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Displaying 21 - 30 from the 644 total records
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A Monographic Study of the Mexican Species of Enlinia (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)
Harold Robinson
62 pages, 221 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.25
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Abstract

Fifty-three species are recorded for Mexico, including Enlinia ciliata Robinson previously known from the southeastern United States and 52 previously undescribed. The newly described species are placed in 20 groups as follows: I. E. elegans (closely related to the type-species, E. magistri (Aldrich) of the United States, E. ornata, E. anomalipennis, E. lobata, E. plumicauda, E. crinita, E. interrupta, E. maculata, E. obovata (last two similar to E. sordida (Aldrich) of the West Indies); II. E. marginata; III. (E. ciliata group) E. convergens, E. albipes; IV. E. femorata, E. cristata; V. E. armata, E. fusca, E. distincta, E. hirtitarsis, E. fasciata, E. setosa; VI. E. flavicornis; VII. E. tibialis; VIII. E. elongata, E. chaetophora; IX. E. halteralis; X. E. montana, E. angustifacies, E. maxima, E. latifacies, E. media; XI. E. scutitarsis; XII. E. seticauda, E. ramosa (last also reported from Panama); XIII. E. magnicornis; XIV. E. hirtipes, E. clavulifera, E. fimbriata; XV. E. ventralis, E. brevipes; XVI. E. nigricans; XVII. E. acuticornis, E. frontalis; XVIII. E. caudata; XIX. E. lamellata, XX. E. simplex, E. unisetosa, E. brachychaeta, E. scabrida, E. latipennis, E. seriata, E. ciliifemorata, and E. exigua. General observations include the trends toward spectacularly ornate male wings, legs, abdominal sternites, and genitalia and the preference for sunlight in group I; the simple structure and preference for shade of group XX; preference for soil rather than rock substrates of group III; occurrence on relatively dry substrates of group V; the relatively large size of species of groups VIII and X, and the apparent restriction of group X to higher elevations where other groups do not occur.


Deep-Sea Cerviniidae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Western Indian Ocean, Collected with R/V Anton Bruun, in 1964
F. D. Por
60 pages, 182 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.29
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Abstract

The Cerviniidae found in abyssal and bathyal catches of Cruise 8 of R/V Anton Bruun are discussed. In eight stations off the East African Coast 15 species of Cerviniidae have been found. The genus Pontostratiotes Brady is represented by six new species, by specimens which belong probably to the three previously known species of the genus, and an as yet uncertain species. A new genus is established for Ameliotes malagassicus, new genus, new species. Two other new species belong to the genera Cerviniella Smirnov and Cerviniopsis Sars. Two other species found in the collections of Vityaz from the Pacific abyssal are found also in this material. The genus Pontostratiotes is discussed, and a new diagnosis of the genus is given.

Adequate gear yielded rich collections of abyssal Harpacticoids of which the present material is only a small part. A few general conclusions about this fauna are advanced.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: The Phoridae of Dominica (Diptera)
Thomas Borgmeier
69 pages, 152 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 18 November 1969)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.23
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Abstract

Recent collecting by J. F. G. Clarke, O. S. Flint, Jr., R. J. Gagné, P. Spangler, T. J. Spilman, G. C. Steyskal, and W. W. Wirth for the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica resulted in a small but representative collection of phorid flies, comprising 16 genera and 82 species, 43 of which are new. Of the latter, 32 belong to the giant genus Megaselia. One new species from Costa Rica has been added: Pachyneurella haplopyga.


A Checklist of the American Bidessini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae-Hydroporinae)
Frank N. Young
5 pages
1969 (Date of Issue: 25 November 1969)
Number 33, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.33
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Abstract

A list of the American water beetles of tribe Bidessini (Dytiscidae-Hydroporinae). Type-species are listed for each genus with references to the original designations.


Taxonomy, Sexual Dimorphism, Vertical Distribution, and Evolutionary Zoogeography of the Bathypelagic Fish Genus Stomias (Stomiatidae)
Robert H. Gibbs, Jr.
25 pages, 6 figures, 15 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 2 December 1969)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.31
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Abstract

New information on the characters and geographic distribution and a key for identification are presented for the ten recognized species and subspecies of Stomias, of which one, the eastern Atlantic subspecies S. colubrinus orientalis Blache, is considered a full species and is redescribed. The name orientalis, a junior homonym, is replaced by lampropeltis. External sexual dimorphism is demonstrated for all species in three characters: males are smaller than females and have larger eyes and larger postorbital photophores. The magnitude of the dimorphism varies among the species, the most extreme differences in eye and postorbital organ occurring in species in which males attain the least maximum size. Vertical distributions of all except S. danae are estimated by comparing numbers of specimens caught in nonclosing nets with the number of meter-hours of trawling at depth in the known geographic range of each form. All appear to migrate from deeper to shallower depths at night. Most species for which data approach adequacy occur in the greatest abundance between 500-1000 meters during daylight and in the upper 200 meters at night, although concentrations of S. gracilis are deeper than 200 meters at night. In S. colubrinus, however, greatest daytime catches are below 1000 meters and at night below 600 meters. The apparent phylogenetic trends of morphological characters, together with present geographical distributions, suggest that S. brevibarbatus and S. danae represent the earliest evolved stock of Stomias, from which, perhaps simultaneously, the colubrinus-lampropeltis group and S. nebulosus arose. The S. boa group probably arose from nebulosus-like ancestors, with the almost circumtropical S. affinis the earliest and giving rise to S. atriventer in the eastern Pacific and S. boa boa in the Subtropical Convergence, and the latter giving rise to S. gracilis in subantarctic and Antarctic waters and, most recently, to S. boa ferox in the North Atlantic as well as a Mediterranean population that has retained boa boa characteristics.


The Taxonomic Status of the Controversial Genera and Species of Parrotfishes with a Descriptive List (Family Scaridae)
Leonard P. Schultz
49 pages, 2 figures, 8 plates, 13 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 10 December 1969)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.17
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Abstract

This, the second major paper on scarid fishes by the author, discusses several difficult-to-identify species and brings together under one taxon certain males and females, previously thought to represent two or more species. Taxonomically controversial genera and species in the late Dr. J. L. B. Smith's two major papers (1956, 1958) on parrotfishes are correlated with conclusions reached in this report.

Included is a current descriptive list (with 38 color illustrations) of 11 genera, 5 subgenera, 68 species, and 5 subspecies. Important taxonomic changes: Scarus fehlmanni, new species from the Red Sea, is placed in the subgenus Xenoscarops Schultz along with Scarus perrico (Jordan and Gilbert). The genus Scarus Forskål is divided into three subgenera: Scarus Forskål, Xenoscarops Schultz, and Callyodon Scopoli. Sparisoma Swainson is divided into two subgenera: Callyodontichthys Bleeker and Sparisoma Swainson. Scarops Schultz is monotypic. Pseudoscarus jordani Jenkins, Callyodon africanus Smith, and Scarus paluca Gosline and Brock are synonyms of Scarops rubroviolaceous (Bleeker). Bolbometopon Smith, with Cetoscarus Smith as a synonym, has two species: B. muricatus Cuvier and Valenciennes and B. bicolor (Rüppell). Scarus pulchellus Rüppell is the adult female of B. bicolor. Ypsiscarus Schultz has two species, Y. ovifrons (Temminck and Schlegel) and Y. oedema Snyder. Scarus harid Forskål has three subspecies: harid Forskål, longiceps Cuvier and Valenciennes, and vexillus (Smith). Hipposcarus schultzi Smith is a synonym of S. h. longiceps. Scarus microrhinos Bleeker and S. strongylocephalus Bleeker are synonyms of S. gibbus Rüppell.

Neotypes were established for Scarus psittacus Forskål, Scarus forsteri Cuvier and Valenciennes, and S. sordidus Forskål. A lectotype was selected for Scarus quoyi Cuvier and Valenciennes. Also lectotypes were selected for Scarus baliensis Bleeker, S. bataviensis Bleeker, S. quoyi Cuvier and Valenciennes.


An Analysis of Nesting Mortality in Birds
Robert E. Ricklefs
48 pages, 11 figures, 26 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 12 December 1969)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.9
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Abstract

This study was initiated to evaluate nesting mortality of birds as a feature of the environment and as a selective force in the evolution of reproductive strategies. Representative nesting-success data from the literature for most groups of birds were transformed into daily mortality rates to eliminate differences among species in the length of the nest cycle. These data are presented by taxonomic groupings and for passerines by geographical region and nest construction and placement.

The strength and pattern of various mortality factors are described in detail. Predation, starvation, desertion, hatching failure, and adverse weather are the most prevalent factors, but nestsite competition, brood parasitism, and arthropod infestation may be important in some species. It is demonstrated that the various mortality factors can be identified by characteristic patterns of nesting losses involving differences in mortality rates between the egg and nestling periods and the within-nest component of mortality rates.

Among Temperate Zone passerines, field-nesting and marsh-nesting species have the highest mortality rates while those species nesting in trees, especially in cavities, enjoy higher success. Starvation is prevalent in marsh and field species but desertion is more restricted to tree-nesting species. In general, arctic species have lower mortality rates and tropical species higher rates, although there is a similar gradient from arid to humid regions within the tropics. The relative abundance of a species is related directly to its mortality rate in arctic regions, but is not in temperate and tropical regions.

Birds of prey generally have low mortality rates although starvation is often a major factor. Nesting losses in seabirds are caused primarily by crowded conditions in colonies and loss of eggs due to inadequate nest construction. Chick deaths come about primarily through their wandering away from parental care which is most common in the semiprecocial Charadriiformes. Precocial shorebirds and water birds enjoy higher egg success than ground-nesting passerines but game birds exhibit similar mortality rates. Little is known of the survival of precocial chicks after hatching except that mortality rates may be initially quite high and decrease with age. The fate of altricial birds after fledging is also poorly documented.

It is postulated that interspecific differences in mortality rates are determined by evolutionarily acceptable levels of adult risk to lower mortality rates of offspring through parental care, adult adaptations of morphology and behavior for foraging which result in limitations on nesting adaptations, environmental unpredictability which reduces the effectiveness of adaptations, and—most import—the diversity of predators to which a species must adapt.


A Revision of the Melanesian Wasps of the Genus Cerceris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)
Karl V. Krombein
36 pages, 23 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 19 December 1969)
Number 22, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.22
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Abstract

In the Melanesian area, wasps of the sphecid genus Cerceris Latreille are known only from New Guinea and its offshore islands, the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. Keys, descriptions, and illustrations are presented in this revisionary study of the following taxa: female, male Cerceris pictiventris gimmolator Smith, 1864; female C. cristovalensis, new species; female C. cyclops, new species; female C. papuensis, new species; female C. misoolensis, new species; female, male C. karimuiensis, new species; male C. brandti, new species; female, male C. millironi millironi, new subspecies; female C. millironi tulagiensis, new subspecies; male C. millironi malaitensis, new subspecies; female, male C. reicula, new species; female, male C. minuscula sculleniana, new subspecies; female C. minuscula stanleyensis, new subspecies; male C. minuscula korovensis, new subspecies; female C. vechti, new species; female, male C. venusta oceanica Brèthes, 1920, new status (=C. insulicola Tsuneki, 1968, new synonymy); female, male C. venusta keiensis Strand, 1911, new status; female, male C. venusta atrescens, new subspecies; female C. mordax, new species; female C. toxopeusi, new species; female C. vellensis vellensis, new subspecies; female, male C. vellensis obrieni, new subspecies; female, male C. vellensis fordi, new subspecies; female C. vellensis segiensis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis solomonis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis lavellensis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis novogeorgica, new subspecies; and C. bougainvillensis bougainvillensis Tsuneki, 1968, new status.


A Review of the Genus Harpiosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Three New Species
Raymond B. Manning
41 pages, 43 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1969)
Number 36, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.36
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Abstract

Available specimens of the large squillid Harpiosquilla from the collections of the Australian Museum, Sydney, and the Division of Crustacea, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, show that the genus comprises seven species; three of these species are newly described. The species of Harpiosquilla occur throughout the Indo-West Pacific region, from Japan and Australia westward to the Red Sea and South Africa; some species, particularly H. annandalei, H. harpax, and H. raphidea are widely distributed in the region whereas others, including H. indica, new species (India), H. japonica, new species (Japan), and H. stephensoni, new species (Australia), exhibit more limited distribution patterns. All available literature is summarized, and the descriptive accounts are accompanied by notes on biology, development, and distribution.


Review of Some Little Known Genera of Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)
Helmut W. Zibrowius
22 pages, 7 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1969)
Number 42, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
DOI: 10.5479/si.00810282.42
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Abstract

Serpulids which had been classified in the genera Vermilia, Miroserpula, Chitinopoma, Chitinopomoides, Hyalopomatus, Hyalopomatopsis, Cystopomatus, and Protis are examined and discussed.

The genus Miroserpula should be included in the genus Chitinopoma, as the type-species of both genera are identical. C. serrula, single known species of the genus Chitinopoma, is widely distributed in the Arctic and Boreal Atlantic (America and Eurasia). It is characterized by incubation in special brood chambers on the tube of adult specimens. As C. groenlandica, it has often been confused with a quite different species from the Pacific coast of North America. For this latter species, first described as Hyalopomatopsis occidentalis, the new genus Pseudochitinopoma has been created. Chitinopomoides wilsoni, an insufficiently known species from bathyal depths off Antarctica, may have some affinities with the genus Chitinopoma. Affinities of Chitinopomoides with the genera Spirobranchus and Serpula are excluded.

The bathyal and abssyal forms from the Atlantic (Arctic Basin, Azores, Madeira) and from the Mediterranean, described under the generic names Hyalopomatus and Hyalopomatopsis, and the bathyal Cystopomatus from Antarctica, are closely related. The latter two genera are to be considered as synomyms of the former. The validity of the specific distinctions of these forms, based on the known material, is questionable.

The genus Protis, known from the Atlantic and Pacific, includes forms which in Arctic regions may be found in lesser depths, but which are at least bathyal when not abyssal at lower latitudes (Azores, Romanche deep, Gulf of Mexico, off California). The specific distinctions of these forms are questionable. A serpulid from the infralittoral at Puerto Rico, described as P. torquata, does not belong to the genus Protis.


Displaying 21 - 30 from the 644 total records