Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology

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Studies on Ophiocomid Brittlestars I. A New Genus (Clarkcoma) of Ophiocominae with a Reevaluation of the Genus Ophiocoma
Dennis M. Devaney
41 pages, 50 figures, 5 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 2 December 1970)
Number 51, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Internal as well as external skeletal features support the decision to divide the shallow water tropical genus Ophiocoma into species groups. Differences in embryological and larval morphology also suggest partition of the genus. Two species formerly in Ophiocoma are now placed in the new genus Clarkcoma (type-species, Ophiocoma canaliculata Lütken). The relationship of the oral papillae and buccal tentacle scale, sequence of arm spines, and nature of oral and dental plates have been analyzed in order to reach conclusions regarding the taxonomic position of the taxa. These characters also suggest intergeneric relations within the subfamily. Descriptions and keys are given for the two genera as well as for the intrageneric groups and species of Ophiocoma; also, the specific limits of many species are reviewed.

Revision of the Genus Euthalenessa Darboux (Polychaeta, Sigalionidae)
Marian H. Pettibone
30 pages, 16 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 16 July 1970)
Number 52, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The species of Euthalenessa, originally described under five different sigalionid genera, are redescribed, based in large part on reexamination of the type-specimens. The study covers four previously described species, one new species, seven synonyms, and one nomen nudum. The general characters of the genus, with a key to the species, are included.

Revision of Some Species Referred to Leanira Kinberg (Polychaeta: Sigalionidae)
Marian H. Pettibone
25 pages, 12 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 6 August 1970)
Number 53, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The numerous sigalionid species described originally as members of the genus Leanira Kinberg, or subsequently referred to it, form a heterogeneous group. Among them, two closely related groups are recognized and assigned to two genera: Leanira Kinberg, limited, consisting of seven species, one of which is new, and one synonym, and Ehlersileanira, new genus, comprising a single species and three synonyms. Definitions of the two genera, with a key to the species of Leanira, are followed by redescription of the species, based in large part on examination of the type-specimens.

Cyclopoid Copepods of the Genus Pseudanthessius Associated with Crinoids in Madagascar
Arthur G. Humes and Ju-Shey Ho
20 pages, 90 figures, 1 table
1970 (Date of Issue: 16 July 1970)
Number 54, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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At Nosy Bé, Madagascar, five species of cyclopoid copepods belonging to the genus Pseudanthessius occur on various crinoids. Three of these species, P. madrasensis Reddiah, 1966, P. major Stock, 1967, and P. minor Stock, 1967, are redescribed. Two species are described as new: P. angularis new species, and P. rostellatus, new species.

Atlantic Deep-Sea Calanoid Copepoda
Ellsworth H. Wheeler, Jr.
31 pages, 109 figures, 4 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 18 August 1970)
Number 55, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Calanoid Copepoda from 2,000 m to 4,000 m were collected with closing nets on R.V. Trident cruises 023 and 036 in the North and South Atlantic. Both the Nansen vertical net and the large Clarke-Bumpus net are liable to contamination from surface-living species. Of 1,556 calanoid copepods examined, 310 were considered contaminants, 243 were adults, and 1,003 were juveniles.

Abundance of calanoid adults (excluding contaminants) was varied but always less than 29 adults/100 m3. These results are consistent with other investigations. The ratio of numbers of species to numbers of individuals increases with decreasing latitude when data from other Atlantic collections are included. Existing hypotheses explaining latitudinal gradients in diversity do not apparently apply to the 2,000-4,000 m interval. Diversity in the deep sea is probably echoing that of upper levels. The species assemblage is cosmopolitan, with many species occurring in all oceans.

The total length of adult calanoid copepods averaged 2.14 mm, a value consistent with size ranges found in samples from other oceans.

Sixty percent of the species were represented by females only. Three species, known only from below 2,000 m, were represented by males and females in the same tows. The presence of spermatophore sacs on some females and the large number of juvenile stages indicate some reproduction is occurring at depth.

Available alternatives for the nutrition of deep-sea Copepoda are other zooplankton, organic aggregates, autochthonous unicellular organisms, organic matter transported downward, and detritus.

Four new species are described: Mimocalanus sulcifrons, Paivella naporai, Undinella gricei, and Zenkevitchiella tridentae, with systematic remarks for eight others, including two species (Aetideopsis retusa and Scolecthricella timida) not previously known from the Atlantic Ocean.

The Lepidoptera of Rapa Island
J.F. Gates Clarke
282 pages, 175 figures, 29 plates
1971 (Date of Issue: 11 June 1971)
Number 56, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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One hundred thirty species of Lepidoptera are recorded from Rapa Island, of which 77 were previously unreported. Of these, 47 species and 2 subspecies are described as new to science. The adults or genitalia, or both, of all species are figured. Hosts are recorded where known.

A Review of the Beetles of the Genus Metachroma Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Doris H. Blake
111 pages, 175 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1970)
Number 57, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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A history of the genus Metachroma Chevrolat and a revision of the species in the Western Hemisphere are presented, with 47 new species described. The total number of species now known from the Caribbean islands is 68, contrasted with 65 species from North, Central, and South America. There are 34 species from the United States, 24 from Mexico and Central America, and only 7, so far, from South America. Drawings have been made of all the species, with emphasis on showing the different color forms that occur in most of the species—a phenomenon that has led to much confusion in the past.

Keys to the Hawaiian Marine Gammaridea, 0-30 Meters
J. Laurens Barnard
135 pages, 68 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 23 September 1971)
Number 58, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Methods of collecting Hawaiian Gammaridea, their preservation, sorting by color schemes and head shapes, dissection, terminology and identification are presented. Keys to taxa illustrated with drawings are given for 120 species found in depths from 0 to 30 m. Synonymies, distribution, and notes on crucial characters of each species are given. This paper supplements the formal descriptions of the Hawaiian species contained in Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 34.

Exotic Fishes and Other Aquatic Organisms Introduced into North America
Ernest A. Lachner, C. Richard Robins and Walter R. Courtenay, Jr.
29 pages, 4 figures, 1 table
1970 (Date of Issue: 30 September 1970)
Number 59, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The introduction of aquatic animals from foreign lands to the waters of the United States is not a new problem, but it is rapidly accelerating, particularly because of the increase in quantity and in kinds of fishes entering the aquarium trade. The introduction of each fish species that is judged to be established is reviewed with respect to place of origin, mode of transport, area of release, and rationale. Transplants of native fishes from one drainage to another or from one end of the country to the other, though often resulting in harm to local faunas, are only reviewed in a cursory manner.

Twenty-five species of exotic fishes are now established in waters of the United States exclusive of Hawaii. They include one trout (Salmonidae), six minnows (Cyprinidae), one loach (Cobitidae), one catfish (Clariidae), five livebearers (Poeciliidae), two drums (Sciaenidae), seven cichlids (Cichlidae), and two gobies (Gobiidae). Except for the gobies and drums, all are freshwater species. Many other exotic species have been caught in our waters, but their establishment is not yet demonstrated.

The areas affected vary considerably, from local warm springs, in which the exotic species probably could be eliminated, to large and interconnected systems in which no amount of money or effort could remove the introduced animal.

Introductions have been both purposeful and accidental. Though sometimes well intentioned, they have never been preceded by a thorough study of the possible effect of the species in question on the local biota. Where purposeful, introductions have usually involved a single organization which has acted on the basis of its own limited interests.

Particular attention is given to Florida and Hawaii, the states most affected by introductions. They differ markedly in the nature of the problem since in Hawaii freshwater drainages are isolated and small, whereas Florida's fresh waters are extensive and interconnected by canals. Most of the 64 million fishes imported into the United States each year enter through southeastern ports, especially Miami and Tampa. The growth of the aquarium industry in Florida, and careless management of its holding tanks or ponds, has resulted in the introduction and establishment of species that serve no useful purpose and can only offer competition with native fishes.

Brief consideration is given to aquatic plants and invertebrates, both groups of which have created major and expensive control problems.

Although the problems raised by aquatic animals already introduced into our waters are serious, they threaten to become much worse if meaningful control and regulation of imported animals is not quickly forthcoming. The biological pathway involved in the role of introductions is their establishment through reproduction, and their competition with, and in some cases, extinction of native fauna. Recommendations are made to assist the control of introductions, and the resolutions of a recent conference on this subject are repeated.

Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, X: Leucotrichia and Related Genera from North and Central America (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)
Oliver S. Flint, Jr.
64 pages, 249 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 21 October 1970)
Number 60, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The history of the suprageneric classification within the Hydroptilidae is reviewed and the subfamily Leucotrichinae is established for an exclusively New World group of genera: Leucotrichia Mosely, Peltopsyche Müller, Zumatrichia Mosely, Costatrichia Mosely, Abtrichia Mosely, Acostatrichia Mosely, Betrichia Mosely, Alisotrichia Flint, and Anchitrichia, new genus. Five genera, all restricted to North and Central America and the West Indies, are keyed and characterized, both for the adult and larval stage. Leucotrichia, the type genus of the subfamily, contains ten species, four described as new, and is known from all sections. Costatrichia contains six species, four described as new, and is known from Central America only. Anchitrichia, containing only spangleri, new species, is described as new and is known from throughout Central America. Zumatrichia, containing nineteen species, thirteen described as new, is the largest genus and is abundant in Central America and the Lesser Antilles, with one species Z. notosa (Ross) (new combination) found in Montana. Alisotrichia contains twelve species, five described as new, and is known from Central America and the West Indies. Each species is keyed, figured, described, its affinities discussed, and its distribution given. The larvae are described for the species for which this stage is known.

Gammaridean Amphipoda from a Deep-Sea Transect off Oregon
J. Laurens Barnard
86 pages, 48 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 4 January 1971)
Number 61, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Gammaridean Amphipoda from depths between 30 and 2,900 meters off Oregon comprise 97 species, of which 16 are new. Halicella and Lepidepecreoides are reported for the first time from the Northern Hemisphere, and taxonomic problems in Hippomedon and Pardaliscidae are discussed. New species occur in the genera Anonyx, Bathymedon, Byblis, Epimeria, Halice, Halicella, Harpiniopsis, Hippomedon, Lepidepecreoides, Paraphoxus, Pardaliscella, Pardisynopia, Pleusymtes, and a new genus of Oedicerotidae.

A Revision of the Leptophlebiidae of the West Indies (Ephemeroptera)
William L. Peters
48 pages, 212 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1971)
Number 62, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This study is a revision of the West Indian Leptophlebiidae and is based on reared or associated nymphs and adults. Three new genera, Farrodes, Careospina, and Traverina are established; the genera Neohagenulus, Hagenulus, and Borinquena are considered valid. Two subgenera, Borinquena sensu stricto and Australphlebia, are established for Borinquena. Eleven new species are described, Farrodes hyalinus, F. grenadae, F. bimaculatus, Careospina hespera, C. minuta, C. annulata, Hagenulus jamaicensis, H. morrisonae, H. rangelae, Traverina cubensis, and Borinquena (A.) traverae. The phylogeny and relationships of the West Indian genera are discussed.

Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: The Dermaptera (Earwigs) of Dominica
Alan Brindle
25 pages, 27 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 7 July 1971)
Number 63, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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An account of the known Dermaptera of Dominica is presented, largely based on material collected during the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica. This material is now in the United States National Museum. Of the nine species of the order in the material examined, six are new records for the island, and one of these is described as new. One additional new record for Dominica, based on a specimen in the Manchester Museum, is included, and all known previous records of Dermaptera from the island are given, making a total of thirteen species now known from Dominica.

The composition of the Dermaptera fauna of Dominica, and the relation of the various species to other species found in the West Indies, or species found on the mainland of South, Central, or North America, is discussed.

A short account of the structure of the male genitalia and the taxonomy of the Dermaptera is included, together with the biology and distribution of the order. Keys to all families or subfamilies of the New World Dermaptera are given, together with keys to, and figures of, all genera and species recorded from Dominica. The figures either show the entire insect, or show the male or female forceps, the structure of the male forceps being one of the most important characters in taxonomy.

Zorocallida, New Order, and Doraster constellatus, New Genus and Species, with Notes on the Zoroasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)
Maureen E. Downey
18 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 30 July 1970)
Number 64, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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During a study of the Asteroidea of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico, a new genus of the family Zoroasteridae was discovered. A general survey of the family revealed apparent relationships with the fossil Calliasterellidae and prompted the conclusion that both of these families were incorrectly placed in the order Forcipulatida. A new order, the Zorocallida, is therefore erected for the Zoroasteridae and Calliasterellidae. The new genus, Doraster, is described, with the type-species D. constellatus. Several other observations on the classification of the Zoroasteridae are made, including the synonymizing of three species of Zoroaster found in the Atlantic.

Units of Behavior and Complex Sequences in the Predatory Behavior of Argiope argentata (Fabricius): (Araneae: Araneidae)
Michael H. Robinson and Jose Olazarri
36 pages, 15 figures, 3 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1971)
Number 65, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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An experimental and observational study of the predatory behavior of Argiope argentata, a large orb-web spider, is reported in detail. The predatory behavior consists of a sequence of distinct behavior units. The sequence begins when the prey strikes the web and ends when the spider starts feeding or the prey escapes. Detailed description of all the behavior units that are known to be employed in predatory sequences are given. The units are functionally distinct and involve prey location, prey discrimination, prey immobilization, and prey transportation.

Predatory sequences vary both in the units of behavior involved and in the duration of these units. Complete behavior sequences are described and analyzed. These sequences were given by adult spiders when they were presented with seven types of insect prey that differed taxonomically and/or physically. Further studies were made of the responses of spiders to both inedible artifacts and naturally occurring inedible objects.

An extensive comparison is made of the sequences elicited by different types of prey and conclusions are drawn about the adaptive significance of the various attack and restraint strategies. The model of the predatory behavior of A. argentata proposed by Robinson (1969) is revised and recast. A picture of considerable complexity emerges from this study.

On the Ecology of the Caribbean Chitons Acanthopleura granulata Gmelin and Chiton tuberculatus Linné: Density, Mortality, Feeding, Reproduction, and Growth
Peter W. Glynn
21 pages, 10 figures, 9 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 16 October 1970)
Number 66, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Ecological studies on two tropical chiton species (Acanthopleura granulata, Chiton tuberculatus) including density, mortality, feeding, reproduction, and growth, were carried out along the shore on coral reefs in Puerto Rico and Panama. Spatial segregation is often complete in the vertical distributions of these chitons on the shore, Acanthopleura occurs at a high level and Chiton below mean sea level. Acanthopleura is usually less numerous, 1-8 individ./m2, but present at a higher biomass density, 17-21 gm/m2, than Chiton, 1-22 individ./m2 and 8-13 gm/m2. A 40 percent reduction in suitable habitat by hurricanes between 1962 and 1968 was probably the cause of a nearly equal decrease in the numerical density of the chitons. Biomass density per unit area remained essentially constant. Mortality results from low water exposure, dislodgment and abrasion, and probably from predation by shore birds and fishes. Feeding is primarily nocturnal, Acanthopleura feeds eight hours a day, and Chiton six to seven hours daily. Several species of blue-green, green and red algae, and a relatively large quantity of inorganic material, are browsed from the rock substratum. Breeding in both species is seasonal, principally confined to the late summer and autumn when sea-water temperatures are at a maximum. A nearly 2:1 sex ratio in favor of males was found in sexually mature individuals, and larger chitons seemed to produce a proportionately greater amount of spawn. Spawning in Acanthopleura occurs in phase with the new and full moon; no marked rhythm was observed in Chiton. Multiple spawning of individuals probably occurs throughout the breeding season and the release of gametes is estimated to equal 5-10 percent of the dry weight standing crop in Acanthopleura and around 34 percent in Chiton. The rate of growth in both species is similar, equal to about 30-40 mm/yr. Sexual maturity is attained in one year. The bulk of the populations is composed of relatively young animals (≤2 yrs.), indicating a rapid turnover.

A Partial Revision of the Oriental Isomyia of the Viridaurea Group (Diptera: Calliphoridae)
Maurice T. James
14 pages, 1 figure
1970 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1970)
Number 67, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The group is defined and, except for some species of the delectans group, reviewed. A key to species is presented. The following new species are described: Isomyia lugubris and I. facialis from Thailand; I. chalconotum from Malaysia; I. marginata, I. iris, and I. discalis from Philippine Islands; and I. aurifacies and I. perisi from India. New combinations are I. gomezmenori (Peris), I. ceballosi (Peris), and I. borneensis (Peris), all from Thelychaeta, and I. pseudolucilia (Malloch) from Strongyloneura. A lectotype is designated for Thelychaeta chalybea Brauer and Bergenstamm, a synonym of Isomyia viridaurea (Wiedemann).

A Systematic and Ecological Study of Nearctic Hydrellia (Diptera: Ephydridae)
D. L. Deonier
147 pages, 142 figures, 2 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 11 May 1971)
Number 68, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The adults of 57 species of Hydrellia are described for the Nearctic Region. Adults of Hydrellia are semiaquatic and the larvae are leafminers in aquatic and semiaquatic plants. Twenty-one of the described species are new, and one represents a new geographic distribution record. Some or all of the immature instars of 18 species are described. The male terminalia and certain other critical characters are figured for the adults of 52 species. The larval feeding apparatus of 16 species and the puparia of 17 species are illustrated. Geographic distribution data are given for all species. New and previously recorded host plants are listed for several species, and other biological information such as habitats and behavior is given for most of the species. The general morphology of the genus, including morphology of the adult feeding apparatus and gut and internal genitalia, is discussed and illustrated. The general ecology of Hydrellia is discussed in regard to ecological role and distribution, parasitological data, dispersal and zoogeography, behavior, and environmental tolerance. Additional ecological data are included in checklists of known host plants and known hymenopterous parasites of Hydrellia. Literature pertinent to the genus is reviewed.

Biostatistical Programs in “BASIC” Language for Time-Shared Computers: Coordinated with the Book “Quantitative Zoology”
James A. Peters
46 pages
1971 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1971)
Number 69, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This series of computer programs, written in the language BASIC, is designed to facilitate use of the time-shared computer by individuals with little or no background in computers or programming. The programs are coordinated with the book “Quantitative Zoology,” by G. G. Simpson, A. Roe, and R. Lewontin, which permits the user of this publication to find the proper statistical procedures for his needs in that book and to carry out the statistical procedure indicated. The programs are identified by using the page numbers from Simpson et al.

Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Bostrichidae, Inopeplidae, Lagriidae, Lyctidae, Lymexylonidae, Melandryidae, Monommidae, Rhipiceridae, and Rhipiphoridae (Coleoptera)
T. J. Spilman
10 pages, 7 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 4 January 1971)
Number 70, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The known fauna of Dominica for each family is given. The Bostrichidae are represented by five species in five genera; all other families have one species each on the island. Of the thirteen species, nine are reported from Dominica for the first time. The larva of Callirhipis lherminieri, the rhipicerid, is described and illustrated, and the larva and adult of Inopeplus praeustus, the inopeplid, are illustrated.

Keys to the Species of Oratosquilla (Crustacea: Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Two New Species
Raymond B. Manning
16 pages, 4 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 14 January 1971)
Number 71, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Eight species groups are recognized within the stomatopod crustacean genus Oratosquilla, which contains twenty-three species from the Indo-West Pacific area. Keys to species groups and to species within each group are presented. Oratosquilla tweediei, from Singapore, and O. ornata, from Hong Kong, are newly described.

Revision of the Fish Genus Ecsenius (Blenniidae, Blenniinae, Salariini)
Victor G. Springer
74 pages, 36 figures, 18 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 30 March 1971)
Number 72, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The genus Ecsenius comprises 18 species of Indo-Pacific reef-dwelling fishes. The species are generally characterized by a high degree of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation as indicated by statistically significant differences in average numbers of various meristic and proportional characters and color pattern types.

Keys, illustrations and diagnoses, and nomenclatural and zoogeographical discussions are provided. Four new species are described: E. aroni from the Gulf of Aqaba, E. oculus from the western Pacific, E. bimaculatus from Borneo, and E. bandanus from Banda Island.

A discussion is given of a particularly complex taxonomic problem involving three nominal species occurring in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba. E. nigrovittatus is known only from the southern Red Sea, E. frontalis is known from the northern Gulf of Aqaba to the Bay of Tadjoura (Gulf of Aden), and E. albicaudatus is known from the northern Gulf of Aqaba to the southern Red Sea. Except for color pattern all three forms are very similar morphologically, have been collected together from one small rock, and are very different from any other species of Ecsenius. The problem of whether the three forms constitute one or more species is not solvable presently, but the three nominal species are treated here as color pattern forms of single species, E. frontalis.

Synopsis of the Tribe Salariini, with Description of Five New Genera and Three New Species (Pisces: Blenniidae)
William F. Smith-Vaniz and Victor G. Springer
72 pages, 51 figures, 6 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 30 March 1971)
Number 73, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The blenniid tribe Salariini is characterized and a key is given to twenty-four genera we recognized in the tribe. Five of these genera (Alloblennius, Crossosalarias, Litobranchus, Mimoblennius, Nannosalarias) are here described as new. All genera are diagnosed and comments are given on their relationships, nomenclature, distribution, and estimated number of species. One genus, Medusablennius, previously placed in the tribe Blenniini is transferred to the Salariini. The approximately 350 nominal species of the Salariini are listed and each name is provided with a generic allocation. The institutional depository of primary type material, if known, is cited for each species. Some annotation to this list is made where there are involved nomenclatural problems. Three new species are described: Alticus simplicirrus from the Marquesas Islands; Crossosalarias macrospilus from the Solomon, Tonga, and Palau Islands, Great Barrier Reef, and South China Sea; and Mimoblennius cirrosus from the Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea. Alloblennius jugularis (Klunzinger), A. pictus (Lotan), Litobranchus fowleri (Herre), Mimoblennius atrocinctus (Regan), and Nannosalarias nativitatus (Regan) are redescribed. All described and redescribed species and genera are figured, and illustrations of characteristic cephalic pore patterns are given for all genera and subgenera.

Alloblennius pictus, one species treated, exhibited statistically significant differences in mean numbers of dorsal and anal fin rays and caudal vertebrae between specimens from the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. Mean numbers of these meristic characters were significantly different for males and females of the southern Red Sea specimens, but were not significantly different for the Gulf of Aqaba specimens.

A Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Psammotettix (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)
James F. Greene
40 pages, 23 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 25 May 1971)
Number 74, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Nineteen Nearctic Psammottetix species were treated. Four of the species are Holarctic. Fifteen species were redescribed and four new species were described. The limits of the genus were redefined.

Interspecific, intraspecific, and individual variations were discussed. The first complete written keys to males and females of Nearctic species were prepared. Important diagnostic characters for each species were illustrated. New specific taxonomic characters in the genus, lobes at the base of the first valvula, were employed and illustrated.

Possible avenues for future investigation, host-plant data, disease vector relationships, and parasite data were included in the text.

Revision of the Genus Polydora from the East Coast of North America (Polychaeta: Spionidae)
James A. Blake
32 pages, 16 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 5 February 1971)
Number 75, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Twelve species of Polydora from the east coast of North America are described on the basis of recent collections as well as material deposited in various museums. The study includes 11 previously described species, one new species, 10 synonyms, and one nomen nudum. Diagnosis of the genus Polydora, with a key to the species covered, are included.

Proceedings of the First International Conference of Meiofauna
Neil C. Hulings, editor
205 pages, 67 figures, 9 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 30 December 1971)
Number 76, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The First International Conference on Meiofauna was held in Tunis, Tunisia, 1-11 July, 1969. Twenty-eight invited participants from seven countries assembled to review the status of the systematics and ecology of meiofaunal taxa, the ecology of meiobenthic communities, and techniques of faunal and environmental analyses. Of the 30 papers presented at the conference, 27 are included in this volume.

The convening of the conference was stimulated by the increasing emphasis on and need for investigations of the systematics and ecology of meiofauna and for a means to provide an exchange of ideas between systematists and ecologists. Also it was felt that there was a need to standardize techniques of collecting and reporting data so that results from one area of investigation could be compared with those from another area. Toward this end, all participants contributed to “A Manual for the Study of Meiofauna” (Neil C. Hulings and John S. Gray, 1971, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, Number 78).

There remains much to be done in the sphere of meiofauna investigations. One of the most pressing problems is the need for more attention to the problem of sampling. Statistical evaluation of various techniques of sampling and statistical treatment of the sampling efforts are imperative. Not only must there be concern for individual species but also for the community as a whole. There must be continuous dialogue between systematists and ecologists to advance properly our knowledge of meiofaunal species and communities. Ultimately, the ecologist must consider all specimens to the species level. By the same token, the systematist must take into consideration taxa other than those of his particular interest. In this way he can provide taxa that are properly preserved for study by other systematists. It is through such consideration and cooperation that our knowledge of meiofauna will be increased greatly. These approaches assume an even greater significance when considering the effects of pollution on meiofauna.

Other pressing problems exist in the area of the physiology of meiofauna. In terms of collecting and properly preserving specimens for study, what are the effects of various preservatives and anesthetizing agents now available? In the past, only the traditional agents have been used. New agents need to be evaluated, for it may be that these give better results than the traditional ones. To what degree do taxa, from the polar regions to the tropics, react differently to prepreservation storage and various extraction techniques? Preliminary evidence indicates the reaction is considerably different, and further evaluation of this aspect may result in greater extraction efficiency. This emphasizes the need for taking the local environmental conditions of the organism into consideration. Investigations in the area of culture of meiofaunal taxa must be accelerated to determine the degree of response to various environmental parameters.

Such needs represent some of the more pressing problems in the study of meiofauna. These and other problems in the study of meiofuna are apparent in this volume and in the “Manual for the Study of Meiofauna.” It is hoped that the papers presented in both publications will stimulate research along these and other lines.

I am indebted to many persons for assistance in organizing the conference and in editing the papers of this volume. John S. Gray and Robert P. Higgins were of invaluable assistance in organizing and convening the conference. The personnel of the Mediterranean Marine Sorting Center, Salammbo, Tunisia—especially Dr. Hédia Baccar, Mrs. Genèvieve Dargouth, and Mr. Mohammed Shili—freely provided assistance prior to and during the conference. The Tunisian government—especially the National Scientific and Technical Institute for Oceanography and Fisheries, the Department of Higher Education and Scientific Research, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs—endorsed the conference and assisted in many ways. The American Embassy, Tunis, was most helpful on numerous occasions. Funding for the conference was made possible through the Office of International Activities of the Smithsonian Institution. The assistance of Dr. Ray Manning and his staff of the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, is gratefully acknowledged. And lastly, sincere appreciation is expressed to the authors of the papers in this volume for their patience and cooperation.

Neil C. Hulings

Department of Biology

American University of Beirut

Beirut, Lebanon

Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Burrowing Sponges, Genus Siphonodictyon Bergquist, from the Caribbean
Klaus Ruetzler
37 pages, 11 figures, 9 plates, 2 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 24 February 1971)
Number 77, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Siphonodictyon (Adociidae, Porifera) was hitherto known only from one species Siphonodictyon mucosum Bergquist) from the Pacific Ocean. In the present paper the species is recorded also from the Indian Ocean. Two new species (Siphonodictyon cachacrouense, new species and Siphonodictyon coralliphagum, new species) are described from the Caribbean Sea. Based on morphological differences Siphonodictyon coralliphagum is divided into four forms (forma typica, forma obruta, forma tubulosa and forma incrustans). All species excavate burrows in coral skeletons. Another Caribbean species with sand-burrowing habit (Siphonochalina siphona de Laubenfels) is here transferred to Siphonodictyon. Based on the new material the definition of the genus is revised. Histological features and ecological data are discussed for all species.

A Manual for the Study of Meiofauna
Neil C. Hulings and John S. Gray
83 pages, 13 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 28 April 1971)
Number 78, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Procedures and methods for the study of meiofauna are presented in terms of general description of the habitat, environmental analyses, general collecting and extracting techniques, general taxonomic procedures, comments on selected taxa, and culture and experimental techniques. Biotopes other than sediment are considered briefly and sources of equipment and materials for the study of meiofauna are listed. A total of 361 references dealing with various aspects of meiofauna are given.

Western Atlantic Shrimps of the Genus Metapenaeopsis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae), with Descriptions of Three New Species
Isabel Perez Farfante
37 pages, 22 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1971)
Number 79, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Five species of the genus Metapenaeopsis occur in the western Atlantic, three of which are described as new. A key for their separation, synonymies, disposition of the types, diagnoses, detailed descriptions, and illustrations are presented for each species, and their affinities are discussed. Their geographic and bathymetric ranges together with data on habits and habitats are also included. The morphology and development of the peculiar asymmetrical petasma of Metapenaeopsis have been investigated, and correlations made with previous significant works.

Freshwater Triclads (Turbellaria) of North America, IV. The Polypharyngeal Species of Phagocata
Roman Kenk
18 pages, 9 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 30 December 1970)
Number 80, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Two polypharyngeal species of Phagocata are recognized: P. gracilis (Haldeman), which includes P. subterranea Hyman, and P. woodworthi Hyman. The distinguishing characteristics of the two species are described and illustrated. P. gracilis has a backward loop of each sperm duct before it enters the penial bulb, an elongated, pointed penis papilla, a fibrous layer below the epithelium of the papilla to which longitudinal muscles attach, a non-glandular antechamber to the glandular seminal vesicle, and lacks a sphincter on the bursal canal. In P. woodworthi the sperm ducts enter the bulb without forming a backward loop, the penis papilla is short and truncate, its outer muscle layer consists of alternating sheets of circular and longitudinal muscle fibers, the penial lumen is not differentiated into seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, and the bursal canal is very wide and is provided with a terminal sphincter. The morphology of the reproductive system, geographic distribution, ecology, and life cycle of the two species are discussed in detail.

The Entocytherid Ostracods of México and Cuba
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr.
55 pages
1971 (Date of Issue: 15 July 1971)
Number 81, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The entocytherid ostracod fauna of México and Cuba comprises four genera and 16 species, 12 of which are endemic to the former and three to the latter. The remaining species, Ankylocythere sinuosa, ranges northward from México into the southern part of the United States. Four of the Mexican endemics, Ankylocythere maya, A. toltecae, A. villalobosi, and Uncinocythere zaruri, have not previously been described. Following a brief historical summary are a cross index to associations between the entocytherids and their hosts, discussions of taxonomic characteristics and entocytherid associates, a resumé of life-history studies, and postulates concerning the origin of the entocytherid fauna. The latter propose that the ostracod stocks reached México passively on crayfish hosts from the southern part of the United States in three major periods of migration: the earliest, prior to the Pliocene, resulted in the colonization of the Central Plateau, the area south of the Cordillera Volcánica Transversal, and Cuba; a Pliocene invasion populated the Gulf slope immediately north of this volcanic mass; and a Recent migration introduced the only non-endemic entocytherid into northeastern México. The treatment of the species includes synonymies, complete bibliographic citations, diagnoses, locations of types, distribution, hosts, entocytherid associates, variations, and relationships.

Pontoniinid Shrimps from the Ninth Cruise of R/V Anton Bruun, IIOE, 1964: I. Palaemonella Dana and Periclimenes Costa
A. J. Bruce
13 pages, 1 figure, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 7 April 1971)
Number 82, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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A collection of pontoniinid shrimps was made in the western Indian Ocean in 1964, during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. Shrimps belonging to the two genera Palaemonella Dana (two species) and Periclimenes Costa (eighteen species) are reported upon. The collection provides further information upon the hosts of several of the commensal species of Periclimenes, including a number of new records, and extends present knowledge of the distribution of these species, several of which have not been previously recorded in the western Indian Ocean.

The Distribution and Patterns of the Major Arteries of the Iguanids and Comments on the Intergeneric Relationships of Iguanids (Reptilia: Lacertilia)
George R. Zug
23 p., illus.
Number 83, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The Distribution and Patterns of the Major Arteries of the Iguanids and Comments on the Intergeneric Relationships of Iguanids (Reptilia: Lacertilia). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 83: 1-23. 1971.—The spatial arrangement of the major arteries, i.e., systemic arches, carotid arches and major branches, subclavians, coeliac, and mesenteries, are described for 42 genera of iguanid lizards. The arterial patterns are relatively uniform in iguanids. All of iguanids examined had carotid ducts, lacked a primary common carotid, and with the exception of Iguana, the coeliac arose anterior to or adjacent to the mesenteries. Variation was observed in the type of origin of the external carotid and sternohyoid, subclavians, and mesenteries. These pairs of vessels could arise separately, contiguous, or form a common trunk.

Ten arterial characters were analyzed to determine their taxonomic value. Comparison of similarly generated phenograms, one for arterial data and the other for extant iguanid data, showed the arterial characters to be of little value for intrafamilial classification. The arterial data can function only as a weak indicator of relationships.

Butterflies of the Genus Vanessa and of the Resurrected Genera Bassaris and Cynthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
William D. Field
105 pages, 160 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 5 October 1971)
Number 84, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The genus Cynthia with nine species (including C. annabella, new species) and the genus Bassaris with two species are recognized as separate from the genus Vanessa, with five species remaining. All taxa are keyed and redefined with characters, including the male and female genitalia, tarsi, and wing habitus. Knowledge of the distribution and biology of most species is extensive and is given herein (for distribution) or cited (known food plants are listed and references to the literature of the biology are given). Unusual modified setae on the ovipositors are described for five Cynthia species.

Systematics, Distribution, and Evolution of the Chub Genus Nocomis Girard (Pisces, Cyprinidae) of Eastern United States, with Descriptions of New Species
Ernest A. Lachner and Robert E. Jenkins
97 pages, 30 figures, 27 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 17 August 1971)
Number 85, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The chub genus Nocomis Girard of North America is characterized and relationships among three species groups are discussed. Two new species are described from the central Appalachian region, both in the micropogon species group.

The three species groups are defined and their characters are summarized; namely, the biguttatus group with three species, the micropogon group with three species, and the leptocephalus group with three subspecies. The central Appalachian region is inhabited by four species, N. micropogon (river chub), N. platyrhynchus, new species, (bigmouth chub) and N. raneyi, new species (bull chub) of the micropogon group, all of which are sympatric with N. leptocephalus (bluehead chub) in one or more river drainages. A key to these four species and a discussion of the nomenclatural history of the genus and nominal species are included. Important diagnostic characters useful in differentiating among the specific and several infraspecific populations are discussed, evaluated, and summarized in twenty-seven tables. An account of each species includes a synonymy, diagnosis, description, and comparison of meristic and morphometric characters, coloration in life and in preservation, population differentiation, reproduction, growth and size attained, materials studied and geographic distribution. The species are illustrated, special body features are drawn, distributions are plotted, and important character data are shown in thirty figures.

The ecological requirements of the chubs are reviewed and species preferences discussed. Regional ecology is reviewed in respect to occurrence and abundance of the species. Associations, interrelationships and frequency of hybridization are compared among the four species. Differences are observed among the species of the micropogon group in their frequency of hybridization with N. leptocephalus.

The biological and geological evidence providing an explanation of the dispersal of the chubs and other species of fishes in various interdrainage exchanges in the central Appalachian region is comprehensively reviewed. Possible routes of entry into the several drainages are proposed. Present, detailed distributional patterns of the chubs and other species are related with geologic events, and present and past ecological conditions in an effort to understand the conditions, barriers, and routes affecting dispersal. Three kinds of geological events that operated in the dispersal of chubs are considered: stream capture, eustatic changes of the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and Pleistocene drainage modifications. The discussion on the evolution of the species of Nocomis is based on morphology, coloration, zoogeography, and life history.

A Revision of the Genus Zenoria Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Robert D. Gordon
22 pages, 85 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 20 January 1971)
Number 86, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The available knowledge of the Neotropical genus Zenoria Mulsant is brought together, a key to species, distributional data and an illustrated generic diagnosis presented. Fifteen species are described as new: Z. pallida, Z. crotchi, Z. annularis, Z. schwarzi, Z. circumcincta, Z. variabilis, Z. emarginata, Z. similaris, Z. serva, Z. patula, Z. nigra, Z. flavicollis, Z. paprzyckii, Z. discrepa, Z. carinata. One species, Z. circumclusa Gorham, is transferred to the genus Anovia Casey.

Parasitic Copepods of the Family Chondracanthidae from Fishes of Eastern North America
Ju-shey Ho
39 pages, 25 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 7 July 1971)
Number 87, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Nineteen species representing nine genera of chondracanthid copepods are known to occur on fishes off the Atlantic and the Gulf coast of North America. They are: Acanthochondria cornuta*, A. cyclopsetta, A. exilipes, A. galerita, A. phycidis, Acanthochondrites annulatus*, Berea ancoralis*, Blias prionoti*, Chondracanthodes deflexus*, C. radiatus, Chondracanthus cottunculi, C. janebennettae, C. merluccii, C. nodosus, C. wilsoni, Heterochondria crassicornis*, Pseudochondracanthus diceraus*, P. hexaceraus, and Rhynchochondria longa*. A redescription is given for all species except eight that are marked with an asterisk, since they have already been treated elsewhere in a revision of the chondracanthid genera (Ho, 1970). A new form, Chondracanthus wilsoni new species, is described and a key to the nineteen eastern North American species is given.

Pogonophora of the Northwest Atlantic: Nova Scotia to Florida
Eve C. Southward
29 pages, 12 figures, 3 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 10 May 1971)
Number 88, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Benthic samples from 259 stations along the continental margin of North America have yielded eight genera and twenty-four species of Pogonophora. A key to the genera and species is provided. Three new species are described. After consideration of the geographical and depth distribution it is concluded that there are three main zoogeographical groups: Florida Current; northern shallow-water species; and widespread deep-water species.

Shrimps of the Family Processidae from the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)
Raymond B. Manning and Fenner A. Chace, Jr.
41 pages, 20 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1971)
Number 89, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The processid shrimp fauna of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is reviewed for the first time. Eleven species are recorded, of which eight are newly described. Ambidexter symmetricus, new genus, new species; Nikoides schmitti, new species; and six new species of Processa are described. Ambidexter is the only genus of the family in which both first pereiopods are chelate. Nikoides has not been recorded previously from outside of the Indo-West Pacific region. Keys to the species of Nikoides and to the Atlantic species of Processa are presented, and the Indo-West Pacific species of Processa are listed.

Criteria for Analysis and Interpretation of the American Fish Genera Nocomis Girard and Hybopsis Agassiz
Robert E. Jenkins and Ernest A. Lachner
15 pages, 1 figure, 4 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 12 November 1971)
Number 90, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Until recently Nocomis Girard has been included as a subgenus in the polymorphic genus Hybopsis Agassiz along with Couesius Jordan and six additional nominal American cyprinid genera. Nocomis is diagnosed and recognized as a genus primarily on the basis of sexual dimorphic features, its mound-nest building behavior, general coloration, physiognomy, scale radii, and vertebral numbers. Nocomis and Couesius, also given generic rank, are probably more closely related to the genus Semotilus Rafinesque than to any group remaining in Hybopsis. Parexoglossum Hubbs is merged with Exoglossum Rafinesque and these are implicated to be related to Semotilus.

Characters previously employed to diagnose Hybopsis are widely shared with other American cyprinids, such as the maxillary barbels which may be highly variable. Certain subgenera of Hybopsis are probably more closely related to other American cyprinid genera than to Hybopsis sensu stricto. Species of some subgenera of Hybopsis merit reallocation to other subgroups of Hybopsis or Notropis. Additional nomenclatural changes in Hybopsis are not recommended until more comprehensive studies are available.

Systematics, Distribution, and Evolution of the Nocomis biguttatus Species Group (Family Cyprinidae: Pisces), with a Description of a New Species from the Ozark Upland
Ernest A. Lachner and Robert E. Jenkins
28 pages, 8 figures, 9 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 6 October 1971)
Number 91, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This study treats the three allopatric species of the Nocomis biguttatus group: N. biguttatus, N. effusus, and N. asper, a new species. The systematics, distribution, ecology, evolution, and zoogeography of the species are compared. The region of the Ozark upland is emphasized because it is inhabited by the new species. N. asper is distinguished from N. biguttatus mainly in having a characteristic tuberculation pattern present on the body of the adults which never appears on the latter species. N. asper differs from N. effusus primarily in having two rows of pharyngeal teeth compared to one row in the latter, and in having about one fourth of its tuberculate body scales bearing two or more tubercles compared with only 3 percent bearing two tubercles in the latter species. The coloration of the nuptial males of the three species differs.

Nocomis biguttatus is a wide-ranging form found naturally in the Missouri, upper Mississippi, northern Ohio, and the Great Lakes drainages. It avoids the nonglaciated regions of the upper Mississippi and Ohio drainages. This species is restricted to a few scattered populations in the middle and lower Missouri drainage—evidence of a once more widely distributed species that has been largely extirpated from this drainage mainly by the erosional history of the area, increased agricultural practices, and by droughts. N. asper and N. effusus have restricted distributions on opposite sides of the Mississippi Valley. N. asper is contained chiefly in the Ozark upland of the Arkansas River drainage of the tri-state area of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, with probable isolated populations in the upper Neosho system of Kansas and in the Arkansas drainage of central Oklahoma, and a well-established population in the Blue River system, Red drainage, of south-central Oklahoma. Such isolated populations also are regarded as evidence of a wider distribution of these species in these drainages in the past. The disjunct populations of N. asper are paralleled closely by the occurrence of isolated populations of Notropis pilsbryi in the Arkansas River and Red River drainages. N. effusus is confined in the southwestern Ohio River basin to the Duck River system of the lower Tennessee drainage, the lower and middle Cumberland River drainage below its falls, and in the upper Green River drainage.

The species of the biguttatus group chiefly inhabit tributaries and avoid the main rivers. Clear-water streams, small-to-moderate in size, with low-to-moderate gradients, and with clean substrates of gravel, rubble, and some sand, provide the preferred ecological requirements. Generally, the preferred streams have a moderate balance of riffles and pools. Turbid or silt-laden waters are avoided.

The Nocomis biguttatus species group is considered to be the most primitive group within the genus; this assumption is based mainly on the generalized pattern of tuberculation on the head and on the presence of two rows of pharyngeal teeth. The primitive condition persists in N. biguttatus. The body tuberculation in N. asper and N. effusus (absent in N. biguttatus) demonstrates evolution of another type of tubercle pattern in Nocomis. The reduction in the number of tubercles per scale, the reduction in the distribution of tuberculate body scales, and the increase in the size of tubercles on the scales of the body of N. effusus are regarded as specialized conditions and correlate with the evolutionary trends of head tubercle development in the two other species groups of Nocomis.

Populations of the Polytypic Species Nocomis leptocephalus (Girard) with a Description of a New Subspecies
Ernest A. Lachner and Martin L. Wiley
34 pages, 4 figures, 8 plates, 15 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 12 November 1971)
Number 92, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Three subspecies of the bluehead chub, Nocomis leptocephalus (Girard), are recognized. Our conclusions are based on the examination of more than 20,000 specimens housed in American institutions. The typical form, N. l. leptocephalus, ranges from the Potomac drainage southward on the Atlantic slope to and including the Santee drainage, and across the Appalachian Divide into the New River. The new subspecies, N. l. interocularis, occurs in the Savannah, Altamaha, and Chattahoochee rivers and across the divide in a limited area of the Tennessee River in southeast Tennessee. The nominal form, N. l. bellicus, extends from the Alabama River westward to streams draining into the Mississippi River from the east in Louisiana and Mississippi, and in a limited area of the Tennessee River across the divide in northern Alabama.

The diagnostic characters differentiating these subspecies are the number and distribution of head tubercles. These three populations have diverged almost to the species level. Intergrades of N. l. interocularis × N. l. leptocephalus are recognized from the Edisto River, South Carolina. Two basic color forms are described, a blue and a brassy reddish, the evolutionary significance of which is not understood. The distribution of these two color forms does not correspond entirely to the distribution of the described morphological forms. The whorled intestine, a specific character of N. leptocephalus, is often straight in specimens from the Chattahoochee River.

We postulate that in Nocomis, decrease in tubercle number and increase in tubercle size may represent a specialized condition that is especially demonstrated among the subspecies of N. leptocephalus.

Notes on Neotropical Mesostigmata VI: Four New Venezuelan Species of the Genus Periglischrus (Acarina: Spinturnicidae)
C. E. Machado-Allison and Rafael Antequera
16 pages, 61 figures
1971 (Date of Issue: 29 July 1971)
Number 93, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Four new species of Periglischrus Kolenati (Acarina, Mesostigmata, Spinturnicidae) are described from Venezuela: P. ramirezi sp. n., collected from Rhinophylla pumilio; P. paracutisternus sp. n., ex Trachops cirrhosus; P. gameroi sp. n., ex Lonchorhina aurita and P. dusbabeki sp. n., ex Mimon crenulatum. Some corrections related to the date of publication of descriptions of species of Periglischrus are made and a discussion on the validity of the genus Cameronieta Machado-Allison is given.

En este trabajo se describen cuatro nuevas especies del género Periglischrus Kolenati (Acarina, Mesostigmata, Spinturnicidae) procedentes de Venezuela. P. ramirezi, sp. n., colectada sobre Rhinophylla pumilio; P. paracutisternus, sp. n., sobre Trachops cirrhosus; P. gameroi, sp. n., sobre Lonchorhina aurita y P. dusbabeki, sp. n., sobre Mimon crenulatum. Algunas correctiones sobre la fecha de publicación de descripciones de algunas especies de Periglischrus son efectuadas y se discuten las características del género Cameronieta Machado-Allison concluyéndose en sostener la validez del mismo.

Type Specimens in the Hans Eggers Collection of Scolytid Beetles (Coleoptera)
William H. Anderson and Donald M. Anderson
38 pages
1971 (Date of Issue: 11 May 1971)
Number 94, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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A list of all holotype and lectotype specimens of the Eggers collection of Scolytidae, with a brief discussion of the acquisition of the collection by the National Museum of Natural History. References to original descriptions, type localities, deposition of type series, and type numbers are given for types listed under 394 specific or infraspecific names. Of the total specimens listed, 237 are designated as lectotypes.

Neotropical Microlepidoptera XIX: Notes on and New Species of Oecophoridae (Lepidoptera)
J. F. Gates Clarke
39 pages, 26 figures, 3 plates
1971 (Date of Issue: 9 September 1971)
Number 95, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Costoma Busck (=Phalarotarsa Meyrick) (new synonymy); Gonionota aethoptera, aethographa, cologramma, oxybela, charagma, hypoleuca, argopleura, amauroptera, gaiophanes, hemiglypta, eremia, insignata, menura, paravexillata, transversa, sphenogramma, selene, poecilia, phthiochroma and Hypercallia heterochroma are described. Gonionota autocrena (Meyrick), Gonionota rosacea (Forbes), new combination; G. dryodesma (=H. dryocrypta), H. miltopa Meyrick (=Cryptolechia tunicata Busck), Phytomimia chlorophylla Walsingham (=Phytomimia silvicolor Meyrick) (new synonymy); Coptotelia bipunctalis (Warren), new combination, (=Coptotelia byrsocyma (Meyrick)) (new synonymy).

The Distribution of Calanoid Copepods off the Southeastern United States Between Cape Hatteras and Southern Florida
Thomas S. Bowman
58 pages, 51 figures, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1971)
Number 96, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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About 100 species of epipelagic calanoid copepods occur in waters off the southeastern coast of the United States. From inshore waters seaward the species diversity increases from less than 10 species/station in coastal waters to more than 40 species/station in some oceanic stations. The species composition changes concomitantly, and, using the Fager-McGowan index of association, coastal, shelf, and oceanic associations have been identified, each with characteristic indicator species. The seaward gradient in diversity is explained by Sanders' stability-time hypothesis. The calanoid fauna south of Cape Hatteras is compared with the fauna north of Cape Hatteras.

Two species of Paracalanus, P. quasimodo, new species, and P. indicus, new rank (=P. parvus var. indicus), both formerly referred to P. parvus, are described and compared with the more northern P. parvus. Taxonomic remarks are given concerning Rhincalanus cornutus, Pleuromamma gracilis and P. piseki, and Heterorhabdus papilliger.

The Systematics and Areal Distribution of Pelagic Cephalopods from the Seas off Southern California
Richard Edward Young
159 pages, 15 figures, 38 plates, 26 tables
1972 (Date of Issue: 18 September 1972)
Number 97, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The mid-water cephalopods from off the coast of southern California and adjacent areas are described and their areal distribution is discussed. Forty-two species of pelagic cephalopods are now known from this area including ten new species. Off southern California the fauna is part of the transitional and subarctic fauna to the north, while primarily tropical species are found off northern Baja California.

The Shrimps of the Smithsonian-Bredin Caribbean Expeditions, with a Summary of the West Indian Shallow-water Species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Natantia)
Fenner A. Chace, Jr.
179 pages, 61 figures
1972 (Date of Issue: 18 February 1972)
Number 98, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The collections made by the Smithsonian-Bredin Expeditions to the Lesser Antilles and Virgin Islands in 1956, 1958, and 1959 and to Yucatan in 1960 contain 111 species of penaeidean, caridean, and stenopodidean shrimps, including 20 previously undescribed species. Diagnostic keys are offered to assist in the identification of the 170 shallow-water marine and fresh-water shrimps now known from the West Indian islands, as well as 48 species from adjoining geographic and bathymetric areas. References, type-localities, and distribution records are given for each of the 218 species treated, and habitat preferences are indicated for the species represented in the Smithsonian-Bredin collections. It is postulated that there is no endemic marine natantian fauna in the West Indies and that there are no natural barriers, except the local absence of suitable habitats, to the free distribution of most of the species in the region between the Florida Keys and Brazil; only 6 of the 70 marine species recorded from the Yucatan area have not yet been found at any of the islands in the West Indies.

Topography of the Cephalic Musculature and Nervous System of the Honey Bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus
Nabil N. Youssef
54 pages, 10 figures, 5 tables
1971 (Date of Issue: 30 December 1971)
Number 99, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Fixed heads of workers, drones, and queens of Apis mellifera Linnaeus were dissected under distilled water for the study of two tissues: the musculature and the nerve mass.

Musculature: The movable and fixed points of muscle attachment were utilized in establishing a nomenclature for muscles to replace the systems in current usage, which depend on various combinations of topography, function, and numerical sequence. The present system proved to be consistent and useful for demonstrating the criteria of homology among muscles. Names were devised in classical Greek and Latin for international usage. For establishing muscle homology, every cephalic muscle of the three castes was compared with its homolog in other studied taxa of Hymenoptera and Neuroptera. The labial and epipharyngeal muscles are degenerate and the antennal muscles maintain primitive features. The mandibular complex consists of two well-developed muscles and a degenerate muscle which is probably modified to serve as a stretch organ. The maxillary muscles maintain the same points of attachment as in primitive insects, although the musculus tentorio-cardinalis has shifted its point of movable attachment to the stipes in the female bees to meet a change in function. The maxillary palpal muscles have disappeared as a result of the reduction of the palpus itself. Many of the labial muscles have shifted one or both points of attachment as a result of the specialization of the labium. The musculus postoccipiti-prementualis even has different points of fixed attachment among the different castes.

As a result of simplification of the “hypopharynx,” many of its muscles have shifted their points of attachment. The musculature of the clypeal walls are well developed to accommodate the enlargement and specialization of the cibarium.

In this study the following undescribed muscles were found and named: musculus tentorio-mandibularis, m. stipiti-maxillopalpualis, m. oriscuto-supensorialis, and m. fronti-pharyngealis III (only in the drone).

Nerve Tissue: Existing literature indicates that only a few of the cephalic nerves have been named. Accordingly, a new system was developed under which the name of each nerve or nervule is based on the structure it innervates. Main ganglia are named according to their locations, rather than following the traditional inconsistent nomenclature. The names are in classical Greek or Latin form for international usage. Every cephalic nerve or nervule was followed to its termination. When sufficient literature was available, the criteria of nerve homology were examined. Nerve topography follows a similar plan in the gnathal segments of the three castes, except that the Nervus Mandibularis is degenerate in the drone. It was noted that variation in the topographical plan of a particular nerve is very small, even among members of different castes.

Taxonomic Study of the Known Pupae of the Genus Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae) in North and South America
Norman Marston
18 pages, 4 plates, 1 table
1971 (Date of Issue: 17 August 1971)
Number 100, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The pupae of fourteen species in the cephus, oedipus, and tigrinus groups of the genus Anthrax are described, and a key is given to separate these and four other species in the albofasciatus and trimaculatus groups. Photographs illustrate the cephalic and anal tubercles of sixteen species.

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