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Paleornithology of St. Helena Island, South Atlantic Ocean
Storrs L. Olson
49 pages, 10 figures, 6 plates, 8 tables
1975 (Date of Issue: 20 June 1975)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.23.1
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Abstract

The present avifauna of St. Helena is a very depauperate one, many species of birds having been extirpated since man's discovery of the island in 1502. The great extent of this extinction was confirmed by a study of over 4600 specimens of fossil and subfossil bird bones, representing 21 species, collected from rich deposits on the island. These deposits vary in age and fall roughly into three groups, the oldest of which extends well back into the Pleistocene, the youngest of which is very recent, and the third is intermediate. The deposits yielded the remains of the following species, six of which are here described as new: Procellariidae—Pterodroma rupinarum, new species, Bulweria bifax, new species, Puffinus pacificoides, new species, P. griseus, P. Iherminieri; Oceanitidae—Pelagodroma marina, Oceanodroma castro; Phaethontidae—Phaethon aethereus; Sulidae—Sula sula, S. dactylatra; Fregatidae—Fregata ariel trinitatis, F. minor; Rallidae—Atlantisia podarces, Porzana astrictocarpus; Charadriidae—Charadrius sanctaehelenae; Laridae—Larus sp., Gygis alba, Sterna fuscata; Columbidae—Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos, new genus and species; Cuculidae—Nannococcyx psix, new genus and species; Upupidae—Upupa antaios, new species. Pterodroma rupinarum and Puffinus pacificoides belong to species-groups that presently occur in the Indo-Pacific but not in the Atlantic; no gadfly-petrel of the size of Bulweria bifax is found in the Atlantic today. Puffinus griseus and Larus sp. are thought merely to have been vagrants on St. Helena. The pigeon and the hoopoe were both large and probably flightless. Differences in the composition and relative abundance of species between the deposits of different age indicate that the marine environment at St. Helena became progressively more tropical late in the Pleistocene. This resulted in great decreases in, or even extinction of, some of the species of Procellariiformes and in the appearance later in the fossil record of more purely tropical seabirds such as boobies, frigatebirds, and Sooty Terns.


Revised Tertiary Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Western Beaver Divide, Fremont County, Wyoming
Robert J. Emry
20 pages, 6 figures
1975 (Date of Issue: 23 October 1975)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.25.1
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In the western Beaver Divide area in west-central Wyoming, a lens of coarse Tertiary volcanic conglomerate and tuff disconformably overlies Uintan rocks of the Wagon Bed Formation. The coarse volcaniclastic rocks were previously regarded as a facies of the Beaver Divide Conglomerate Member of the Chadronian White River Formation, although fossil mammals from the volcaniclastic unit are species known otherwise only from Uintan rocks. Reexamination of field relations has shown that the White River Formation disconformably overlies the volcaniclastic unit. The “lower Uinta C” temporal equivalence indicated by the fossils from the volcaniclastic unit is no longer anomalous; the underlying Wagon Bed Formation has fossil mammals indicating “Uinta B” equivalence, and the overlying White River Formation has a fairly diverse Chadronian fauna. The Uintan volcaniclastic unit is assigned to the Wiggins Formation. The Beaver Divide Conglomerate Member is restricted to conglomerate in the lower part of the White River Formation. It is composed predominantly of clasts of locally derived Precambrian crystalline rocks.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, III (Part I - Text)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
1127 pages, 311 plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1975)
Number 19 (Part I - Text), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.-.1
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The third of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods of the Glass, Guadalupe and other mountain ranges of West Texas, this volume contains systematic descriptions of genera and species in the suborders Productidina and Chonetidina. The Productidina, which constitute about 45 percent of the brachiopod specimens in the collections from West Texas, are divided into the superfamilies Strophalosiacea, Aulostegacea, Richthofeniacea, and Productacea. The Chonetidina, less numerous, contain the single superfamily Chonetacea.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, III (Part II - Plates)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
1127 pages, 311 plates
1975 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1975)
Number 19 (Part II - Plates), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Abstract

The third of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods of the Glass, Guadalupe and other mountain ranges of West Texas, this volume contains systematic descriptions of genera and species in the suborders Productidina and Chonetidina. The Productidina, which constitute about 45 percent of the brachiopod specimens in the collections from West Texas, are divided into the superfamilies Strophalosiacea, Aulostegacea, Richthofeniacea, and Productacea. The Chonetidina, less numerous, contain the single superfamily Chonetacea.


Mammalian Faunal Zones of the Bridger Middle Eocene
C. Lewis Gazin
25 pages
1976 (Date of Issue: 20 January 1976)
Number 26, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.26.1
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Abstract

The zoning arrangement of the Bridger Middle Eocene as defined by W. D. Matthew in his 1909 monograph on the Carnivora and Insectivora of the Bridger Basin included a series of stratigraphic units lettered from A to E. The type section is in the western part of the basin but correlation of the sequence in the eastern part of the basin erred in that a very large area shown by Matthew as C, or upper Bridger, is actually B, or lower Bridger. As a consequence many of the mammalian remains collected in the eastern part of the basin were attributed to the wrong horizon. This was discovered in my faunal studies and verified by Wilmot Bradley's mapping of the Sage Creek White Layer, which is the base of Bridger C or upper Bridger.

A faunal list of the Mammalia recognized in the Bridger is given with type localities and their horizons, so far as known, and the number of specimens in the National Museum of Natural History collections from each of the two divisions, lower and upper. Following this a discussion of species is given in which the evidence for any species being restricted to one or the other of the stratigraphic divisions is cited, or such information demonstrating its occurrence in both levels, if this is not indicated by the National Museum of Natural History collections (under the catalog numbers of the old United States National Museum).

The Annotated Bibliography includes references to all papers in which recognized new mammalian families, genera, and species included in the Bridger faunas are described. Also included are papers in which stratigraphic and additional or detailed information on Bridger mammals is provided, with notations as to extent of coverage, and possible errors of detail or interpretation in certain cases.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, IV (plates)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
685 pages, 1 figure, 160 plates
1976 (Date of Issue: 12 February 1976)
Number 21 (plates), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.21.plates
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Abstract

The fourth of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods from several mountain ranges in western Texas, especially the Glass Mountains of Brewster County, this volume contains descriptions of genera and species in the orders Rhynchonellida and Spiriferida. The Rhynchonellida contain 30 genera in the superfamily Rhynchonellacea and 3 genera in the superfamily Stenoscismatacea. The Spiriferida contain 2 genera of Cyrtiacea, 4 of Athyridacea, 9 of Spiriferacea, and 6 of Reticulariacea.


Permian Brachiopods of West Texas, IV (text)
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
685 pages, 1 figure, 160 plates
1976 (Date of Issue: 12 February 1976)
Number 21 (text), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.21.text
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Abstract

The fourth of a six-part monograph on the Permian brachiopods from several mountain ranges in western Texas, especially the Glass Mountains of Brewster County, this volume contains descriptions of genera and species in the orders Rhynchonellida and Spiriferida. The Rhynchonellida contain 30 genera in the superfamily Rhynchonellacea and 3 genera in the superfamily Stenoscismatacea. The Spiriferida contain 2 genera of Cyrtiacea, 4 of Athyridacea, 9 of Spiriferacea, and 6 of Reticulariacea.


Phoca wymani and Other Tertiary Seals (Mammalia: Phocidae) Described from the Eastern Seaboard of North America
Clayton E. Ray
36 pages, 3 figures, 11 plates
1976 (Date of Issue: 14 May 1976)
Number 28, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Abstract

Fossil seal remains from Richmond, Virginia, first reported by Wyman in 1850, and named Phoca wymani by Leidy in 1853, have been neglected and unjustifiably regarded as cetacean by most subsequent authors. Recently recognized parts of the holotype and other material, in part recently collected in Richmond, show that the species is a monachine seal, here called Monotherium? wymani (Leidy, 1853a). It is derived from Miocene beds that are definitely older than the Yorktown Formation and probably correlative with the Calvert Formation of Maryland. Thus Monotherium? wymani is probably the oldest known monachine. Other evidence of fossil phocids in eastern North America is reviewed.


Collected Papers in Avian Paleontology Honoring the 90th Birthday of Alexander Wetmore
Storrs L. Olson, editor
211 pages, 91 figures, 38 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1976)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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Abstract

Eighteen papers covering diverse aspects of avian paleontology—from the earliest known bird to extinct species found in Indian middens—are collected here to honor the 90th birthday of Alexander Wetmore. These are preceded by an appraisal of the current state of avian paleontology and of Alexander Wetmore's influence on it, including a bibliography of his publications in this field. John H. Ostrom analyzes the hypothetical steps in the origin of flight between Archaeopteryx and modern birds. Philip D. Gingerich confirms that Ichthyornis and Hesperornis did indeed bear teeth, that the palate in Hesperornis is paleognathous, and that these Cretaceous toothed birds appear to occupy a position intermediate between dinosaurs and modern birds. Larry D. Martin and James Tate, Jr. describe the skeleton of the Cretaceous diving bird Baptornis advenus and conclude that the Baptornithidae belong in the Hesperornithiformes, but are less specialized than Hesperornis. Pierce Brodkorb describes the first known Cretaceous land bird as forming a new order possibly ancestral to the Coraciiformes and Piciformes. E. N. Kurochkin summarizes the distribution and paleoecology of the Paleogene birds of Asia, with particular emphasis on the evolution of the gruiform families Eogruidae and Ergilornithidae. Pat Vickers Rich and David J. Bohaska describe the earliest known owl from Paleocene deposits in Colorado. Alan Feduccia transfers the Eocene genus Neanis from the Passeriformes to the Piciformes and he and Larry D. Martin go on to refer this and four other genera to a new family of Piciformes, concluding that these were the dominant perching land birds of the Eocene of North America. Storrs L. Olson describes a new species of Todidae from the Oligocene of Wyoming and refers the genus Protornis from the Oligocene of Switzerland to the Momotidae, concluding that the New World Coraciiformes originated in the Old World. Charles T. Collins describes two new species of the Eo-Oligocene genus Aegialornis and presents evidence that the Aegialornithidae should be referred to the Caprimulgiformes rather than to the Apodiformes, although they might be ancestral to the swifts. In the following paper he shows that the earliest known true swifts (Apodidae) are three nominal forms from the Lower Miocene of France which prove to be but a single species of Cypseloides, a modern genus belonging to a primitive subfamily now restricted to the New World. Stuart L. Warter describes a new osprey from the Miocene of California to provide the earliest certain occurrence of the family Pandionidae and he treats functional aspects of the evolution of the wing in Pandion. Hildegarde Howard describes a new species of flightless mancalline auk, also from the Miocene of California, which is temporally and morphologically intermediate between Praemancalla lagunensis and the species of Mancalla. Robert W. Storer analyzes Pleistocene fossils of pied-billed grebes, synonymizing Podilymbus magnus Shufeldt with modern P. podiceps and describing a new species from peninsular Florida. Kenneth E. Campbell, Jr., lists 53 species of birds, including new species of Buteo and Oreopholus, from a Pleistocene deposit in southwestern Ecuador and compares this with a fauna of similar age from northwestern Peru, both of which indicate more humid conditions in the past. Oscar Arredondo summarizes aspects of the morphology, evolution, and ecology of the gigantic owls, eagles, and vultures recently discovered in Pleistocene deposits in Cuba. Joel Cracraft analyzes variation in the moas of New Zealand, reduces the number of species recognized to 13, and suggests that several “species pairs” represent examples of sexual size dimorphism. G. Victor Morejohn reports remains of the extinct flightless duck Chendytes lawi, previously known only from Pleistocene deposits, from Indian middens in northern California and concludes that the species became extinct through human agency less than 3800 years ago.


A Vector Approach to Size and Shape Comparisons among Zooids in Cheilostome Bryozoans
Alan H. Cheetham and Douglas M. Lorenz
55 pages, 37 figures, 19 tables
1976 (Date of Issue: 8 July 1976)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.29.1
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Abstract

Although zooid size and shape have long been used in comparative studies of cheilostome bryozoans, procedures for measuring these properties have been little investigated. Predominatly intussusceptive growth of buds suggests a method of comparing zooid outlines based on (1) correspondence of principal growth direction (proximal-distal axis) and (2) size and shape properties expressing differential growth about this axis.

Vector properties of a wide variety of autozooidal outlines (in frontal view) were studied by principal components. Size (area within the outline) accounts for more than one-third of the variation and tends to vary less within colonies than shape, even in severely disturbed budding patterns. The portion of shape independent of size is divisible into three components. Each of the first two components accounts for about one-fourth of the total variation, the third for less than five percent. One shape component is associated with asymmetry of outline, as measured both by departure of the mean vector direction from the proximal-distal axis and by inequality of vector lengths on either side of the axis. The amount of asymmetry is small, can be either antisymmetry or fluctuating asymmetry, and varies greatly within colonies apparently with microenvironmental effects on budding patterns. The second shape component is associated with elongation (concentration of vector lengths near the mean growth direction) and distal inflation (proportion of area distal to the midpoint of the proximaldistal axis). These two variables seem less affected by microenvironment than is asymmetry. The third component accounts for only the small part of variation in elongation and distal inflation that is not positively correlated. Variation in this component suggests that distal inflation is slightly more sensitive to microenvironment than is elongation. Estimates of intrapopulation variation in one fossil species suggest that size and that part of elongation varying in opposition to distal inflation are sufficiently consistent within single populations, under the same conditions of ontogeny, astogeny, and polymorphism, to form a basis for taxonomic discrimination. Within the range of colony means for each of these two properties among the variety of outlines examined, at least three and possibly four potentially taxonomically distinct intervals can be recognized. The number of measurements per colony needed to detect differences between these intervals is surprisingly small.


Displaying 21 - 30 from the 97 total records