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New Permian Brachiopods from West Texas
G. Arthur Cooper and Richard E. Grant
20 pages, 5 plates
1969 (Date of Issue: 14 July 1969)
Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.1.1
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Thirty-five new genera are described, 27 of them based on new species. They are classified by superfamily as follows: ENTELETACEA: Acosarina (A. dorsisulcata, new species). DAVIDSONIACEA: Goniarina (G. pyelodes, new species), Tropidelasma (T. culmenatum, new species). CHONETACEA: Chonetinetes (C. reversus, new species), Micraphelia (M. scitula, new species), Rugaria (Chonetes hessensis R. E. King), Sulcataria (Chonetina? rostrata Dunbar and Condra), Undulella (U. undulata, new species). STROPHALOSIACEA: Acritosia (A. magna, new speccies), Agelesia (Aulosteges triagonalis R. E. King). RICHTHOFENIACEA: Collumatus (C. solitarius, new species), Cyclacantharia (C. kingorum, new species), Hercosestria (H. cribrosa, new species), Hercosia (Richthofenia uddeni Böse), Sestropoma (S. cribriferum, new species). PRODUCTACEA: Anemonaria (A. inflata, new species), Dasysaria (D. undulata, new species), Oncosarina (O. spinicostata, new species), Thamnosia (T. anterospinosa, new species). LYTTONIACEA: Petasmaia (P. expansa, new species). RHYNCHONELLACEA: Amphipella (A. arcaria, new species), Bryorhynchus (Camarophoria? bisulcata Shumard) Divaricosta (D. squarrosa, new species), Petasmatherus (P. opulus, new species), Phrenophoria (P. subcarinata, new species), Pontisia (P. stehlii, new species), Strigirhynchus (Rhynchonella? indentata Shumard), Tautosia (T. fastigiata, new species). SPIRIFERACEA: Lepidospirifer (L. angulatus, new species). SPIRIFERINACEA: Sarganostega (S. transversalis, new species), Xestotrema (Spirifera pulchra Meek). RETICULARIACEA: Anomaloria (A. anomala, new species), Astegosia (Squamularia guadalupensis subquadrata Girty). DIELASMATACEA: Plectelasma (P. kingi, new species). CRYPTONELLACEA: Texasia (T. elongata, new species).

The genus Cooperina Termier, Termier and Pajaud, based on material from the Glass Mountains, Texas, was assigned by its authors to the Thecideidina. Evidence is adduced here to show that it is classified more properly among the Strophalosiacea of the Productidina and that it is unrelated to the thecideids.

A New Occurrence of Paleocene Mammals in the Evanston Formation, Southwestern Wyoming
C. Lewis Gazin
17 pages, 1 figure, 3 plates
1969 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1969)
Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.2.1
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A new fossil horizon and locality for the Evanston formation, near Little Muddy Creek in the Fossil Basin of southwestern Wyoming, has yielded remains of a mammalian faunule of middle Paleocene age. Relationships are shown to the two widely separated classic occurrences: the upper Lebo of the Montana Fort Union and the New Mexico Torrejon. A correlation is also indicated with the Battle Mountain and Rock Bench occurrences in the more local Wyoming region. The known faunule is comprised of essentially small Mammalia representing the orders Multituberculata, Insectivora, Primates, Creodonta, and Condylarthra. The material consists for the most part of isolated teeth, hence identifications are necessarily tentative in nature.

Paleozoic Perspectives: A Paleontological Tribute to G. Arthur Cooper
J. Thomas Dutro, Jr., editor
390 pages, 78 figures, 63 plates, 16 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 22 February 1971)
Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.3.1
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This collection of papers was solicited from colleagues and students of G. Arthur Cooper as a Festchrift in recognition of his profound influence on the study of brachiopods and their biostratigraphic application to geologic problems, especially in the Paleozoic Era.

Dr. Cooper initiated a period of growth in both the research staff and the National Collections of Fossils that guided the Smithsonian Institution to its present position of leadership in paleontological research. His own superb studies of fossil and living brachiopods are unsurpassed in breadth and paleontological significance. Mainly through his efforts, the Smithsonian has acquired an outstanding reference collection of invertebrate fossils that is the envy of the scientific community.

Distribution of Planktonic Foraminifera in the Vicinity of the North Atlantic Current
Richard Cifelli and Roberta K. Smith
52 pages, 22 figures, 6 plates, 8 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 13 April 1970)
Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.4.1
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Planktonic Foraminifera collected from the vicinity of the North Atlantic Current and the Gulf Stream during late winter-early spring and fall of 1964 are described and their distributions are recorded. Variations in faunal composition seem to be related largely to water regime dynamics and seasonal cycle. Among the fall collections, three distinctive assemblages can be recognized: a western group in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream, containing predominantly Sargasso Sea-Gulf Stream species dominated by Globigerinoides ruber; a northern group, dominated by Globigerina quinqueloba egelida, new subspecies, reflecting the influence of cold, northern waters adjacent to the North Atlantic Current; and an eastern group, dominated by Globigerina incompta, apparently developed within the limits of the North Atlantic Current. The last group seemingly represents an anomaly, as North Atlantic Current surface temperatures were relatively high at the time of collection, and dominance of a warm-water form, such as Globigerinoides ruber, might have been expected. The anomaly suggests that the North Atlantic Current is a partially closed gyre, fed by both slope waters and Gulf Stream. Temperatures are considered to be close to threshold for both cold and warm-water species.

Distributional patterns displayed by the late winter-early spring collections are compatible with the proposed model. Also, these collections, taken over a period of almost three months, reflect marked seasonal changes in faunal composition, particularly in Sargasso Sea-Gulf Stream elements.

Twenty-five species and subspecies are described. One species, Globigerina atlantisae, and one subspecies, Globigerina quinqueloba egelida, are new.

Catalog of the Illustrated Paleozoic Plant Specimens in the National Museum of Natural History
Arthur D. Watt
53 pages
1970 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1970)
Number 5, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.5.1
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A catalog of the illustrated Paleozoic fossils in the National Museum of Natural History is presented, updating United States National Museum Bulletin 53, part 2, section 3, 1907.

Functional Morphology and Biofacies Distribution of Cheilostome Bryozoa in the Danian Stage (Paleocene) of Southern Scandinavia
Alan H. Cheetham
87 pages, 29 figures, 17 plates, 10 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 27 September 1971)
Number 6, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.6.1
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Highly diversified assemblages of cheilostome Bryozoa in the Danian Stage of southern Sweden and Denmark represent the culmination of primarily divergent evolutionary trends originating in the first appearance of the group in Early Cretaceous time. Functional relationships between colony and zooid morphology are less likely to have been obscured by vestigial structures and convergent and parallel evolution in these assemblages than in later Cenozoic faunas. The Danian assemblages, then, provide a test of the hypothesis that, in the early evolution of cheilostomes, environmentally correlated variation in the form of colonies depended functionally upon the structure of their component zooids.

Theoretically, the rigidly erect growth form should have an adaptive advantage over the presumed ancestral encrusting form, by virtue of a vastly increased potential zooid density relative to substrate occupied. A rigidly erect colony must be able to resist stresses induced by vertical loading, bending, and twisting and thus appears to require calcified walls, especially on the frontal sides of its zooids. Given the constraints imposed by the cheilostome mode of growing and calcifying zooid walls and of operating the hydrostatic system, zooid morphotypes can be relatively graded for efficiency in structural support of the colony by the degree to which their joint calcification approaches a laterally merging, continuously thickening, distally tapering skeletal mass analogous to the outer walls of an enlarging cantilever beam.

These hypothetical relationships are generally consistent with biofacies distributions of more than 50 species associated with a single middle Danian mound in southern Sweden. This mound is typical of many which accumulated, probably at depths approximating the shelf-edge, in southern Scandinavia during Danian time. It includes three biofacies: (1) the flanks, dominated by bryozoans; (2) the core, rich in octocorals with less abundant colonial scleractinians and bryozoans; and (3) transitional areas, between the two, dominated by octocorals but with abundant bryozoans. Sediments of the three biofacies contain distinctive assemblages of cheilostome species which differ in abundance rather than by presence or absence. The flanks are dominated by species inferred to have had erect colonies and the more complex zooid morphotypes. This group of species constitutes the bulk of the total fauna in weight-abundance but fewer than half the species. Species dominant in the core facies make up about half the total number of species and are inferred to have had mostly encrusting colonies with zooids of all morphotypes recognized, including the simplest. The transitional facies includes a mixture in subequal proportions of the two groups of species dominant in the other facies; however, this facies has other distinctive species in abundance and thus may represent an ecotone. Morphologically, the cheilostomes abundant in the transitional facies are intermediate in inferred zooid morphotypes and colony forms.

The relation between abundance and morphology of Danian cheilostomes suggests that attainment of the more advantageous rigidly erect colony form was functionally more probable for zooid morphotypes susceptible of heavy frontal calcification than for others. If a minimum amount of frontal calcification must have been present before the rigidly erect mode of growth could be assumed, then frontal calcification was associated originally with some other function, such as protection of the lophophore. It is possible that the various further advances in zooid morphotype could also have been made as separate prospective adaptations, but it seems more likely that some or all of them represent direct adaptive improvements for the structural support of rigidly erect colonies.

A New Cenozoic Deep-Sea Genus, Abyssocythere (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Trachyleberididae), with Descriptions of Five New Species
Richard H. Benson
25 pages, 12 figures, 3 plates, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 11 August 1971)
Number 7, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.7.1
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The new genus Abyssocythere Benson has been erected to receive five new species and one described species of psychrospheric ostracode ranging in age from the Paleocene to the Recent. These species include Abyssocythere casca Benson, new species (Indian Ocean), herein designated the type species, A. pannucea Benson, new species (eastern Pacific), A. japonica Benson, new species (western Pacific), A. atlantica Benson, new species (Atlantic), A. australis (Southern Ocean), and A. trinidadensis (van den Bold) from the Caribbean region. Modern species are typical of the deep-sea floor and are common to depths below 2,000 meters. Fossils have been found in deep-water Paleocene and Miocene strata in Trinidad and in deep-sea cores in Pleistocene sediments. These species are thought to have descended from a yet unknown form of the complex of species assigned to the Cretaceous genus Cythereis (sensu lato). There seems to be an evolution of finer surface features of the carapace and an increase in size throughout the Cenozoic.

Mode of Growth and Functional Morphology of Autozooids in Some Recent and Paleozoic Tubular Bryozoa
Richard S. Boardman
51 pages, 6 figures, 11 plates
1971 (Date of Issue: 23 August 1971)
Number 8, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.8.1
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Membranous structures reflecting functional organs are recognizable in a relatively few tubular Bryozoa of Paleozoic age belonging largely to the order Trepostomata. Some skeletal structures also seem to reflect functional organs in a generalized way. Thin sections, including both hard and soft parts, of several genera of Recent tubular Bryozoa of the order Cyclostomata provide a first approximation to the shape, size, and position of cuticular or membranous structures in autozooids that might be preserved under exceptional conditions in fossils. Potentially preservable cuticular or membranous structures include: (1) outward opening funnel-shaped terminal-vestibular membranes and sphincter muscle regions; (2) flask- or sac-shaped membranous sacs; and (3) the spherical-to-formless sex organs and brown bodies.

Most of the diaphragms common to trepostome autozooecia presumably formed floors for living chambers of successive functioning bodies in the degeneration-regeneration cycle. The position of some skeletal intrazooecial structures within living chambers must have been lateral to functioning organs. Mural spines that have a definite distributional pattern might represent calcified attachment points for ligaments or muscles. Skeletal cystiphragms, hemiphragms, ring septa, and autozooecial wall thickenings all seem to be lateral features which provided significant modifications to the shape and size of the autozooidal living chamber. These and other skeletal structures appear to have been developed by zooids growing with colony-wide cyclic coordination so that skeletal structures commonly display a constant relative spacing or size correlation in the growth sequence of a colony. Hemiphragms, cystoidal diaphragms, ring septa, and skeletal cystiphragms and funnel-cystiphragms in some species are perhaps more comparable in cycle with basal diaphragms of autozooecia, suggesting that their distribution might have been controlled largely by degeneration-regeneration cycles. Closely tabulated mesopores seem to provide an expression of the most frequent colony-wide cycles in many species and can be correlated one-to-one with some mural spines and skeletal cystiphragms. Perhaps these most closely spaced structures reflect an increase in length of soft parts during a single functional stage of the degeneration-regeneration cycle.

Some monticuliporid and diaphragmed trepostomes contain a second type of cystiphragm that forms small flask-shaped chambers filled with brown deposits that suggest a concentration of organic material during the life of the colony. These chambers do not preclude retractable lophophores but almost certainly the inflexible necks restrict significantly the room for passage of membranous structures. Because of this restriction and the scattered or thinly cyclic distribution of flask-shaped chambers known from only a few species, a primary food-gathering function does not seem feasible for them. Possibly, these restricted chambers had a reproductive function, conceivably comparable to the male zooids with reduced numbers of tentacles reported in a few species of cheilostome Bryozoa. Regardless of function, if the flask-shaped chambers and their inferred organs were zooids, they represent intrazooecial polymorphism, contrasting morphologically with the alternating and consistently present living chambers that presumably contained food-gathering organs. The shape, size, and position of food-gathering organs seem more likely then to be reflected by intrazooecial structures that are repeated regularly in autozooecia, such as basal diaphragms, cystiphragms, hemisepta, ring septa, and annular thickenings of zooecial walls.

Catalog of Type Specimens of Invertebrate Fossils: Conodonta
Frederick J. Collier, compiler
256 pages
1971 (Date of Issue: 23 September 1971)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.9.1
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Type specimens of the conodonts in the national collection are listed alphabetically by generic and specific name. Geographic, stratigraphic, bibliographic and other pertinent information concerning each specimen is included as an initial record entry. Additional entries for each specimen list references and binomen changes subsequent to the original isolation of the specimen in the literature. Name changes are also cross-indexed in the initial record list. Two appendices list occurrence of species by stratigraphy (system, series and formation) and geography (country and state).

Tertiary and Mesozoic Echinoids of Saudi Arabia
Porter M. Kier
242 pages, 50 figures, 67 plates
1972 (Date of Issue: 14 June 1972)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810266.10.1
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The Mesozoic and Tertiary echinoids are described from Saudi Arabia. Fifty-one species, thirty-four of them new, occur in beds ranging from the Lower Jurassic to the Miocene. Two species are present in the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation, one is new: Acrosalenia marratensis. The Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Bathonian) middle Dhruma Formation yielded eleven species, all new: Acrosalenia arabica, Acrosalenia dhrumaensis, Heterosalenia dhrumaensis, Pseudocidaris depressa, Polycyphus arabicus, Pseudosalenia magniprocta, Farquharsonia crenulata, Leioechinus namus (type species of new genus of the family Stomechinidae), Plesiechinus altus, Bothryopneustes arabica, and Bothryopneustes dhrumaensis. Thirteen species are described from the Late Jurassic (Callovian) upper Dhruma Formation, including twelve new species: Acrosalenia bowersi, Pseudocidaris romani, Pseudocidaris raratuberculata, Hypodiadema nanituberculata, Heterosalenia brocki, Heterosalenia ornata, Leioechinus amplus, Polycyphus parvituberculatus, Holectypus phelani, Pygurus (Pygurus) arabicus, Bothryopneustes kauffmani, and Bothryopneustes inflata. One species, Bothryopneustes orientalis Fourtau, occurs in the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone. Eleven species are reported from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian or Maestrichtian) Aruma Formation, five of which are new. Rhynchopygus arumaensis, Proraster granti, Iraniaster bowersi, Iraniaster affinimorgani, and Iraniaster affinidouvillei. The sympatric pairing of two species of Iraniaster corresponds to a pairing of another two species of this genus in the Senonian of Iran. This pairing has been reported in living spatangoids. The Early Cretaceous Yamama Formation yielded the new species Pygurus (Pygurus) yamamaensis. Beds of Eocene or Oligocene age yielded three echinoid species, one of them new: Agassizia arabica. Nine species occur in the Miocene Dam Formation, three are new: Schizechinus pentagonus, Fibularia damensis, and Agassizia powersi. These Miocene echinoids are quite similar to species now living in the littoral zone.

The distribution and affinities of the echinoid species indicate faunal provinces in the Jurassic largely confined to Saudi Arabia, and in the Cretaceous confined to Saudi Arabia and Iran with some connections to North Africa but not to India. The Miocene distribution differs in being a part of a fauna occurring along the present borders of the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea of Saudi Arabia, Iran, West Pakistan, and northwestern India.

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