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Catalog of Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils: Conodonta
Frederick J. Collier, compiler
256 pages
1971 (Date of Issue: 23 September 1971)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.9.1
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Type specimens of the conodonts in the national collection are listed alphabetically by generic and specific name. Geographic, stratigraphic, bibliographic and other pertinent information concerning each specimen is included as an initial record entry. Additional entries for each specimen list references and binomen changes subsequent to the original isolation of the specimen in the literature. Name changes are also cross-indexed in the initial record list. Two appendices list occurrence of species by stratigraphy (system, series and formation) and geography (country and state).

Cenozoic Mammals of Land and Sea: Tributes to the Career of Clayton E. Ray
Robert J. Emry, ed.
v, 372 p. : ill., maps
2002 (Date of Issue: 18 December 2002)
Number 93, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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This is a volume of collected papers published to honor the career of Clayton E. Ray, now Curator Emeritus in the Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and Curator of Late Cenozoic Mammals and of Fossil Marine Mammals in the same department for more than 30 years before his retirement in 1994. The volume includes a preface, a biography and bibliography of Clayton E. Ray, and 19 papers devoted principally to Pleistocene mammals and to fossil marine mammals. Gary Morgan describes late Pleistocene mammalian faunas from several sites in southernmost Florida and discusses the Neotropical influence in Florida's Pleistocene faunas. Richard H. Tedford describes the basicranium of the Pleistocene giant wombat Phascolonus gigas Owen and discusses its significance in marsupial phylogenetic reconstruction. Gerardo De Iuliis and A. Gordon Edmund describe Vassallia maxima Castellanos, the only pre-Pleistocene pampathere known in which a skull and mandible are associated with osteoderms; the range of osteoderm variation in one associated individual allows them to synonymize other taxa that had been based on osteoderm differences. Paul W. Parmalee and Russell Wm. Graham report additional records of the giant beaver, Castoroides, from the mid-South. Frederick Grady, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, and E. Ray Garton report the northernmost known occurrence of vampire bats in the Pleistocene of eastern North America. H. Gregory McDonald reports the second known occurrence of the badger Taxidea taxus in the Pleistocene of Kentucky and discusses the paleoecological implications of the occurrence. Jerry N. McDonald and George E. Lammers describe Bison antiquus from Ontario and discuss the evolution of bison in the Holocene of North America. Daryl P. Domning presents a new analysis and interpretation of the terrestrial posture in desmostylians. Thomas A. Demere and Annalisa Berta describe new material and present a phylogenetic analysis of the Miocene pinniped Desmatophoca oregonensis from Oregon. Irina A. Koretsky and Dan Grigorescu describe and evaluate the systematic position of the fossil monk seal Pontophoca sarmatica from the Miocene of eastern Europe. Irina A. Koretsky and Peter Holec describe a new, primitive, phocid pinniped from the early middle Miocene of Slovakia and discuss its bearing on the phylogeny and classification of pinnipeds. Irina A. Koretsky and Albert E. Sanders report remains of the oldest known phocid pinniped from the late Oligocene of South Carolina. R. Ewan Fordyce describes and discusses a bizarre archaic Oligocene dolphin from the eastern North Pacific, on which he bases a new species, genus, and subfamily. Christian de Muizon, Daryl P. Domning, and Darlene R. Ketten describe and discuss the paleobiology and behavior of an unusual walrus-convergent delphinoid cetacean from the early Pliocene of Peru. Susan D. Dawson and Michael D. Gottfried report paleopathologic conditions in a Miocene odontocete cetacean. Albert E. Sanders and Lawrence G. Barnes contribute two papers, both describing and analyzing new, primitive, cetotheriid mysticete cetaceans from the late Oligocene of South Carolina. James W. Westgate and Frank C. Whitmore, Jr., describe a new species of bowhead whale from the Pliocene Yorktown Formation in Virginia. James G. Mead and Rosemary G. Dagit present an account of the search for the 1880s manuscript of J.A. Allen's unpublished monograph on the mammalian orders Cete and Sirenia; the manuscript was not found but the 12 plates that were prepared for it are published herein.

Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore
Storrs L. Olson, editor
211 pages, 91 figures, 38 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1976)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Eighteen papers covering diverse aspects of avian paleontology—from the earliest known bird to extinct species found in Indian middens—are collected here to honor the 90th birthday of Alexander Wetmore. These are preceded by an appraisal of the current state of avian paleontology and of Alexander Wetmore's influence on it, including a bibliography of his publications in this field. John H. Ostrom analyzes the hypothetical steps in the origin of flight between Archaeopteryx and modern birds. Philip D. Gingerich confirms that Ichthyornis and Hesperornis did indeed bear teeth, that the palate in Hesperornis is paleognathous, and that these Cretaceous toothed birds appear to occupy a position intermediate between dinosaurs and modern birds. Larry D. Martin and James Tate, Jr. describe the skeleton of the Cretaceous diving bird Baptornis advenus and conclude that the Baptornithidae belong in the Hesperornithiformes, but are less specialized than Hesperornis. Pierce Brodkorb describes the first known Cretaceous land bird as forming a new order possibly ancestral to the Coraciiformes and Piciformes. E. N. Kurochkin summarizes the distribution and paleoecology of the Paleogene birds of Asia, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the gruiform families Eogruidae and Ergilornithidae. Pat Vickers Rich and David J. Bohaska describe the earliest known owl from Paleocene deposits in Colorado. Alan Feduccia transfers the Eocene genus Neanis from the Passeriformes to the Piciformes and he and Larry D. Martin go on to refer this and four other genera to a new family of Piciformes, concluding that these were the dominant perching land birds of the Eocene of North America. Storrs L. Olson describes a new species of Todidae from the Oligocene of Wyoming and refers the genus Protornis from the Oligocene of Switzerland to the Momotidae, concluding that the New World Coraciiformes originated in the Old World. Charles T. Collins describes two new species of the Eo-Oligocene genus Aegialornis and presents evidence that the Aegialornithidae should be referred to the Caprimulgiformes rather than to the Apodiformes, although they might be ancestral to the swifts. In the following paper he shows that the earliest known true swifts (Apodidae) are three nominal forms from the Lower Miocene of France which prove to be but a single species of Cypseloides, a modern genus belonging to a primitive subfamily now restricted to the New World. Stuart L. Warter describes a new osprey from the Miocene of California to provide the earliest certain occurrence of the family Pandionidae and he treats functional aspects of the evolution of the wing in Pandion. Hildegarde Howard describes a new species of flightless mancalline auk, also from the Miocene of California, which is temporally and morphologically intermediate between Praemancalla lagunensis and the species of Mancalla. Robert W. Storer analyzes Pleistocene fossils of pied-billed grebes, synonymizing Podilymbus magnus Shufeldt with modern P. podiceps and describing a new species from peninsular Florida. Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr., lists 53 species of birds, including new species of Buteo and Oreopholus, from a Pleistocene deposit in southwestern Ecuador and compares this with a fauna of similar age from northwestern Peru, both of which indicate more humid conditions in the past. Oscar Arredondo summarizes aspects of the morphology, evolution, and ecology of the gigantic owls, eagles, and vultures recently discovered in Pleistocene deposits in Cuba. Joel Cracraft analyzes variation in the moas of New Zealand, reduces the number of species recognized to 13, and suggests that several “species pairs” represent examples of sexual size dimorphism. G. Victor Morejohn reports remains of the extinct flightless duck Chendytes lawi, previously known only from Pleistocene deposits, from Indian middens in northern California and concludes that the species became extinct through human agency less than 3800 years ago.

The Cretaceous Birds of New Jersey
Storrs L. Olson and David C. Parris
22 pages, 11 figures
1987 (Date of Issue: 8 December 1987)
Number 63, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.1007/s10519-011-9459-0
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This is a revision of the fossil birds from Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian; Hornerstown and Navesink formations) deposits in New Jersey. Material of previously named taxa, described over a century ago, is augmented by more recently collected specimens from a new locality at the Inversand Company marl pits near Sewell, Gloucester County. With about 8 genera and 9 species, this is the most diverse Cretaceous avifauna yet known. Most species belong to a group of primitive Charadriiformes resembling in limb morphology the fossil family Presbyornithidae and the living family Burhinidae. These are tentatively referred to the “form family” Graculavidae Fürbringer, 1888, with its provisional synonyms Palaeotringinae Wetmore, 1940; Telmatornithidae Cracraft, 1972, and Laornithidae Cracraft, 1972. The species included are: Graculavus velox Marsh, 1872; Telmatornis priscus Marsh, 1870 (synonyms: Telmatornis affinis Marsh, 1870; Graculavus pumilus Marsh, 1872; Palaeotringa vetus Marsh, 1870); Anatalavis rex (Shufeldt, 1915); Laornis edvardsianus Marsh, 1870; Palaeotringa littoralis Marsh, 1870; P. vagans Marsh, 1872; and an undescribed genus and species probably different from any of the preceding. Anatalavis is proposed as a new genus for Telmatornis rex Shufeldt, 1915. A new family, genus, and species (Tytthostonychidae, Tytthostonyx glauconiticus) is proposed for a humerus showing similarities to the Pelecaniformes and Procellariiformes and tentatively referred to the latter, along with an ulna of a much smaller species. The species in this fauna appear to be part of the modern radiation of neognathous birds, but none can be referred to modern families.

Descriptive and Comparative Osteology of the Oldest Fossil Squirrel, Protosciurus (Rodentia: Sciuridae)
Robert J. Emry and Richard W. Thorington, Jr.
35 pages, 16 figures, 3 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 12 July 1982)
Number 47, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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The early history of the Sciuridae is not well known, squirrels being generally poorly represented in the Tertiary fossil record. A nearly complete skeleton, recently discovered in early Oligocene deposits of Wyoming, represents what may be the oldest fossil squirrel known. For the first time, this early squirrel can be compared fully with its extant relatives. The specimen, assigned to Protosciurus jeffersoni, retains the primitive protrogomorphous zygomasseteric structure, as in other known Protosciurus, but the masseteric fossa of the mandible is farther forward than in most nonsciurid protrogomorphs. The auditory region of the skull has derived squirrel characters, but it is in the postcranial skeleton where similarities to extant squirrels are most apparent. Except for minor differences in joint construction, the skeleton is strikingly similar to that of Sciurus niger, the living fox squirrel. It differs from extant ground squirrels in the more gracile proportions of its long bones and asymmetry of foot construction. This early member of the squirrel family was clearly an arboreal squirrel, with morphology, and presumably habits, very similar to those of extant Sciurinae.

Distribution of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Vicinity of the North Atlantic Current
Richard Cifelli and Roberta K. Smith
52 pages, 22 figures, 6 plates, 8 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 13 April 1970)
Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.4.1
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Planktonic Foraminifera collected from the vicinity of the North Atlantic Current and the Gulf Stream during late winter-early spring and fall of 1964 are described and their distributions are recorded. Variations in faunal composition seem to be related largely to water regime dynamics and seasonal cycle. Among the fall collections, three distinctive assemblages can be recognized: a western group in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, containing predominantly Sargasso Sea-Gulf Stream species dominated by Globigerinoides ruber; a northern group, dominated by Globigerina quinqueloba egelida, new subspecies, reflecting the influence of cold, northern waters adjacent to the North Atlantic Current; and an eastern group, dominated by Globigerina incompta, apparently developed within the limits of the North Atlantic Current. The last group seemingly represents an anomaly, as North Atlantic Current surface temperatures were relatively high at the time of collection, and dominance of a warm-water form, such as Globigerinoides ruber, might have been expected. The anomaly suggests that the North Atlantic Current is a partially closed gyre, fed by both slope waters and Gulf Stream. Temperatures are considered to be close to threshold for both cold and warm-water species.

Distributional patterns displayed by the late winter-early spring collections are compatible with the proposed model. Also, these collections, taken over a period of almost three months, reflect marked seasonal changes in faunal composition, particularly in Sargasso Sea-Gulf Stream elements.

Twenty-five species and subspecies are described. One species, Globigerina atlantisae, and one subspecies, Globigerina quinqueloba egelida, are new.

Echinoids from the Triassic (St. Cassian) of Italy, Their Lantern Supports, and a Revised Phylogeny of Triassic Echinoids
Porter M. Kier
41 pages, 4 figures, 14 plates
1984 (Date of Issue: 8 June 1984)
Number 56, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.56.1
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Three new species of Triassic echinoids are described from the St. Cassian (Karnian) beds of Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy: Levicidaris furlani, L. pfaifferi, and Zardinechinus giulinii. Hundreds of echinoid fragments from the same beds show that 16 species lack apophyses (interambulacral lantern supports) and 7 possess them. Previously, paleontologists assumed that most Triassic echinoids had apophyses. Their absence from so many species and the presence of slightly developed auricles (ambulacral lantern supports) suggest that two echinoid lineages crossed from the Paleozoic to the Triassic: one, possessing apophyses, is ancestral to all modern cidaroids; a second, lacking apophyses, gave rise to all noncidaroid echinoids.

The Echinoids of the Middle Eocene Warley Hill Formation, Santee Limestone, and Castle Hayne Limestone of North and South Carolina
Porter M. Kier
102 pages, 26 figures, 22 plates, 4 tables
1980 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1980)
Number 39, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.39.1
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The echinoids are described from the middle Eocene Warley Hill Formation, Santee Limestone, and Castle Hayne Limestone of North and South Carolina. Twenty-seven species are present including the following new taxa: Eurhodia baumi, Eurhodia rugosa ideali, Eurhodia rugosa depressa, Eupatagus wilsoni, Eupatagus lawsonae, Linthia harmatuki, Agassizia wilmingtonica Cooke inflata, and Protoscutella mississippiensis (Twitchell) rosehillensis. Three zones are identified: the earliest characterized by Protoscutella mississippiensis (Twitchell) and Santeelampas oviformis (Conrad), a “middle zone” with Linthia harmatuki and the youngest species of Protoscutella, and a “late zone” with large numbers of Periarchus lyelli (Conrad) and Echinolampas appendiculata Emmons. The “early zone” is considered early middle Eocene, the “middle zone” middle Eocene and the “late zone” probably late middle Eocene. The three species of Protoscutella appear to represent an evolutionary series—P. mississippiensis (Twitchell) to P. conradi (Cotteau) to P. plana (Conrad)—characterized by the shifting of the periproct nearer to the peristome.

The echinoids lived in well-aerated sediments in a tropical sea.

Ecology and Systematics of Foraminifera in Two Thalassia Habitats, Jamaica, West Indies
Martin A. Buzas, Roberta K. Smith and Kenneth A. Beem
139 pages, 38 figures, 8 plates, 34 tables
1977 (Date of Issue: 11 July 1977)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Homogeneous Thalassia beds in back-reef flat (less than 1 m) and Discovery Bay (about 3 m) were sampled for 12 successive months in Jamaica, West Indies. Living foraminifera were enumerated in each of four monthly replicates consisting of 20 ml of sediment. At the sampling times, water temperature, sediment temperature, salinity, oxygen saturation, water pH, sediment pH, sediment median, sediment sorting, turbidity, particulate organic carbon, Thalassia weight, and weight percent silt plus clay were measured.

In all, 18,644 individuals belonging to 143 species were picked, sorted, and identified. The back-reef flat habitat contained 7,745 individuals belonging to 115 species, while the Discovery Bay contained 10,899 individuals belonging to 117 species. Fisher's log-series fits the distribution of species abundances at both habitats well. The number of species, information function, and equitability are usually greater at Discovery Bay for individual 20 ml samples.

A general linear model consisting of parameters for station differences, overall periodicity, interaction of station differences and overall periodicity, and environmental variables was constructed. The densities of the 19 most abundant species were statistically analyzed individually (univariate) and simultaneously (multivariate).

Univariate analyses indicate six species have significant station differences (95% level) and seven exhibit periodicity. The environmental variables are not significant for any of the species. Multivariate analyses indicate a significant difference between stations and an overall periodicity. As in the univariate analyses, environmental variables are not significant. The results suggest that in tropical habitats changes in species densities are regulated biotically.

The new species Ammonia jacksoni, Elphidium norvangi, Fissurina goreaui, Discorbinella minuta, Glabratella altispira and G. compressa are described. Taxonomic remarks are presented for most of the species.

Evolution of Oblitacythereis from Paleocosta (Ostracoda: Trachyleberididae) during the Cenozoic in the Mediterranean and Atlantic
Richard H. Benson
47 pages, 11 figures, 4 plates
1977 (Date of Issue: 29 August 1977)
Number 33, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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A new ostracode genus Oblitacythereis containing two new subgenera (the nominotypical form and the older Paleoblitacythereis) containing two new species (O. (O.) mediterranea and O. (P.) luandaensis) and one old species (new designation, O. (P.) ruggierii (Russo)) have been demonstrated to have descended from a common ancestral stock (new genus Paleocosta) of the genus Costa, the nominate form of the tribe Costini.

This genus contains heavily costate species whose history has been one of invasion of the greater depths of Tethys, which became thermospheric in the middle Miocene. Species of subgenus Paleoblitacythereis became adapted to upper slope and warm basinal habitats and underwent considerable modification of its carapace structure. When Tethys became extinct as a marine environment at the end of the Miocene, subgenus Paleoblitacythereis was eradicated in the Mediterranean region but survived in the Atlantic, where it lives today. Its descendant subgenus Oblitacythereis invaded the newly formed Mediterranean in the Early Pliocene, structurally modified to live in cooler water.

The history of Oblitacythereis was traceable because of a detailed analysis of structural and form homology, substantiated by quantitative Theta-Rho test.

Displaying 11 - 20 from the 97 total records