, Agrenocythere and Poseidonamicus, are described for the reception of the others, and these are placed in the new subfamily, Bradleyinae, and placed with Thaerocytherinae Hazel in a new family (Thaerocytheridae Hazel). Twenty-seven of these species are described, including Bradleya arata (Brady), B. dictyon (Brady), B. normani (Brady), Agrenocythere radula (Brady), A. pliocenica (Sequenza), and A. hazelae (van den Bold). The diagnostic characteristics of the related genera Cletocythereis, Oertliella, Jugosocythereis, and Hermanites are discussed and illustrated.

It is concluded that the psychrospheric species Agrenocythere pliocenica, which has been reported from outcrops in Italy and a long core from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor, is most closely related to A. hazelae, which became geographically widespread during the Miocene. Bradleya, Jugosocythereis, Agrenocythere, and Cletocythereis, now genera in separate families, are all thought to have been derived from a common stock of Cretaceous age.


Upper Miocene Echinoids from the Yorktown Formation of Virginia and Their Environmental Significance
Porter M. Kier
41 pages, 7 figures, 10 plates
1972 (Date of Issue: 10 April 1972)
Number 13, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.13.1
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Abstract

Five echinoid species are described from the upper Miocene part of the Yorktown Formation of Virginia: Echinocardium orthonotum (Conrad), Arbacia imporcera (Conrad), Psammechinus philanthropus (Conrad), Mellita aclinensis Kier, and Spatangus glenni Cooke. The assemblage probably lived in shallow, warm-temperate waters, E. orthonotum deeply buried near shore, S. glenni shallowly buried offshore, and M. aclinensis with its test just covered near shore. Arbacia improcera and P. philanthropus presumably lived together intertidally and near shore, P. philanthropus living in holes in the indurated sediments or on the sand with its test covered with debris, whereas A. improcera probably was easily visible with nothing covering its test. Specimens formerly referred to E. orthonotum from the middle Miocene Choptank Formation from Maryland are referred to E. marylandiense, new species. Echinocardium gothicum (Ravenel), from the Bear Bluff Formation of South Carolina, is considered a junior subjective synonym of E. orthonotum.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, I
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
231 pages, 39 figures, 23 plates
1972 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1972)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.14.1
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Abstract

The first of a projected six-part monograph on the brachiopods of the reference area for the North American Permian in the Glass, Guadalupe, Diablo, Delaware, Hueco, and Chinati Mountains of West Texas and adjacent New Mexico, this introductory volume recounts the history of geological work in the area, the development of the stratigraphic framework in the Wolfcamp, Leonard, and Guadalupe Series, and the basis for age assignments. It also explains field and laboratory techniques for collecting and preparing silicified fossils by means of acid, and it presents detailed measurements and lithic descriptions of the stratigraphic units in each mountain range in terms of the current nomenclature. The paleoecologic implications of the various rock and fossil types are interpreted, and the problems concerning large scale conglomerates, bioherms, and shell heaps are considered. The faunal composition of each stratigraphic unit in each mountain range is set forth as documentation for a local zonation of the brachiopods, intra-regional correlations, and age determinations with reference to the worldwide time scale for the Permian. There are brief accounts of each locality from which fossils were obtained. The full locality listing and the literature cited for the entire monograph are included in the present volume. Plates and line drawings illustrate the techniques of collecting and preparing fossils and the nature of certain stratigraphic units and lithic types; they diagrammatically depict numerous cross sections and correlations. Detailed maps indicate the exact positions of collections of fossils in the Glass Mountains. Taxonomic descriptions will appear in subsequent volumes.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, II
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
561 pages, 1 figure, 168 plates
1974 (Date of Issue: 16 April 1974)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.15.1
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Abstract

The second of a six-part monograph on brachiopods from the reference area for the North American Permian in mountain ranges of West Texas and adjacent New Mexico, this volume presents a historical resumé of the ordinal classification of the Brachiopoda, definitions of morphological terms, techniques of measuring specimens, and remarks on the naming of species. The major part of the work consists of descriptions and illustrations of genera and species in the inarticulate superfamilies Discinacea and Craniacea and the articulate superfamilies Eichwaldiacea, Orthotetacea, Derbyiacea, and Lyttoniacea.


New Brachiopoda from the Indian Ocean
G. Arthur Cooper
45 pages, 1 figure, 8 plates
1973 (Date of Issue: 14 February 1973)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.16.1
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Abstract

The collections described in this paper add significantly to the brachiopod fauna. Most of the specimens were collected on the following cruises of the Woods Hole Oceanographic research vessel Anton Bruun while participating in the biological program of the International Indian Ocean Expedition: Cruise 1, east side of the Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea; Cruise 4B, off the Gulf of Cutch in the Arabian Sea; Cruises 7 and 8, in the Mozambique Channel and off the east coast of Africa; and Cruise 9, off the east coast of the Somali Republic. Of the fifteen species in the Anton Bruun collection, nine are described as new. Three of the new species represent new genera. In addition to these a fourth new genus is based on Rhynchonella valdiviae Helmcke from the southern Indian Ocean, and a rare new species of Argyrotheca is described from the Red Sea. Species described but poorly figured by W. H. Dall also are discussed and illustrated in this paper. Available pertinent geographical and ecological data are recorded and discussed. Although Mediterranean and Atlantic brachiopod elements have been known from the Indian Ocean, the Anton Bruun collections produced two genera hitherto found only in Pacific waters.


Vema's Brachiopods (Recent)
G. Arthur Cooper
51 pages, 5 figures, 9 plates
1973 (Date of Issue: 23 February 1973)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.17.1
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Abstract

Brachiopods dredged on the worldwide exploratory cruises of R/V Vema, of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, are important in expanding knowledge of brachiopod distribution and taxonomy. Thirty-two species are identified, of which six are new. Twenty-one genera are represented, one of which is new. The species of five genera and the genera of two lots could not be determined. The majority of the brachiopods were taken from waters deeper than 100 fathoms. One specimen of Abyssothyris was dredged from the greatest depth (6179 meters=20,267 feet) from which a brachiopod has been taken.


Stratigraphy and Preliminary Biostratigraphy of the Flagstaff Rim Area, Natrona County, Wyoming
Robert J. Emry
43 pages, 19 figures
1973 (Date of Issue: 17 July 1973)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.18.1
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Abstract

About 750 feet of sediments of the early Oligocene (Chadronian) White River Formation are exposed along Flagstaff Rim in south-central Natrona County, Wyoming. About 4,000 specimens of fossil vertebrates have been collected from these outcrops. The White River Formation unconformably overlies rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to medial or late Eocene. The lithology of the White River Formation is predominantly claystone and conglomerate in the lower part of the section, changing to predominantly tuffaceous siltstone and conglomeratic channel sandstones in the upper part. Four stratigraphic sections are described. A geologic map of about 40 square miles illustrates the areal limits of the White River Formation and its relationships to underlying and overlying formations. Several distinct and easily recognizable volcanic ash beds occur at intervals within the White River sequence. These serve as convenient markers for precise stratigraphic zonation of fossils and have also provided minerals for potassium-argon dating. Dates obtained range from 35.7 to 31.6 million years.

A boulder conglomerate unit, previously considered to be the basal unit of the White River Formation and/or part of the Wind River Formation is shown to be a distinct, and probably unnamed, unit, and should not be assigned to either of these formations. It unconformably overlies the Wind River Formation and is separated from the White River Formation by an erosional disconformity with several hundred feet of relief. This information allows new interpretations of the structure of the area and adds a previously unrecognized episode of deposition and erosion to the history of the area.

The most common fossil in the White River sequence is the artiodactyl genus Leptomeryx, which is represented by two morphologically distinct lineages. One lineage is provisionally divided into two and the other into three size groups that are believed to represent different species. The local stratigraphic ranges of the different groups do not overlap. In each lineage, the size increases higher in the section. None of the groups are definitely assigned to named species, pending studies to determine the validity and limits of the named species.

Preliminary analysis of other elements of the fauna shows that there is recognizable change through time within individual lineages and that the faunal composition as a whole changes through time, within the local sequence. When the entire fauna is analyzed in detail, it should be possible to establish local range zones of the fossil species and, by their use, to gain greater temporal resolution within Chadronian time than has previously been possible.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, III (Part I - Text)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
1127 pages, 311 plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1975)
Number 19 (Part I - Text), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.-.1
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Abstract

The third of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods of the Glass, Guadalupe and other mountain ranges of West Texas, this volume contains systematic descriptions of genera and species in the suborders Productidina and Chonetidina. The Productidina, which constitute about 45 percent of the brachiopod specimens in the collections from West Texas, are divided into the superfamilies Strophalosiacea, Aulostegacea, Richthofeniacea, and Productacea. The Chonetidina, less numerous, contain the single superfamily Chonetacea.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, III (Part II - Plates)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
1127 pages, 311 plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1975)
Number 19 (Part II - Plates), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Abstract

The third of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods of the Glass, Guadalupe and other mountain ranges of West Texas, this volume contains systematic descriptions of genera and species in the suborders Productidina and Chonetidina. The Productidina, which constitute about 45 percent of the brachiopod specimens in the collections from West Texas, are divided into the superfamilies Strophalosiacea, Aulostegacea, Richthofeniacea, and Productacea. The Chonetidina, less numerous, contain the single superfamily Chonetacea.


Displaying 11 - 20 from the 97 total records