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The Maned Wolves of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
Emmons, Louise H.
xii + 135 pages
2012 (Date of Issue: 23 April 2012)
Number 639, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract
We studied the behavioral ecology of maned wolves (Canidae: Chrysocyon brachyurus) for 10 years in Cerrado habitat of Noel Kempff National Park, Bolivia. Most data were collected by GPS-collar technology, which yielded over 37,000 locations in 27 collar deployments on 10 individuals. The eight chapters introduce the study area and methods (1) and describe daily and seasonal activity (2); movements and ranges (3); diet and energetic (4); social interactions and reproduction (5); disease exposure, morbidity and mortality (6); maned wolf conservation (7); and finally, we synthesize the results in an overview of maned wolf behavioral ecology, with hypotheses about the unique form and function of this atypical canid (8). Activity was temperature related and sharply nocturnal in the dry season but partly diurnal in the rainy season. Adult home ranges were 40?123 km2, with strong seasonal variations in land use. Maned wolves averaged 14 km/night travel in dry months and 7 km/night during wet months. Breeding pairs shared territories with contiguous borders, which did not overlap with neighboring pairs. Young females twice stayed until adulthood on natal territories, as presumed helpers, and acquired the territory upon disappearance/death of the adult females. Females were the holders of territories into which males moved to form pairs. Young males all emigrated. By 8 years old, maned wolves showed extreme tooth wear, and dental disease was a major cause of morbidity. Habitat loss is the chief conservation issue for the species, but drought-related resource loss appears to be reducing the study area population.

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