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Geology and Paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine, North Carolina, III
Clayton E. Ray and David J. Bohaska, editors
365 pages, 127 figures, 45 plates, 32 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 11 May 2001)
Number 90, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.90.1
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This volume on the geology and paleontology of the Lee Creek Mine is the third of four to be dedicated to the late Remington Kellogg. It includes a prodromus and six papers on nonmammalian vertebrate paleontology. The prodromus continues the historical theme of the introductions to volumes I and II, reviewing and resuscitating additional early reports of Atlantic Coastal Plain fossils. Harry L. Fierstine identifies five species of the billfish family Istiophoridae from some 500 bones collected in the Yorktown Formation. These include the only record of Makaira purdyi Fierstine, the first fossil record of the genus Tetrapturus, specifically T. albidus Poey, the second fossil record of Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw and Nodder) and Makaira indica (Cuvier), and the first fossil record of I. platypterus, M. indica, M. nigricans Lacépède, and T. albidus from fossil deposits bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Robert W. Purdy and five coauthors identify 104 taxa from 52 families of cartilaginous and bony fishes from the Pungo River and Yorktown formations. The 10 teleosts and 44 selachians from the Pungo River Formation indicate correlation with the Burdigalian and Langhian stages. The 37 cartilaginous and 40 bony fishes, mostly from the Sunken Meadow member of the Yorktown Formation, are compatible with assignment to the early Pliocene planktonic foraminiferal zones N18 or N19. The Pungo River fish fauna is dominated by warm water taxa; the Yorktown fauna includes warm and cool water species. These changes are attributed to increased upwelling waters in Yorktown time. The abundant fossils provide the basis for several changes in selachian taxonomy and for two new species of bony fishes. George R. Zug records 11 taxa of turtles from the Yorktown Formation: a sideneck (Bothremys); six sea turtles (Caretta, ?Chelonia, Lepidochelys, Procolpochelys, Psephophorus, Syllomus); a softshell turtle (trionychid); two pond turtles (probably Pseudemys and Trachemys); and a giant tortoise (Geochelone). Albert C. Myrick, Jr., records the crocodylian Thecachampsa antiqua (Leidy) on the basis of fragmentary float material from the Pungo River or Yorktown Formation, or both. Robert W. Storer describes a new species of grebe of the genus Podiceps from the Yorktown Formation. Storrs L. Olson and Pamela C. Rasmussen record some 112 species of birds from the Pungo River and Yorktown formations. Apart from an undetermined number of shearwaters, only a few species are thought to come from the Pungo River Formation. The marine species from the Yorktown Formation include three loons, two grebes, five albatrosses, at least 16 shearwaters and petrels, one pelican, two pseudodontorns, three gannets, two cormorants, 9-11 auks and puffins, one skua, three jaegers, five gulls, two terns, and 20 ducks, geese, and swans. The less common land and shore birds are represented by 29 species, including three cranes, one rail, two oystercatchers, one plover, four scolopacids, one flamingo, one ibis, one heron, three storks, one condor, five accipitrids, one osprey, one phasianid, one turkey, one pigeon, and one crow. The fauna is dominated by a radiation of auks of the genus Alca. The early Pliocene fauna is very modern in aspect, suggesting that most modern lineages of birds were already in existence.


Myodocopid Ostracoda from the Late Permian of Greece and a Basic Classification for Paleozoic and Mesozoic Myodocopida
Louis S. Kornicker and I. G. Sohn
33 pages, 22 figures, 1 table
2000 (Date of Issue: 1 May 2000)
Number 91, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.91.33
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Four new genera and six new species are described from the top of the Episkopi Formation (Dorashamian) on the island of Hydra, Greece: Cypridinelliforma rex (new species), Nodophilomedes phoenix (new genus, new species), Swainella bex (new genus, new species), Triadocypris pax (new species), Siveterella pax (new genus, new species), Siveterella flex (new species), and Sylvesterella (new genus), based on specimens in the collection from Greece. Supplementary descriptions are presented of Philomedes rankiniana (Jones and Kirkby, 1867) and Eocypridina radiata (Jones and Kirkby, 1874).

A basic classification proposed for Paleozoic and Mesozoic Myodocopida includes a new suborder, three new superfamilies, and three new families.


Triassic Gastropods of the Southern Qinling Mountains, China
Jinnan Tong and Douglas H. Erwin
47 pages, 11 figures, 6 plates, 5 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 7 November 2001)
Number 92, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.92.1
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Forty-eight species in 27 genera of gastropods, including 14 new species and one new genus, are described from early- to middle-Triassic (Scythian- to Ladinian-aged) rocks from the southern Qinling Mountains of Gansu and Sichuan provinces, China. This report expands the knowledge of the biogeographic distribution of gastropods during the recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction. The new taxa include Tongweispira sichuanensis, new genus and new species, and the following new species: Ananias guojiashanensis, Worthenia extendia, Gosseletina? dangchangensis, Zygites laevigatus, Trochotoma (Discotoma) gansuensis, Cheilotomona acutocarinata, Naticopsis (Dicosmos) compressus, Naticopsis (Discosmos) sichuanensis, Naticopsis? ribletella, Neritopsis planoplicatus, Platychilina sinensis, Platychilina obliqua, and Omphaloptycha gansuensis.


Cenozoic Mammals of Land and Sea: Tributes to the Career of Clayton E. Ray
Robert J. Emry, ed.
v, 372 p. : ill., maps
2002 (Date of Issue: 18 December 2002)
Number 93, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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This is a volume of collected papers published to honor the career of Clayton E. Ray, now Curator Emeritus in the Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and Curator of Late Cenozoic Mammals and of Fossil Marine Mammals in the same department for more than 30 years before his retirement in 1994. The volume includes a preface, a biography and bibliography of Clayton E. Ray, and 19 papers devoted principally to Pleistocene mammals and to fossil marine mammals. Gary Morgan describes late Pleistocene mammalian faunas from several sites in southernmost Florida and discusses the Neotropical influence in Florida's Pleistocene faunas. Richard H. Tedford describes the basicranium of the Pleistocene giant wombat Phascolonus gigas Owen and discusses its significance in marsupial phylogenetic reconstruction. Gerardo De Iuliis and A. Gordon Edmund describe Vassallia maxima Castellanos, the only pre-Pleistocene pampathere known in which a skull and mandible are associated with osteoderms; the range of osteoderm variation in one associated individual allows them to synonymize other taxa that had been based on osteoderm differences. Paul W. Parmalee and Russell Wm. Graham report additional records of the giant beaver, Castoroides, from the mid-South. Frederick Grady, Joaquin Arroyo-Cabrales, and E. Ray Garton report the northernmost known occurrence of vampire bats in the Pleistocene of eastern North America. H. Gregory McDonald reports the second known occurrence of the badger Taxidea taxus in the Pleistocene of Kentucky and discusses the paleoecological implications of the occurrence. Jerry N. McDonald and George E. Lammers describe Bison antiquus from Ontario and discuss the evolution of bison in the Holocene of North America. Daryl P. Domning presents a new analysis and interpretation of the terrestrial posture in desmostylians. Thomas A. Demere and Annalisa Berta describe new material and present a phylogenetic analysis of the Miocene pinniped Desmatophoca oregonensis from Oregon. Irina A. Koretsky and Dan Grigorescu describe and evaluate the systematic position of the fossil monk seal Pontophoca sarmatica from the Miocene of eastern Europe. Irina A. Koretsky and Peter Holec describe a new, primitive, phocid pinniped from the early middle Miocene of Slovakia and discuss its bearing on the phylogeny and classification of pinnipeds. Irina A. Koretsky and Albert E. Sanders report remains of the oldest known phocid pinniped from the late Oligocene of South Carolina. R. Ewan Fordyce describes and discusses a bizarre archaic Oligocene dolphin from the eastern North Pacific, on which he bases a new species, genus, and subfamily. Christian de Muizon, Daryl P. Domning, and Darlene R. Ketten describe and discuss the paleobiology and behavior of an unusual walrus-convergent delphinoid cetacean from the early Pliocene of Peru. Susan D. Dawson and Michael D. Gottfried report paleopathologic conditions in a Miocene odontocete cetacean. Albert E. Sanders and Lawrence G. Barnes contribute two papers, both describing and analyzing new, primitive, cetotheriid mysticete cetaceans from the late Oligocene of South Carolina. James W. Westgate and Frank C. Whitmore, Jr., describe a new species of bowhead whale from the Pliocene Yorktown Formation in Virginia. James G. Mead and Rosemary G. Dagit present an account of the search for the 1880s manuscript of J.A. Allen's unpublished monograph on the mammalian orders Cete and Sirenia; the manuscript was not found but the 12 plates that were prepared for it are published herein.


Middle Proterozoic (1.5 Ga) Horodyskia moniliformis Yochelson and Fedonkin, the Oldest Known Tissue-Grade Colonial Eucaryote
Mikhail A. Fedonkin and Ellis L. Yochelson
29 pages, 19 figures
2002 (Date of Issue: 29 January 2002)
Number 94, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
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“Problematic bedding-plane markings” discovered by the late R.J. Horodyski from the Appekunny Formation in Glacier National Park, Montana, and dated at approximately 1.5 giga-annum (Ga), were never formally named. We are convinced the specimens are biogenic and have placed them within Linnaean nomenclature as Horodyskia moniliformis Yochelson and Fedonkin. An apt description of the locally abundant fossils is “string of beads.” On each string, beads are of nearly uniform size and spacing; proportionally, bead size and spacing remain almost constant, regardless of string length or size of individual beads. They may not be related to any other known fossil, and their position within highest levels of the taxonomic hieararchy is enigmatic. We judge they were multicellular, tissue-grade, colonial eucaryotes. Similar strings have been reported from Western Australia, but nowhere else. The general geologic setting in Montana, details of sedimentation, and taphonomy suggest the organisms were benthonic, growing upward about 1 cm through episodically deposited eolian dust. During life, specimens were stiff and relatively strong, but show no evidence of a mineralized skeleton. They lived in poorly oxygenated water with the body progressively subjected to anaerobic conditions. Their energy source is obscure; their mode of growth and several features of interpreted environment lead us to speculate that Horodyskia likely lived primarily by ingesting chemosynthetic bacteria rather than by photosynthesis. This notion should be tested by searching red, fine-grained, subaqueous arenites of approximately the same age throughout the world for additional occurrences.


New Materials of Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson, Carrano, and Forster, 2001, and Implications for the Morphology of the Noasauridae (Theropoda: Ceratosauria)
Matthew T. Carrano, Mark A. Loewen, and Joseph J. W. Sertich
viii + 53 pages
2011 (Date of Issue: 18 January 2011)
Number 95, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.95.1
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Osteology of the noasaurid theropod Masiakasaurus knopfleri Sampson et al., 2001, is now two-thirds complete. We describe Masiakasaurus knopfleri in detail on the basis of examination of new specimens and emphasis on previously unknown elements. The skull is anteroposteriorly long but low in height, unlike the foreshortened abelisaurid condition. Premaxillary teeth are procumbent, like those of the dentary. Frontal bones are flat and unornamented, but the lacrimal and postorbital exhibit surface texturing. The braincase resembles that of abelisaurids but is more highly pneumatized. The neck is curved anteriorly but horizontal posteriorly, and it transitions to the trunk without significant proportional changes. Centrum pneumaticity appears confined to the neck and anterior trunk. The sacrum includes six vertebrae, and the expanded transverse processes of caudal vertebrae may articulate with caudal ribs. The scapulocoracoid is large and broad. The ilium is both anteroposteriorly long and dorsoventrally deep, and it bears pegs for articulation with sockets on the pubis and ischium, as in other ceratosaurs. The nearly complete pes shows no particular locomotor specializations and allows reinterpretation of the ?raptorial? pedal ungual of Noasaurus as a manual element. These new specimens also illuminate the morphology of other noasaurids, especially those from the Lameta Formation.

In addition to Madagascar, noasaurids are known from Europe, India, South America, and Africa, spanning at least Aptian?Albian through Maastrichtian time. The new materials of Masiakasaurus increase character resolution within Abelisauroidea, identifying many formerly equivocal features as synapomorphies of the nodes Noasauridae, Abelisauridae, or Abelisauroidea. Unfortunately, the fragmentary nature of nearly all other noasaurids obviates any meaningful ingroup resolution, and as a result no particular evolutionary or biogeographic scenarios for the clade can presently be supported (or rejected) with confidence.


Displaying 92 - 97 from the 97 total records

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