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Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology

Displaying 551 - 600 from the 642 total records
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Biosystematics of the Nymphomyiidae (Insecta: Diptera): Life History, Morphology, and Phylogenetic Relationships
Gregory W. Courtney
41 pages, 98 figures, 3 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 24 February 1994)
Number 550, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Previously undescribed characters are evaluated and incorporated in a redescription of the Nymphomyiidae (Diptera). The revised family includes seven species, two of which are new. Nymphomyia dolichopeza, new species, is widespread and locally abundant in streams of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains, primarily in North Carolina and Georgia, U.S.A.; and N. holoptica, new species, is recorded from Hong Kong. Based on structural and phylogenetic criteria, the monobasic genera Palaeodipteron Ide and Felicitomyia Kevan are new synonyms of Nymphomyia Tokunaga. Larval, pupal, and adult characters were used to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of world species of Nymphomyia. Based primarily on adult features, Nymphomyia is divided into two species groups with the following phylogenetic relationship: (1) alba group (alba + (levanidovae + rohdendorfi)); and (2) walkeri group ((walkeri + dolichopeza) + (brundini + holoptica)). Several compelling characters help define the eastern Palaearctic alba group, and others provide strong evidence that the Oriental species brundini and holoptica are monophyletic. Although data suggest that the Nearctic fauna (walkeri and dolichopeza) is monophyletic, the cladistic basis for this hypothesis is relatively weak (two reductive characters). Keys to larvae, pupae, and adults and a discussion of collection techniques, ecological data, and distributions are provided.


Systematics of the Trans-Andean Species of Creagrutus (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae)
Antony S. Harold and Richard P. Vari
31 pages, 14 figures, 8 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 1 April 1994)
Number 551, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The species of Creagrutus Günther occuring to the west and north of the Andean Cordilleras in Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama are revised. Eight species are recognized: Creagrutus affinis Steindachner (1880) distributed from the Río Magdalena west into central Panama and southwest to the Río San Juan of the Pacific slope of Colombia; Creagrutus brevipinnis Eigenmann (1913) and Creagrutus caucanus Eigenmann (1913) of the Río Cauca in northwestern Colombia; Creagrutus hildebrandi Schultz (1944b) of the Lago Maracaibo basin and coastal rivers draining into the southeastern portion of the Golfo de Venezuela; Creagrutus magdalenae Eigenmann (1913) of the Río Magdalena in northern Colombia; Creagrutus maracaiboensis (Schultz, 1944b) known from western and southern tributaries to Lago Maracaibo; Creagrutus nigrostigmatus Dahl (1960) known only from Caño Pechilín, a small drainage basin on the Caribbean coast of Colombia in the state of Sucre; and Creagrutus paralacus, new species, from southern tributaries to Lago Maracaibo.

Two specimens of an undescribed species (not formally treated in this paper) from the upper Río Magdalena that are very similar to Creagrutus paralacus are discussed.

Creagrutops Schultz (1944b) is considered a synonym of Creagrutus Günther. Four species are placed into the synonymy of Creagrutus affinis: Creagrutus leuciscus Regan (1913), Creagrutus londonoi Fowler (1945), Creagrutus notropoides Meek and Hildebrand (1912), and Creagrutus simus Meek and Hildebrand (1913).

Records of Creagrutus beni from the Lago Maracaibo system (Schultz, 1944b) and from the Río Magdalena (Dahl, 1971) and Creagrutus cf. caucanus from the Río Negro of the Amazon basin (Goulding et al., 1988) are erroneous. A key is provided to the Creagrutus species of trans-Andean South America. A neotype is designated for Creagrutus nigrostigmatus Dahl and lectotypes for Creagrutus affinis and Creagrutus leuciscus.


Biosystematic Studies of Ceylonese Wasps, XX: A Revision of Tachysphex Kohl, 1883, with Notes on Other Oriental Species (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae: Larrinae)
Karl V. Krombein and Wojciech J. Pulawski
106 pages, 257 figures
1994 (Date of Issue: 16 November 1994)
Number 552, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Twenty-three species of Tachysphex are recorded from Sri Lanka. Nine previously known species are redescribed, and the following new species are described: anthracinus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), chiastotrichus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), crinitus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), diadelus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), drymobius Pulawski (Sri Lanka), eucharistus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), gryllivorus Pulawski (Nepal, Sri Lanka), haematopus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), indicus Pulawski (southern India, Sri Lanka), noar Pulawski (Sri Lanka), oxychelus Pulawski (Sri Lanka), sri Pulawski (Sri Lanka), sympleuron Pulawski (India, Sri Lanka), and xanthoptesimus Pulawski (southern India, Sri Lanka). Other species known from lowland India, Burma, and Thailand, are redescribed in the Appendix, and two new species are described: actites Pulawski from Thailand and rugicauda Pulawski from India. A key for all of the species treated is provided. Newly synonymized names are: Tachysphex consocius mookonis Tsuneki, 1972, = nitidissimus de Beaumont, 1952; Tachysphex grandii de Beaumont, 1965, = consocius Kohl, 1892; Tachysphex collaris Kohl, 1898, and lanatus Arnold, 1947, = mediterraneus Kohl, 1883; Tachysphex egregius Arnold, 1924, = plicosus (A. Costa, 1867); Tachytes flavogeniculatus Taschenberg, 1880, = Tachysphex erythropus (Spinola, 1839); Tachysphex lugubris Arnold, 1924, rugosus Gussakovskij, 1952, and quadrifurci Pulawski, 1971, = minutus Nurse, 1909; Tachysphex peculator Nurse, 1909, = albocinctus (Lucas, 1849); Tachysphex schmiedeknechti satanas Pulawski, 1971, = schmiedeknechti Kohl, 1883; Tachysphex tinctipennis Cameron, 1904, = morosus (F. Smith, 1858); and karooensis Arnold, 1923, and foucauldi de Beaumont, 1952, = vulneratus R. Turner, 1917. The following taxa, previously regarded as subspecies of Tachysphex panzeri (Vander Linden, 1829), are newly synonymized with the latter: Lyrops rufiventris Spinola, 1839, Tachytes oraniensis Lepeletier, 1845, Tachytes pulverosus Radoszkowski, 1886, Tachysphex panzeri fortunatus de Beaumont, 1968, Tachysphex panzeri cyprius Pulawski, 1971, and Tachysphex panzeri sareptanus Pulawski, 1971. A neotype is designated for Tachytes discolor Frivaldszky, 1877 (a junior synonym of Tachysphex panzeri (Vander Linden, 1829)). The species group classification for the genus is abandoned because of intermediate species. Tachysphex vulneratus R. Turner, previously known from Africa, is first recorded from India and Thailand; lagunaensis Tsuneki, described from the Philippines, is recorded from Laos and Thailand; and panzeri (Vander Linden), known from the western Palearctic to the Indian subcontinent, is recorded from Thailand. Original behavioral data are presented for consocius, drymobius, gryllivorus, indicus, morosus, panzeri, and sympleuron.


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of the SE Australian Continental Slope, Part 1
Louis S. Kornicker
200 pages, 111 figures, 4 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 18 May 1994)
Number 553, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Thirty-five species (32 new) of benthic Myodocopina in 16 genera (4 new) collected at depths of 204-2900 m on the SE Australian continental slope under the auspices of the Museum of Victoria and Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences, Australia, are described and illustrated. A comparison of the sensory bristle of the male 1st antenna of species of Rutiderma and Scleraner in the Rutidermatidae indicates that the extent of coverage of the bristle by filaments may be useful in separating males of the two genera. A study of medial sclerites of the protopodites of second antennae indicates that the Cypridinidae and Cylindroleberididae fall into one group, and the Philomedidae, Sarsiellidae, and Rutidermatidae into a second group. Some information is given on eggs, juvenile morphology, parastic copepods, and gut contents. Eye size is compared to depth. A new subfamily, Metaschismatinae in the Rutidermatidae, is proposed.


A Review of the North American Freshwater Snail Genus Pyrgulopsis (Hydrobiidae)
Robert Hershler
115 pages, 53 figures, 2 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 19 July 1994)
Number 554, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The Recent nominal species belonging to the hydrobiid snail genus Pyrgulopsis Call and Pilsbry, 1886, are reviewed. Pyrgulopsis is a large group of 65 Recent species inhabiting diverse inland waters of North America. This genus is distinguished from other members of the subfamily Nymphophilinae by the combination of small size; generally simple, ovate-conic shell; and penis ornamented with relatively few glands.

Members of this genus have a globose to elongate-conic shell with near smooth to strongly punctate protoconch, smooth or rarely carinate teleoconch, and simple apertural lip often loosened from the body whorl. The taenioglossate radula features a central radular tooth with well-developed lateral angles, narrow basal process, and, usually, a single pair of basal cusps. The operculum generally is paucispiral with eccentric nucleus. The ventral operculum is notable for its variably thickened attachment scar margin and central callus. The caecal chamber of the stomach is variably developed. Animal pigmentation is variable, sometimes including dark stripes along the mantle. Cephalic tentacle ciliation generally is weak. The gonads usually are of simple lobes, and sometimes overlap the stomach. The prostate gland usually has a small pallial section and the vas deferens usually exits from the gland sub-terminally. The penis is generally large and distally bifid; with a terminal filament bearing the vas deferens, and accessory lobe (sometimes absent). The penis surface is very weakly ciliated and is variably ornamented with dorsal and ventral glands. The albumen gland usually has a small pallial section. The capsule gland is almost always bipartite, and contains a well-developed ventral channel. The genital aperture is either simple or opens to an anterior vestibule. The coiled oviduct usually is simple, and joins the bursal duct just behind, to well anterior to, the pallial wall. Both bursa copulatrix and seminal receptacle usually are present, the former being larger and often at least partly posterior to the albumen gland. The bursal duct is of variable size and shape, and often embedded, sometimes deeply so, within the albumen gland. The seminal receptacle is usually just behind the coiled oviduct and typically has a short duct. Females are oviparous, and lay single, hemispherical egg capsules.

A cladistic analysis of relationships among 60 species was conducted using Nymphophilus Taylor as single outgroup. Monophyly of Pyrgulopsis was supported by 15 character-state transformations, including six non-homoplasious synapomorphies. Four large clades were recognized: a group of nine species distributed in Mississippi River drainage and other waters to the east, a group of six species from southern Nevada and southeastern Arizona; a group of 10 species from eastern California, northern Arizona, and Snake River drainage; and a group of 18 species scattered throughout the West. The remaining 17 western taxa included four species occupying basal positions on the cladogram, a poorly resolved group of eight species, and two small clades consisting of two species from northern Arizona; and three widely disjunct species from northern Mexico, Snake River drainage, and southeastern California.

The following genera herein are added to the list of junior subjective synonyms of Pyrgulopsis: Savaginius Taylor, 1966a, Apachecoccus Taylor, 1987, and Yaquicoccus Taylor, 1987. Fluminicola avernalis carinifera Pilsbry, 1935, is elevated to full species status herein—this and fifteen other species are newly allocated to Pyrgulopsis. Fontelicella pinetorum Taylor, 1987, is a junior subjective synonym of Pyrgulopsis kolobensis (Taylor, 1987); and Pyrgulopsis wabashensis Hinkley, 1908a, is a junior subjective synonym of Pyrgulopsis scalariformis (Wolf, 1869). A new name, Pyrgulopsis bryantwalkeri, is proposed for Fluminicola nevadensis Walker, 1916 (not Pyrgula nevadensis Stearns, 1883).


The Functional Morphology of Male Cerci and Associated Characters in 13 Species of Tropical Earwigs (Dermaptera: Forficulidae, Labiidae, Carcinophoridae, Pygidicranidae)
Daniel R. Briceno and William G. Eberhard
63 pages, 98 figures, 1 table
1995 (Date of Issue: 17 March 1995)
Number 555, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

We observed courtship and aggressive behavior in males of 13 species in four families of earwigs in order to determine the functional significance of sexually dimorphic morphology of cerci and associated structures in males. Criteria for determining function included appropriateness of design and consistency of use. In 12 species, at least 17 secondary sexual modifications of male cerci and associated structures appeared to serve in aggressive interactions between males, as weapons and/or as display devices. In two species, modifications of male cerci served to clasp females just prior to and during copulation; in one case, they were used to force copulations on females; in the other, they apparently were used as a courtship device. Functions could not be assigned confidently to many minor features, such as positions of teeth on the cerci.


Deep-Sea Pycnogonida from the Temperate West Coast of the United States
C. Allan Child
23 pages, 5 figures
1994 (Date of Issue: 21 July 1994)
Number 556, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Seventeen deep-sea pycnogonid species are reported from the west coast of the temperate United States (California, Oregon, and Washington). The distribution and a diagnosis of each known species is given and four new species, Nymphon aculeatum, Colossendeis peloria, C. spicula, and Hedgpethia nasica, are described and compared with known fauna. All species affinities and relationships with other fauna are discussed and an artificial key to the species of Pallenopsis (Bathypallenopsis) found in the study area is provided. One species, Pallenopsis (B.) oculotuberculosis Hilton, is recorded for only the second time and is illustrated because figures were never published with its original but superficial description.


Scleractinia of the Temperate North Pacific
Stephen D. Cairns
150 pages, 3 figures, 42 plates, 5 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 18 October 1994)
Number 557, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The 119 species of temperate North Pacific azooxanthellate Scleractinia are described or diagnosed in two separate accounts: the 25 species known to occur in the temperate northeastern Pacific and the 102 species known to occur in the temperate northwestern Pacific, there being only eight species in common. Three genera, six species, and one species subspecies are described as new; nine new combinations are suggested; and 28 new records for the northern temperate regions are reported. A neotype for Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) is designated. A dichotomous key to the temperate northeastern Pacific Scleractinia is provided, as well as a key to the seven species of northwestern Pacific Truncatoflabellum. Separate historical resumes are discussed and tabularized for the northwestern temperate faunas. The study is based on new material from a variety of sources, but primarily from the cruises of the Albatross (USNM) and the R/V Tansei Maru (ORI), and the collections of the California Academy of Sciences, Royal British Columbia Museum, and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

The region covered in this account extendes form Bahia Magdalena on the Pacific coast of Baja California to Formosa Strait, off China, including two warm temperate provinces (California and Japan) and four cold temperate provinces (Oregon, Aleutian, Oriental, and Kurile). The most species-rich temperate region is the warm temperate northwestern Pacific Japan Province, which contains 92 azooxanthellate species. This province is directly adjacent to the even more species-rich Indo-West Pacific tropical region from which it receives many tropical and eurythermic tropical species via the warm, northerly flowing Kuroshio Current. Azooxanthellate species diversity decreases with higher latitude: 106 species occur in the combined warm temperate North Pacific provinces, 37 in the lower boreal provinces (Oregon and Oriental), and only 14 species occur in the combined upper boreal provinces (Aleutian and Kurile). The northernmost record of a scleractinian coral in the North Pacific is Caryophyllia arnoldi from Prince William Sound (60°48′N) in the Aleutian Province. This province also holds the record for the deepest living scleractinian coral, Fungiacyathus marenzelleri, at 6328 m in the Aleutian Trench.


Review of Stathmonotus, with Redefinition and Phyolgenetic Analysis of the Chaenopsidae (Teleostei: Blennioidei)
Philip A. Hastings and Victor G. Springer
48 pages, 29 figures, 5 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 25 August 1994)
Number 558, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The study of new material and the use of additional characters, including the sensory pores, of Stathmonotus corroborates the taxonomic assignment of Springer (1955). The osteology of S. (Parastathmonotus) sinuscalifornici is described, illustrated, and compared to that of the other five species of Stathmonotus. A key, distribution maps, color descriptions, and illustrations for all species are given.

The Chaenopsidae of Stephens (1963) is expanded, based primarily on osteological characters, to include Neoclinus, Mccoskerichthys, and Stathmonotus. The expanded family is characterized by at least eight apomorphies, but its outgroup relationships are uncertain. Character evidence supporting the monophyly of the included taxa (Neoclinus, Mccoskerichthys, Stathmonotus, and the Chaenopsinae) is presented. Parsimony analysis of 61 morphological characters resulted in two most-parasimonious trees of relationships within the Chaenopsidae (differing only in the relationships of S. sinuscalifornici). Neoclinus is hypothesized to be the sister group of the remainder of the Chaenopsidae. Mccoskerichthys is hypothesized to be the sister group of a clade comprising Stathmonotus and the Chaenopsinae (= Chaenopsidae of Stephens, 1963). Within Stathmonotus, S. stahli and S. gymnodermis are hypothesized to form a monophyletic group (subgenus Auchenistius) that is the sister group of the remaining four species. Stathmonotus hemphilli is hypothesized to be the sister group of the remaining three species (subgenus Parastathmonotus). Within Parastathmonotus, S. lugubris and S. culebrai are hypothesized to be sister species. An equally parsimonious topology places S. sinuscalifornici as the sister species of S. hemphilli. Character support for these relationships is discussed, a classification of the Chaenopsidae is presented, and the biogeography of Stathmonotus is discussed.


The Intermuscular Bones and Ligaments of Teleostean Fishes
Colin Patterson and G. David Johnson
85 pages, 16 figures, 2 plates, 8 tables
1995 (Date of Issue: 20 April 1995)
Number 559, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Intermuscular bones are found only in teleostean fishes. They are segmental ossifications in the myosepta and generally are associated with ligaments. That association takes three forms: ontogenetic or structural continuity, when intermuscular bones ossify within ligament and/or are attached to the axial skeleton by ligament: serial homology, when a series of bones is continued rostrally or caudally by series of ligaments; and homology, when a series of bones in one teleost is homologous with a series of ligaments in another. We recongnize three series of intermusculars, epineurals, epicentrals, and epipleurals. Epineurals and epicentrals develop in a rostrocadual gradient, whereas epipleurals develop rostrally and caudally from the region of the first caudal vertebra. We create a notation for recording the distribution and form of intermuscular bones and ligaments, and we map them in about 125 genera of teleosts from over 100 families, covering all major groups. The primitive state of Recent teleostean intermusculars is exemplified by Hiodon, in which all ossified epineurals are fused with the neural arches, and all epicentrals and epipleurals are ligaments. Some or all epineural bones are free (unfused) from the neural arches in other teleosts, and in many lower (nonacanthomorph) elopocephalans they develop an anteroventral branch so that they are forked proximally. Epineurals are primitively dorsolaterally directed, but the first one to three are deflected ventrally in a few nonacathomorphs (argentinoids, some aulopiforms, Neoscopelus) and in lamipridiform acanthomorphs. In polymixia, the first epineural is displaced ventrally into the horizontal septum, and in all other acanthomorphs several or all epineurals are so displaced; the bones generally called epipleurals in acanthomorphs are epineurals. Epicentrals lie in the horizontal septum and are primitively ligamentous. There are ossified epicentrals in Notopterus, Megalops, clupeiforms, gonorychiforms, gymnotoids, Thymallus, and the aulopiforms Parasudis, Alepisaurus, and Omosudis. Epicentral ligaments sometimes include a cartilage rod distally (salmonoids, osmeroids, Maurolicus, Polymixia), and in many clupeoids the distal tip of each anterior epicentral bone is associated with a separate superficial chevron of cartilage. Anterior epicentrals are lacking in some aulopiforms and among acanthomorphs in beryciforms, some zeiforms, and primitive percomorphs, so that the series of ligaments begins on the posterior abdominal vertebrae. All epicentrals are absent in some aulopiforms, in all examined paracanthopterygians and stephanoberyciforms, and in many percomorphs. A series of segmental, anterolaterally directed ligaments, “POTs,” attaches to epicentrals in the horizontal septum of many teleosts. In percomorphs and zeiforms the anterior POTs acquire a new association, attaching to epineural bones secondarily positioned in the horizontal septum. Epipleurals lie below the horizontal septum and are posteroventrally directed. There are ossified epipleurals in Heterotis, elopomorphs, clupeomorphs, esocoids, ostariophysans, argentinoids, stomiiforms, aulopiforms, myctophiforms, and Polymixia. Like the epineurals, in many lower (nonacanthomorph) elopocephalan teleosts the epipleural bones develop an anterodorsal branch so that they are forked proximally. Epipleurals are unossified in salmonoids and osmeroids (except Spirinchus and some galaxiines), and this, together with cartilaginous epicentrals in those groups, indicates that they are sister groups. Aulopiforms are uniquely characterized by attached epipleurals that extend forward to the first or second vertebra. In many aulopiforms, the anterior epipleurals are displaced dorsally into the horizontal septum, the reverse of the acanthomorph situation (epineurals displaced ventrally), and in most aulopiforms the primitive bidirectional pattern of epipleural development is replaced by a rostrocaudal gradient. The epipleural series is lost in all acanthomorphs except Polymixia and holocentrids. The distribution and structure of ribs and Baudelot's ligament also are mapped. The potential systematic value of the intermusculars is illustrated by a parsimony analysis of Aulopiformes, and intermuscular characters of many other groups are enumerated.


An Annotated Catalog of Primary Types of Siphonaptera in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Nancy E. Adams and Robert E. Lewis
86 pages
1995 (Date of Issue: 4 January 1995)
Number 560, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Annotated accounts for the 417 siphonapteran primary types in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, are presented. Each account includes the name, author, date of description, genus, computer reference number, citation, collection locality, host species, date of collection, and collector, if known. The kind of primary type and its sex are designated, accompanied by the USNM type number. The remarks section includes the current status of the name and other pertinent information. Of these accounts, 63 names are junior synonyms, one of which is synonymized here. Of the remaining 354 valid taxa, nine primary types are in the Natural History Museum, London, although for various reasons they warrant further discussion. Twenty-seven lectotypes are designated. Five appendices are included. They are an alphabetical index of host/parasite names by species; a list of junior synonyms and their equivalents; a list of type localities by country and the species described from them; an alphabetical list of the valid genera, species, and subspecies represented by primary types in the collection, including their USNM numbers; and the supraspecific classification of the Siphonaptera.


Catalog of Type Specimens in the International Protozan Type Collection
Linda Cole
28 pages
1994 (Date of Issue: 17 June 1994)
Number 561, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The International Protozan Type Collection, which is located at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., includes holotypes, paratypes, syntypes, neotypes, lectotypes and paralectotypes. As of October 1992, the collection consists of five phyla (Ciliophora, Sarcomastigophora, Apicomplexa, Microspora, and Myxozoa) composing approximately 542 species. This catalog lists types within each Phylum/Subphylum/Superclass/Class/Order/ Suborder/Family/Subfamily in alphabetical order by genus and also by species. The naming authorities and year, nature of type, amount of material, catalog number, and host are given.


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of the SE Australian Continental Slope, Part 2
Louis S. Kornicker
97 pages, 54 figures, 2 tables
1995 (Date of Issue: 12 April 1995)
Number 562, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Twenty species (all new) of benthic Myodocopina in 8 genera (1 new) collected at depths of 204-1850 m on the SE Australian continental slope under the auspices of the Museum of Victoria and Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences, Australia, are described and illustrated. A study of the relationship between carapace length of ovigerous females and egg length indicates that egg length varies directly with carapace length in the Cypridinidae, and probably also in the Cylindrolebrididae and Sarsiellinae, and possibly in the Philomedidae. Isopod parasites were found in one philomedid ostracode and choniostomatid copepods in some sarsiellids.


A Revision of New World Cyamops Melander (Diptera; Periscelididae)
Alessandra R. Baptista and Wayne N. Mathis
25 pages, 59 figures, 1 table
1994 (Date of Issue: 29 November 1994)
Number 563, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The New World species of the genus Cyamops Melander, now numbering eight, are revised. New species (type locality in parenthesis): C. americus (Mexico. Chiapas: El Triunfo (49 km S Jaltenango, 1300-2000 m)), C. buenorum (Mexico, Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N)), C. fasciatus (Brazil. São Paulo: Serra da Cantareira, Chapado), and C. colombianus (Colombia. Rio Raposo). Cyamops, with Stenomicra Colquillett as its apparent sister group, is placed in the subfamily Stenomicrinae, which is recharacterized. Planinasus Cresson, previously thought to be related to genera within Stenomicrinae, is shown to be more closely related to Periscelidinae. The monophyly of Cyamops is clearly demonstrated, as is that for some species groups within the genus. The relationships between species group, however, are not well known. Phylogenetic studies, even for the fauna of the New World, are hindered by inadequate specimens to investigate many of the characters we have identified. Maps, keys to species, detailed distribution data, and illustration (scanning electron micrographs and line drawings) are provided to assist in the identification of the species.


The Neotropical Fish Family Ctenoluciidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes); Supra and Intrafamilial Phylogenetic Relationships, with a Revisionary Study
Richard P. Vari
97 pages, 51 figures, 12 tables
1995 (Date of Issue: 6 April 1995)
Number 564, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Osteological and soft anatomical features of the species of the Neotropical characiform family Ctenoluciidae and other characiforms were studied to examine the hypothesis that the family was monophyletic, and to advance an hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships within the family and of the Ctenoluciidae to proximate outgroups. A series of derived features corroborate the hypothesis of monophyly of the Ctenoluciidae and are congruent with the hypothesis that the Ctenoluciidae and Erythrinidae are sister groups. A less-extensive series of derived features indicate that the African family Hepsetidae is the sister group of the clade formed by the Ctenoluciidae and Erythrinidae, with the Neotrophical family Lebiasinidae the sister group to the clade formed by those three families. Shared derived features of a variety of body systems define phylogenetic subunits of the Ctenoluciidae and characterize the majority of its species. The ctenoluciid genera Ctenolucius Gill (1861) and Boulengerella Eigenmann (1903) are defined as monophyletic units.

Luciocharax Steindachner (1878) and Belonocharax Fowler (1907) are considered synonyms of Ctenolucius, with Spixostoma Whitley (1951) placed as a synonym of Boulengerella.

Two species are recognized in Ctenolucius. Ctenolucius hujeta (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1894) ranges from the Lago Maracaibo basin of northwestern Venezuela through the Río Magdalena system to the Río Sinú of northwestern Colombia. Ctenolucius beani (Fowler, 1907) occurs in the Río Atrato and Río San Juan basins of northwestern Colombia and the rivers of the Pacific slopes of Panama as far west as Veraguas Province. Luciocharax insculptus Steindachner (1878) is a synonym of C. hujeta, and Luciocharax striatus Boulenger (1911) is a synonym of C. beani.

Five species are recognized in Boulengerella. Boulengerella lateristriga (Boulenger, 1895) occurs in the Río Negro drainage of the Amazon basin in Brazil and Venezuela and uppermost portions of the Río Orinoco in southern Venezuela. Boulengerella maculata (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1849) is widely distributed through the Rio Amazonas, Rio Tocantins, and Río Orinoco basins. Boulengerella lucius (Cuvier, 1819) occurs in the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco systems. Boulengerella cuvieri (Agassiz in Spix and Agassiz, 1829) is widespread through the Río Orinoco, Rio Amazonas, and Rio Tocantins basins, the Essequibo river of Guyana, the Oyapock River along the boundary between French Guiana and Brazil, and the coastal rivers of Amapá and Pará states in Brazil. Boulengerella xyrekes, new species, a relatively rare form, inhabits the Río Orinoco and Rio Amazonas basins. Xiphostoma taedo Cope (1872) is a synonym of B. maculata, Xiphostoma oseryi Castelnau (1855) and Xiphostoma ocellatum Schomburgk (1841) are considered synonyms of B. cuvieri. Xiphostoma longipinne Steindachner (1876), based on a juvenile from the mouth of the Rio Negro in Brazil, tentatively is considered a synonym of B. cuvieri. Reports of Boulengerella from the Rio Parnaíba of northeastern Brazil and in the Río de La Plata system in Argentina either are based on specimens with questionable locality data or are probable misidentifications.

Keys are provided to distinguish Ctenolucius and Boulengerella and for the species in each genus. Lectotypes are designated for Xiphostoma hujeta Valenciennes, Luciocharax insculptus Steindachner, Xiphostoma ocellatum Valenciennes, and Luciocharax striatus Boulenger.

The phylogenetic biogeography of the group indicates a vicariance event between the Hepsetidae and the lineage consisting of the Ctenoluciidae and Erythrinidae associated with, or predating, the final separation of Africa and South America about 85 mya. Fossil and distributional data indicate that major cladogenesis within the Ctenoluciidae and Erythrinidae predates the late Miocene.


The Indo-West Pacific Blenniid Fish Genus Istiblennius Reappraised: A Revision of Istiblennius, Blenniella, and Paralticus, New Genus
Victor G. Springer and Jeffrey T. Williams
193 pages, 73 figures, 45 tables
1994 (Date of Issue: 29 November 1994)
Number 565, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Istiblennius Whitley, as most recently defined (Smith-Vaniz and Springer, 1971), comprises 2 monophyletic groups of species, which we recognize as separate genera, Blenniella Reid (9 species) and Istiblennius (14 species). A cladistic analysis supports the hypothesis that Blenniella and Istiblennius form a clade. The 14 species of Istiblennius include 2 new species: I. pox, from southernmost Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, and I. spilotus, from most of East African coast, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Gulf of Oman, and Pakistan. A monotypic new genus, Paralticus, is described for Salarias amboninensis Bleeker, which had been assigned most recently (Smith-Vaniz and Springer, 1971) to Praealticus Schultz and Chapman. Although superficially similar to Istiblennius species, P. amboinensis is a member of a clade that also comprises Praealticus, Alticus, and Andamia.

Most of the species we revise exhibit statistically significant meristic sexual dimorphism, as well as noticeable geographic variation. All species are illustrated, including both sexes, individual and geographic variants, and ophioblennius stage prejuveniles (for all 5 species for which these stages are known). Distribution maps for all species are presented.

Cladistic analyses are given for a subset of the genera of the tribe Salariini, to which the 3 genera we revise belong, and for the species of Blenniella and Istiblennius. The generic level analysis corroborates a major portion of the analysis proposed by Williams (1990). Because of character variability, we consider the results of the generic analyses highly tentative.

Discussions of the biogeography of the genera and species are presented. The Philippine Islands are noted as a general area of endemism for fishes and an explanation is proposed. The pattern of east-west disjunctly distributed species, or sister species, first noted by Springer and Williams (1990), is modified slightly and shown to be common one for fishes. The western portion of the disjunct distributions appears to be restricted to the western Indian Ocean south of the equator and west of the mid-Indian Ocean Ridge. Some species that are not disjunctly distributed are limited in distribution to the same area of the Indian Ocean as the western disjunct portions of other species. The area of disjunction almost always includes, at least, the Gulf of Thailand and the southern half of the South China Sea.


Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 6: Anguilliformes, Saccopharyngiformes, and Notacanthiformes (Teleostei: Elopomorpha)
David G. Smith
50 pages
1994 (Date of Issue: 19 December 1994)
Number 566, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The known type specimens are listed of anguilliform, saccopharyngiform, and notacanthiform fishes in the collections of the Division of Fishes of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, published through 1993. These include 980 specimens in 590 lots including 223 holotypes, 15 lectotypes, one neotype, 33 lots and 39 specimens of syntypes, 292 lots and 644 specimens of paratypes, and 29 lots and 61 specimens of paralectotypes of 317 nominal species. Lectotypes are designated for Muraenesox coniceps Jordan and Gilbert, Gymnothorax ocellatus saxicola Jordan and Davis, Muraena pinta Jordan and Gilbert, and Sidera castanea Jordan and Gilbert.

The listing is arranged alphabetically by family, and within families by genus and species. Information, as applicable, for each species includes genus, species, and subspecies names; author(s) and date of publication; page of original description and accompanying figures and plates; type status; USNM catalog number; number of specimens and range of total lengths; and collection data. The number of predorsal, preanal, and total vertebrae are provided for all name-bearing types (holotypes, syntypes, lectotypes, and neotypes) of anguilliforms. The current status of each name is given (valid, valid but in a different genus, or a synonym). A field headed “Remarks” contains relevant information that does not fit elsewhere. An index arranged alphabetically by species follows the list.


Studies of Gymnomyzinae (Diptera: Ephydridae), VI: A Revision of the Genus Glenanthe Haliday from the New World
Wayne N. Mathis
26 pages, 59 figures
1995 (Date of Issue: 10 January 1995)
Number 567, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

New World species of the genus Glenanthe are revised. As perspective for this revision, the tribe Lipochaetini, in which Glenanthe is placed, is characterized and discussed, and a key to the four included genera (Glenanthe, Homalometopus Becker, Lipochaeta Coquillett, and Paraglenanthe Wirth) is provided. Glenanthe is demonstrated to be a monophyletic lineage within Lipochaetini. Ten New World species of Glenanthe are now known, including six new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): G. caribea (Belize. Stann Creek District: Wee Wee Cay), G. salina (United States. Missouri: Howard Co., Boonslick Salt Spring), G. kobbe (Panama. Canal Zone: Kobbe Beach), G. bella (Dominica (West Indies): Cabrits), G. ruetzleri (Belize. Stann Creek District: Twin Cays, Aanderaa Flats), G. neotropica (Argentina. Cordoba: L. V. Mansilla, Salina, Route 60).


Ostracoda (Halocypridina, Cladocopina) from an Anchialine Lava Tube on Lanzarote, Canary Islands
Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Iliffe
32 pages, 16 figures, 1 table
1995 (Date of Issue: 12 April 1995)
Number 568, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Two new species, Danielopolina phalanx (Halocypridina) and Eupolycope pnyx (Cladocopina) are described from a lava tube on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, and one specimen of Cladocopina is left in open nomenclature. A supplementary description is given of Danielopolina wilkensi (Hartmann, 1985) based on new material from the type locality (Lanzarote lava tube), including the first description of the adult male and juveniles. This is the first report of two different species of Danielopolina living in the same anchialine habitat. An emended description is given for the family Thaumatocyprididae, and an emended diagnosis is given for the genus Danielopolina. Taxonomic keys are presented for living genera of Thaumatocyprididae and for species of Danielopolina. The origin of anchialine populations, shell ornamentation of fossil and living Thaumatocyprididae, and sexual dimorphism and ontogeny in species of Danielopolina are discussed.


Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, XI: Collections from the Aleutians and Other Bering Sea Islands, Alaska
C. Allan Child
30 pages, 10 figures
1995 (Date of Issue: 12 April 1995)
Number 569, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This report treats 35 pycnogonid species from the Bering Sea and the northwestern Pacific with specimens from several island groups located there; the Commander Islands, Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, and one lot from St. Lawrence Island. Six new species are described, illustrated, and compared with their nearest relatives: Eurycyde arctica, Eurycyde depressa, Eurycyde muricata, Pycnogonum stylidium, Nymphon hirsutum, and Colossendeis dalli. Four additional species inadequately described by W.H. Hilton (1942) are redescribed fully and illustrated as if new: Achelia megova, Achelia ovosetosa, Pallenopsis (Bathypallenopsis) pacifica, and Colossendeis microsetosa. New distribution data and a diagnosis are given for the other 25 species, and new morphological information is included for each species where applicable. Several specimens are identified only to Nymphon or Pycnogonum for lack of adults or recognizable specimens.


A Review of the Hermit Crabs of the Genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae), Including Descriptions of Two New Species
Rafael Lemaitre
27 pages, 17 figures
1995 (Date of Issue: 20 April 1995)
Number 570, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The examination of all available material of hermit crabs of the genus Xylopagurus A. Milne Edwards revealed the existence of two new species previously confounded with X. rectus A. Milne Edwards. As a result, the genus now contains five species, four of which are known only from the Caribbean Sea, and one of which is from the tropical eastern Pacific. A critical review of all species of Xylopagurus, and a discussion of unusual or unique features, are presented. The two new species, X. anthonii and X. tenuis, are described. A redescription of the type species of the genus, Xylopagurus rectus A. Milne Edwards, sensu stricto, is included, as well as diagnoses of X. cancellarius Walton and X. tayrona Lemaitre and Campos. A key for the identification of the species is presented. With the exception of the recently described X. tayrona, all species are fully illustrated, and complete synonymies are presented.


Monophyly and Phylogenetic Diagnosis of the Family Cetopsidae, with Synonymization of the Helogenidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes)
Mario C.C. de Pinna and Richard P. Vari
26 pages, 20 figures
1995 (Date of Issue: 12 April 1995)
Number 571, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The Neotropical catfishes currently recognized as the families Cetopsidae and Helogenidae are hypothesized to be sister groups. The two taxa share numerous synapomorphies, including a lap joint between the opercle and interopercle, a dorsal displacement of the attachment of the interoperculo-mandibular ligament on the interopercle, and a strongly depressed palatine. Some of these derived characters are unique within Siluriformes. On the basis of this hypothesis of relationships, cetopsids and helogenids are united into an expanded Cetopsidae, itself subdivided into the monophyletic subfamilies Cetopsinae and Helogeninae. The Cetopsinae is synapomorphically diagnosable by, among other characters, an expanded and often ramified cartilaginous posterior process of the basipterygium, an anterior curvature of the third epibranchial, and the articulation of the palatine with the neurocranium only by means of its anterior cartilage. Synapomorphies supporting the monophyly of the Helogeninae include a reduction in the degree of ossification between the mesethmoid cornua and the remainder of the neurocranium, a large paired fontanel in frontal and sphenotic, the posterior expansion of the third basibranchial, and the lack of contact of the sphenotic with the supraoccipital. Phylogenetic diagnoses are provided for the redefined Cetopsidae, Cetopsinae, and Helogeninae. The external morphology of juvenile Helogenes and a number of unusual juvenile features, possibly unique to the genus, are described for the first time.


Catalog of the Type Specimens of Seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Cynthia Gust Ahearn
59 pages
1995 (Date of Issue: 26 April 1995)
Number 572, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The asteroid type specimens deposited in the National Museum of Natural History comprise 1183 lots representing 552 nominal species, subspecies, and varieties in 179 nominal genera. A taxonomic list of types reflects their current taxonomic status; an annotated alphabetic list is also provided. The format includes the original bibliographic citation for each species, catalog number, number of specimens, preservation, locality and collector data, synonymies, and remarks concerning status. An appendix of locality information is presented alphabetically by research vessel. A bibliography of relevant publications is provided. Problems concerning the status of W.K. Fisher's type specimens are summarized in the introduction and specifically resolved in the text.


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of the SE Australian Continental Slope, Part 3
Louis S. Kornicker and Gary C. B. Poore
186 pages, 102 figures, 17 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 21 May 1996)
Number 573, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Thirty-four species (31 new and one left in open nomenclature) of benthic Myodocopina in 16 genera (one new) collected at depths of 204-2900 m on the SE Australian continental slope under the auspices of the Museum of Victoria and Victorian Institute of Marine Sciences, Australia, are described and illustrated. Including species in Parts 1-3, six are parasitized by Isopoda and 12 by Copepoda, and a few specimens have foraminiferans and bryozoans attached to the outer side of the carapaces. The relationship between eye development and water depth in the Myodocopina is discussed; in the collection from Australia about 72% of the species at bathyal depths (201-2000 m) and 25% at abyssal depths (2001+ m) have lateral eyes. Predators are more abundant in the upper part of the bathyal zone (201-500 m) than in deeper waters. Diversity is higher on the Australian slope than in other geographic areas where diversity is known, and it is highest in the upper part of the bathyal zone.


Lace Bug Genera of the World, I: Introduction, Subfamily Cantacaderinae (Heteroptera: Tingidae)
Richard C. Froeschner
43 pages, 39 figures, 1 table
1996 (Date of Issue: 17 July 1996)
Number 574, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Included is an outline of adult taxonomic anatomy, a key to the two subfamilies Cantacaderinae Stål and Tinginae Laporte (acceptance of separate family status for the Vianaididae excludes them from this publication), a key to the two tribes of Cantacaderinae: Cantacaderini Stål and Phatnomatini Drake and Davis, and keys to the 10 genera of the tribe Cantacaderini and 26 genera of the tribe Phatnomatini. Each genus is diagnosed, depicted in a dorsal habitus drawing of its type species, and accompanied by a list of currently included species with additions and changes published subsequent to the Drake and Ruhoff (1965) catalog. Where practical at this time, a key to the species within some of the genera is offered.

Fossil forms are excluded except for three fossil species cataloged in modern genera: For two species of the Cantacaderini genus Cantacader, the new genus Paleocader is proposed with the new combinations Paleocader avitus (Drake) (type species) and P. quinquecarinatus (Germar and Berendt); the Phatnomatini species Phatnoma baltica Drake is transferred to the new combination Sinalda baltica.

In the tribe Cantacaderini, the following generic changes have been made since the Drake and Ruhoff (1965a) catalog: increase from five genera to 10; present transfer of the genus Carldrakeana Froeschner from the tribe Phatnomatini; description of the new genus Paleocader for two fossil species (see paragraph above); and earlier transfers into Cantacaderini from Phatnomatini of Cyperobia Bergroth, Pseudophatnoma Blöte, and Stenocader Drake and Hambleton. For genera within the Cantacaderini keys to two species of Allocader Drake, three species of Carldrakeana, two species of Ceratocader Drake, and two species of Pseudophatnoma are provided herein.

In the tribe Phatnomatini generic changes since the Drake and Ruhoff catalog are as follows: herein description of two new genera, Etesinalda for type and only species, E. laticosta, new species, from the Island of São Tome and Exulmus for Ulmus engaeus Drake and Ruhoff, type and only species, with new combination Exulmus engaeus; two genera described elsewhere by Froeschner, Carldrakeana, Distocader; eight by Pericart, Daillea, Indocader, Microcader, Phatnomella, Pseudacalypta, Pullocader, Taphnoma, Thaicader; one by Stusak, Phatnocader; three genera transferred to Cantacaderini (see above); redefinition of Gonycentrum Bergroth, with Sinalda Distant elevated from synonymy; Minitingis Barber elevated from synonymy; and Phatnoma baltica Drake herein transferred to genus Sinalda. Within the tribe Phatnomatini keys to two species of Eocader Drake and Hambleton, two species of Gonycentrum Bergroth, two species of Indocader, three species of Microcader, two species of Minitingis Barber, four species of Plesionoma Drake, four species of Taphnoma, three species of Ulmus Distant, two species of Zetekella Drake are provided herein.


Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, LI: Systematics of the Neotropical Caddisfly Genus Contulma (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae)
Ralph W. Holzenthal and Oliver S. Flint, Jr.
59 pages, 164 figures, 6 maps, 1 table
1995 (Date of Issue: 5 December 1995)
Number 575, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The systematics of the genus Contulma (Anomalopsychidae) are reviewed. Morphology of males and females is diagnosed and the immatures are described for the first time. Three previously described species are compared with 18 new species. The 21 species now known in the genus and their distributions are C. adamsae, new species (Peru); C. bacula, new species (Ecuador); C. caldensis, new species (Colombia); C. cataracta, new species (Ecuador); C. colombiensis Holzenthal and Flint, 1991 (Colombia); C. costaricensis, new species (Costa Rica); C. cranifer Flint, 1969 (Chile); C. echinata, new species (Ecuador); C. ecuadorensis, new species (Ecuador); C. inornata, new species (Colombia); C. lanceolata, new species (Ecuador); C. nevada, new species (Colombia); C. papallacta, new species (Ecuador); C. penai, new species (Ecuador); C. sancta, new species (Costa Rica); C. spinosa Holzenthal and Flint, 1991 (Colombia, Ecuador); C. talamanca, new species (Costa Rica); C. tapanti, new species (Costa Rica); C. tica, new species (Costa Rica); C. tijuca, new species (Brazil); and C. valverdei, new species (Costa Rica). A key to males is provided as is a phylogeny of the species. Two monophyletic species groups are recognized: the cranifer Group, containing 11 species and characterized by dorsolateral processes on male abdominal segment IX, and the spinosa Group, containing 10 species and characterized by mesolateral setae on male segment IX.


Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 7: Chaenopsidae, Clinidae, Dactyloscopidae, Labrisomidae, Tripterygiidae
Victor G. Springer and Thomas M. Orrell
38 pages, 1 table
1996 (Date of Issue: 15 July 1996)
Number 576, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This study treats the putative type specimens included in all the families of blennioid fishes, except those of the Blenniidae (which were treated previously), known or believed to have been deposited in the USNM collections and whose descriptions were published prior to 1 December 1995. These include 2365 specimens in 415 lots, which comprise 112 holotypes, eight lectotypes, three neotypes, 14 syntypes, 2215 paratypes, and 13 paralectotypes of 222 nominal species and subspecies. Among the eight lectotypes, the following are designated by us in the present study: Emblemaria markii Mowbray, Cryptotrema corallinum Gilbert; Labrosomus xanti Gill; and Tripterygion ellioti, Herre (located in the California Academy of Sciences, CAS-SU 38840). The holotypes or syntypes of five other nominal species that were, or could expected to be, deposited in the USNM collections appear to be lost, and the holotype of one other species has been exchanged. We list each nominal taxon together with its original literature citation and, for primary types, include published collecting associated data and length measurements. USNM accession numbers, where known, are given for all types. Discrepancies between original descriptions and putative types are discussed, as well as miscellaneous other relevant problems encountered during the course of preparing this listing.


The Neotropical Fish Family Chilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes): A Phylogenetic Study and a Revision of Caenotropus Günther
Richard P. Vari, Ricardo M. C. Castro and Sandra J. Raredon
32 pages, 20 figures, 5 tables
1995 (Date of Issue: 13 October 1995)
Number 577, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

A series of synapomorphies for the characiform family Chilodontidae, in addition to those proposed by Vari (1983), are discussed. These involve modifications of the suspensorium, hyoid arch, infraorbitals, lower jaw, supraorbital portion of the laterosensory canal system in the frontal, and lateral-line scales. The chilodontid genera Chilodus Müller and Troschel (1844) and Caenotropus Günther (1864) are diagnosed as monophyletic on the basis of derived features of the third postcleithrum, lower jaw, hyoid arch, pterotic, supracleithrum, and the laterosensory canal systems in the infraorbitals, frontal, and posterior lateral-line scales. Modifications of a subset of those systems, the subopercle, dentition, suspensorium, third postcleithrum, and pigmentation define subunits of Caenotropus or are autapomorphic for its species.

Caenotropus is revised, with Tylobronchus Eigenmann (1912) considered a junior synonym. Three Caenotropus species are recognized: C. labyrinthicus (Kner, 1858) widely distributed in the Rio Amazonas and Río Orinoco basins, the upper Essequibo River basin in Guyana, the Saramacca and Suriname Rivers in Suriname, and the Rio Parnaíba, northeastern Brazil; C. maculosus (Eigenmann, 1912) ranging from the Essequibo River of Guyana to the Fleuve Maroni of French Guiana; and C. mestomorgmatos, new species, from the acidic black waters of the middle and upper Río Negro in Brazil and Venezuela and the upper Río Orinoco in southern Venezuela. Chilodus labyrinthicus rupununi Fowler (1914) is placed into the synonymy of Caenotropus labyrinthicus.

Keys are provided to the genera Caenotropus and Chilodus and to the species of Caenotropus. A lectotype is designated for Microdus labyrinthicus Kner. The biogeographic implications of the geographic distribution of subunits of the Chilodontidae are discussed.


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) from Shallow Waters of the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia
Louis S. Kornicker
97 pages, 64 figures, 4 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 23 February 1996)
Number 578, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Seventeen new species in eight genera in five families (Cypridinidae, Philomedidae, Rutidermatidae, Sarsiellidae, and Cylindroleberididae) of myodocopid Ostracoda collected at shallow depths in the vicinities of Darwin, Northern Territory, and Weipa (Gulf of Carpentaria) and the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island Group, Davies Reef, Calliope River, and Auckland Creek), Queensland, are described and illustrated. A supplementary description is presented of Sheina orri Harding, 1966, from the vicinity of Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. Choniostomatid copepod parasites were found in one philomedid and one sarsiellid species.


Biosystematic Studies of Ceylonese Wasps, XXI: A Revision of the Bethylinae and Epyrinae (Cephalonomiini and Sclerodermini) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
Karl V. Krombein
29 pages, 34 figures, 1 table
1996 (Date of Issue: 11 January 1996)
Number 579, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Keys are presented to the family-, genus-, and species-level taxa. New taxa are: Odontepyris muesebecki, O. ruficrus, O. mandibularis, O. ventralis, Goniozus comatus, G. villosus, G. ecarinatus, G. lucidulus, G. valvolicola, G. fulgidus, G. rutherfordi, Cephalonomia lignicola, Sclerodermus variegatus, S. hirsutus, Discleroderma undulatum, Glenosema splendidum, and G. dispersum. The new taxa are known only from Sri Lanka except O. mandibularis, which also occurs in India. Discleroderma Kieffer and D. tuberculatum (Magretti), from Burma, and Odontepyris Kieffer are redescribed. A table is included of known host species in Sri Lanka of Bethylinae, Cephalonomiini, and Sclerodermini.


The Troglobitic Halocyprid Ostracoda of Anchialine Caves in Cuba
Louis S. Kornicker and Jill Yager
16 pages, 9 figures, 1 table
1996 (Date of Issue: 20 March 1996)
Number 580, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Spelaeoecia cubensis, a new species of troglobitic halocyprid ostracode in the subfamily Deeveyinae, from two anchialine caves in southern Matanzas Province, Cuba, is described and illustrated. The localities in Cuba of troglobitic halocyprid ostracodes in the family Thaumatocyprididae, Danielopolina orghidani and Danielopolina sp., are reviewed.


Revision of the Sigalionid Species (Polychaeta) Referred to Psammolyce Kinberg, 1856, Pelogenia Schmarda, 1861, and Belonging to the Subfamily Pelogeniinae Chamberlin, 1919
Marian H. Pettibone
89 pages, 60 figures
1997 (Date of Issue: 13 March 1997)
Number 581, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Sigalionid species of polychaetes included in Pelogeniinae Chamberlin, 1919, are reviewed and revised, based on reexamination of type material and published records, as well as examination of new material. The species are characterized by the dorsum and elytra being more or less covered with sand and foreign material tightly held by adhesive papillae. In this revision, the subfamily is represented by eight genera, separated into two groups, based on the presence or absence of dorsal cirri on segment III. The Pelogenia group (with dorsal cirri), includes Pelogenia Schmarda, 1861 (with synonym Eupholoe McIntosh, 1885), Claparedepelogenia (new name for Lepidopleurus Claparède, 1868, preoccupied), and new genera Pottsipelogenia and Heteropelogenia. The Psammolyce group (without dorsal cirri) includes Psammolyce Kinberg, 1856, and new genera Neopsammolyce, Hartmanipsammolyce, and Dayipsammolyce. The report includes remarks on general characteristics of the Pelogeniinae and the study of 30 species, including 21 new combinations, seven new species, and eight synonyms.


Revision and Phylogeny of the Limacodid-Group Families, with Evolutionary Studies on Slug Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea)
Marc E. Epstein
102 pages, 409 figures, 7 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 3 October 1996)
Number 582, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The limacodid group, composed of Limacodidae (+ Chrysopolomidae), Dalceridae, Megalopygidae, Aididae, and Somabrachyidae, is revised, and diagnoses, redescriptions, and keys to larval and adult stages are provided for each family. Comparative morphology and ontogeny of the larval stage are emphasized. Immature stages, including first instars, of a number of taxa are figured for the first time. New character data for adults and immatures are presented, including the presence of larval crochets on abdominal segments A2-A7 and A10 in species of Megalopygidae and Limacodidae. Computer-assisted phylogenetic analyses of limacodid-group families using separate character-data sets from adult and immature stages produces congruent cladograms of equal parsimony, with Zygaenidae selected as the outgroup. Megalopygidae (Megalopyginae + Trosiinae) is found to be the most basal family among the limacodid group, and Aididae, previously a subfamily of Megalopygidae, is the sister group to the Limacodidae + Dalceridae clade. Chrysopolomidae is placed as a subfamily of Limacodidae based on new character evidence from adult and immature stages. Relationships of Somabrachyidae, Epipyropidae, and Cyclotornidae also are discussed. Previous interpretations of character homologies for abdominal prolegs in the larvae are revised based on the phylogenetic analysis, resulting in a novel hypothesis concerning the evolutionary transformation from prolegs to a slug-like ventral surface. New representations of homology for larval body setae and for juxta and valva of male genitalia also are given. Behavioral observations of immatures and adults of species in the limacodid group are presented, along with a review of their biology.


A Review of the North American Freshwater Snail Genus Fluminicola (Hydrobiidae)
Robert Hershler and Terrence J. Frest
41 pages, 18 figures
1996 (Date of Issue: 24 July 1996)
Number 583, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Species currently allocated to the northwestern North American genus Fluminicola Carpenter, 1864, comprise a morphologically diverse group that is shown to be paraphyletic based on a cladistic analysis of nominal species utilizing European Lithoglyphus Hartmann, 1821, and two eastern North American genera as outgroups. Fluminicola consists of a single, highly divergent species (F. virens) and a clade comprising all other congeners, which is defined by synapomorphic conditions of pedal ganglia and penis. Groups of species within the clade are united by derived modifications of shell protoconch microsculpture, operculum, central and lateral radular teeth, ctenidium, hypobranchial gland, penis, ovary, and female capsule gland.

A redefinition of Fluminicola in the wake of the above analysis cannot be provided until anatomical details of the type species (which may be extinct) are obtained. Nine Recent species currently are assigned to this group. These are Fluminicola coloradensis, distributed in the Green River basin; F. dalli, Pyramid Lake basin; F. fuscus, Snake-Columbia River basin; F. minutissimus, Snake River basin; F. modoci, Goose Lake basin; F. nuttallianus, Willamette River basin; F. seminalis, Sacramento and Pit river basins; F. turbiniformis, northwestern Great Basin; and F. virens, Willamette and lower Columbia river basins.

Amnicola hindsi Baird, 1863, Fluminicola nuttalliana columbiana Keep, 1887, and Fluminicola columbiana Pilsbry, 1899a, are junior synonyms of F. fuscus (Haldeman, 1841); Lithoglyphus cumingii Frauenfeld, 1863a, is a junior synonym of F. seminalis (Hinds, 1842); and Paludina nuclea Lea, 1838, is a junior synonym of F. virens (Lea, 1838). The genus-group taxon Heathilla Hannibal, 1912, is a synonym of Fluminicola.


World Catalog of the Family Tethinidae (Diptera)
Wayne N. Mathis and Lorenzo Munari
27 pages
1996 (Date of Issue: 22 November 1996)
Number 584, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

All genera and species of the dipterous family Tethinidae are cataloged. Included are 126 species and 14 genera that are arranged within a classification of five subfamilies. The distribution of each species is given by major zoogeographic region(s) and country(ies) within each region. Information on the natural history, as available in the literature, and depository of primary types also are provided. Taxonomic and nomenclatural changes are as follows: The subfamily Apetaeninae Mathis and Munari is proposed, three new combinations are included (Dasyrhicnoessa sexseriata (Hendel), Tethina dubiosa (Collin), and Tethina heringi (Hendel)), one new synonymy (Dasyrhicnoessa asymbasia Sasakawa = Dasyrhicnoessa sexseriata (Hendel)), and Tethina minutissima (Bezzi) is transferred to the family Chyromyidae.


Type Specimens of Hispinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Charles L. Staines and Susan L. Staines
25 pages
1997 (Date of Issue: 16 June 1997)
Number 585, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The Hispinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) type material in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM) is cataloged. Verbatim label data is given for all type specimens. Type specimens that should be present in the USNM but are not also are given. Specimens with type labels that do not meet the requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature are excluded and are clearly labelled in the collection.

The collection contains 42 holotypes and 17 lectotypes. There are allotypes of four species, paratypes of 92 species, paralectotypes of 16 species, and syntypes of 57 species. A lectotype and two paralectotypes are designated for Microrhopala floridana Schwarz.


Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods
Nancy A. Voss, Michael Vecchione, Ronald B. Toll and Michael J. Sweeney, editors
599 pages, 257 figures, 69 tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 28 May 1998)
Number 586 part 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This multiauthored publication is a compendium of the results of the International Workshop on Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. The contributions cover the general systematics and biogeography of the majority of the ecologically, economically, and biomedically important families of cephalopods. The work begins with a series of contributions on the analysis of systematic characters, a necessary activity in the study of the systematics of any group. This is followed by the largest section, consisting of the systematic and biogeographic treatments of seven cephalopod families: Sepiidae, Loliginidae, Enoploteuthidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae, and Octopodidae. These families were chosen for study based on a combination of their relative importance and the need for improved systematic knowledge. The work concludes with a summary of the current classification, type localities, and type repositories of the Recent Cephalopoda. The workshop organizers intend these volumes to serve as a companion to Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 513, 1992.


Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods VOLUME II
Nancy A. Voss, Michael Vecchione, Ronald B. Toll and Michael J. Sweeney, editors
iii, pp.277-599, figures, tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 28 May 1998)
Number 586 part 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This multiauthored publication is a compendium of the results of the International Workshop on Systematics and Biogeography of Cephalopods. The contributions cover the general systematics and biogeography of the majority of the ecologically, economically, and biomedically important families of cephalopods. The work begins with a series of contributions on the analysis of systematic characters, a necessary activity in the study of the systematics of any group. This is followed by the largest section, consisting of the systematic and biogeographic treatments of seven cephalopod families: Sepiidae, Loliginidae, Enoploteuthidae, Onychoteuthidae, Histioteuthidae, Ommastrephidae, and Octopodidae. These families were chosen for study based on a combination of their relative importance and the need for improved systematic knowledge. The work concludes with a summary of the current classification, type localities, and type repositories of the Recent Cephalopoda. The workshop organizers intend these volumes to serve as a companion to Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, number 513, 1992.


The Caridean Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Albatross Philippine Expedition, 1907-1910, Part 7: Families Atyidae, Eugonatonotidae, Rhynchocinetidae, Bathypalaemonellidae, Processidae, and Hippolytidae
Fenner A. Chace, Jr.
106 pages, 29 figures
1997 (Date of Issue: 15 September 1997)
Number 587, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Two new genera, Clytomanningus and Hyashidonus, are proposed in the Family Processidae. Four new species are described: Caridina blancoi from the mouth of the Tayabas River, Luzon, Philippines; Rhynchocinetes albatrossae from Surigao Strait, Philippines; Lysmata philippinensis from Albay Gulf, Philippines; and Paralebbeus zygius from Indonesia; and a new replacement name, Lysmata kempi, is proposed for Lysmata dentata Kemp (not De Haan). Identification keys are offered for all genera of Processidae and Hippolytidae, Philippine-Indonesian genera of Atyidae, all species of Rhynchocinetes, Clytomanningus, Exhippolysmata, Latreutes, Lysmata, Paralebbeus, Parhippolyte, Saron, Thor, and Tozeuma, and the Philippine species of Caridina. World checklist of the 37 genera and 280 species and subspecies of the family Hippolytidae herein recognized, with their synonyms, type species, and type localities, is included.


Anchialine Ostracoda (Halocyprididae) from San Salvador, Bahamas
Louis S. Kornicker and Douglas J. Barr
20 pages, 11 figures, 3 tables
1997 (Date of Issue: 24 February 1997)
Number 588, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Spelaeoecia barri Kornicker, new species, an anchialine halocyprid Ostracoda (Halocyprididae: Deeveyinae), is described and illustrated from collections made at Dixon Hill Lighthouse Cave, San Salvador, Bahamas. Descriptions of adults and four juvenile stages are included and a discussion of ontogeny is given. A key to species of Spelaeoecia also is presented.


Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 8: Suborder Zoarcoidei (Anarhichadidae, Bathymasteridae, Pholidae, Ptilichthyidae, Scytalinidae, Stichaeidae, Zoarcidae)
Victor G. Springer and M. Eric Anderson
27 pages, 2 figures
1997 (Date of Issue: 24 July 1997)
Number 589, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This study treats the putative type specimens included in all the families of zoarcoid fishes known or believed to have been deposited in the Smithsonian Institution collections and whose descriptions were published prior to January 1997. The types pertain to 113 species and include at least 530 specimens in 189 lots, of which 71 are holotypes, 20 lectotypes (15 designated herein), seven syntypes, 59 paratypes, and 32 paralectotypes. Of the specimens, four holotypes and at least one syntype and two paralectotypes are lost. In addition, we report paratypes, syntypes, and paralectotypes originally deposited in the Smithsonian collections that were exchanged to other museums, in so far as we have been able to locate them. We list each nominal taxon together with its original literature citation and, for primary types, include published collecting data and length measurements. Discrepancies between original descriptions and putative types are discussed, as are numerous other relevant problems encountered during the course of preparing this catalog.


Weevil Diversity and Seasonality in Tropical Panama as Deduced from Light-Trap Catches (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea)
Henk Wolda, Charles W. O'Brien and Henry P. Stockwell
79 pages, 27 figures, 9 tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 7 May 1998)
Number 590, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Weevils were collected with light traps at seven localities in the Republic of Panama, varying in altitude from sea level to 2200 m, in climate from sharply seasonal to virtually nonseasonal, and in habitat from natural tropical forest to areas strongly disturbed by humans. Although only an estimated 25-40 percent of the species of weevils present in an area were attracted to light, a total of 2086 species was nonetheless obtained in the traps. On Barro Colorado Island (BCI), the canopy trap caught more individuals but fewer species than the trap near the ground. Species richness (alpha-diversity) varied greatly between sites, BCI being the richest and the high-altitude site of Guadalupe Arriba being the poorest. Using the logseries as an arbitrary but useful basis for comparison, there were too many rare species and too few species of intermediate abundances at all sites. Between-site (beta-) diversity was also large, with one-third to two-thirds of the species at each site being only observed at that site, whereas species occurring at four or more sites were very rare.

Descriptors of seasonal patterns are proposed that were borrowed from circular statistics, such as Mean Vector and Mean Week. The former indicates the degree of seasonality, i.e., the concentration of the individuals in a year, which ranges in value from zero (uniform distribution) to unity (all individuals occurring at the same time), whereas the latter indicates the circular mean of the seasonal distribution. These were used in conjunction with other seasonality measures, such as Peak Week, which is the mode of the seasonal distribution. For all six sites with at least one year of data, these measures were calculated for each year for all species with at least 10 individuals in that year. A very rich variation in seasonal patterns was observed among species, ranging from species with very short seasons to species occurring year-round, sometimes without any clear seasonal peaks. At the climatically seasonal sites and at one less seasonal site, most species exhibited their maximum abundance at the beginning of the rainy season. However, at all sites some species were active or even had their mean or maximum abundance at any time of the year. Most species demonstrated very similar seasonal patterns in successive years, apart from shifts of a few weeks related to the actual beginning of the rainy season, but there were some clear exceptions. Similarly, for most species that occurred at more than one site in reasonable numbers the seasonal patterns were rather similar in those different sites in spite of differences in habitat, seasonality, or altitude. However, there were a number of species with spectacular differences in seasonal patterns at different sites. In some cases such differences could partly be attributed to differences between the sites, in others they could not. Species with an intermediate degree of seasonality showed a higher variability between sites than between years within sites.

The results were compared with those obtained for weevils from temperate areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on between-year and between-site comparisons in seasonality with a large number of tropical insect species.


A Generic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Turbinoliidae (Cnidaria: Scleractinia)
Stephen D. Cairns
55 pages, 5 figures, 10 plates, 6 tables
1997 (Date of Issue: 23 October 1997)
Number 591, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The monophyly of the Turbinoliidae is based on the unique (within the Caryophylliina) character of having its entire corallum invested with tissue, which is reflected in its well-formed costae from base to calice and its characteristically deep intercostal regions. All turbinoliids are solitary and free-living, and thus the complete investiture of its corallum might facilitate movement through or across a sandy substrate.

The Turbinoliidae consists of 28 genera and 163 valid species, of which 22 genera and 49 species are extant. The earliest known turbinoliid is from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Antarctica. All 28 genera are diagnosed and figured herein. The stratigraphic and geographic distributions are discussed for each genus, and a list of species known for each genus, including junior synonyms, is given. Two genera and two species are described as new: Pleotrochus, P. zibrowii, Foveolocyathus, and Sphenotrochus wellsi. Peponocyathus is restricted to those species having transverse division, which requires the resurrection of Deltocyathoides Yabe and Eguchi, 1932, for those species that do not reproduce by transverse division, and it also requires the synonymy of Truncatocyathus Stolarski, 1992. Tropidocyathus is divided into two genera, allowing the resurrection of Cyathotrochus Bourne, 1905. Oryzotrochus stephensoni Wells, 1959, is identified as a Turbinolia, which synonymizes Oryzotrochus and extends the stratigraphic range of Turbinolia from the Oligocene to Recent.

Phylogenetic analysis of the 28 turbinoliid genera was carried out using 16 characters, comprising 49 character states. Relationships among taxa were determined based on parsimony and successive weighting of characters. Subfamilies of the Caryophylliidae were used as outgroups. Characters that contributed highly to the phylogenetic hypothesis were costal ornamentation, costal origination, and septal number. Characteristics of thecal structure (i.e., imperforate, externally pitted, perforate) were re-examined in all genera. The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis (Figure 2) suggests that the turbinoliids are divided into two major clades. One (clade 2) contains 12 genera including all six Late Cretaceous Antarctic genera, as well as genera first recorded from the Eocene of New Zealand and Oligocene of South Australia. Coralla of this clade are characterized by having trifurcate costal origination and serrate costal ornamentation. The other major clade (clade 3) contains 14 genera, including one from the Late Cretaceous of New Zealand, five with first occurrences in the Paleocene to Miocene of Europe and North America, and three from the Eocene to Oligocene of South Australia. These are genera characterized by coralla with less than 48 septa and granular or smooth costae. It is cautioned that the results of this analysis are considered preliminary, as it is based exclusively on skeletal characters. Consequently, clades are not highly supported, nonetheless, this analysis suggests which skeletal characters should be examined more carefully in the future, and it serves as a comparison for future analyses that might include tissue and/or molecular characters. The status of the Early Cretaceous genus Platytrochopsis Sikharulidze, 1975, is also discussed.


Shore Flies of the Belizean Cays (Diptera: Ephydridae)
Wayne N. Mathis
77 pages, 258 figures, 6 tables
1997 (Date of Issue: 12 November 1997)
Number 592, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Shore flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) from the Belizean cays are reviewed, including the description of one new genus (Garifuna) and five new species (Discocerina (Discocerina) juniori, Polytrichophora reginae, Guttipsilopa (Nesopsilopa) dianneae, Paralimna (Paralimna) fellerae, and Garifuna sinuata). Although the known shore-fly fauna of these cays is relatively diverse, comprising 56 species in 31 genera, none of the species is thought to be endemic, i.e., the species are introductions from the mainland. The subfamily Gymnomyzinae has greatest species diversity on the cays, especially the tribe Discocerinini, which has 12 species in three genera.


Myodocopid Ostracoda of Pillar Point Harbor, Half Moon Bay, California
Louis S. Kornicker and Elizabeth Harrison-Nelson
53 pages, 28 figures, 6 tables
1997 (Date of Issue: 12 November 1997)
Number 593, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Pillar Point Harbor, a small harbor formed in 1961 by construction of a breakwater in Half Moon Bay, California, in 1975 contained five species of benthic myodocopid Ostracoda. Analysis of the environment suggests that the distribution of individual species may, in part, have been affected by the substrate. Two new species, Rutiderma apex and Euphilomedes morini, are described and illustrated, and supplementary descriptions are provided for Euphilomedes carcharodonta (Smith, 1952) and Postasterope barnesi (Baker, 1978). The ontogenies of both species of Euphilomedes are described, and it is shown that juveniles of E. morini are capable of swimming, whereas those of E. carcharodonta are not. The abundance of the ostracodes in Pillar Point Harbor was greater than in many other continental bays for which abundances are known. Commensal protistans colonized carapaces of both species of Euphilomedes but not other species in the harbor.


Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, LIII: A Taxonomic Revision of the Subgenus Curgia of the Genus Chimarra (Trichoptera: Philopotamidae)
Oliver S. Flint, Jr.
131 pages, 446 figures, 26 maps
1998 (Date of Issue: 23 July 1998)
Number 594, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The genus Chimarra, subgenus Curgia Walker, is revised, resulting in 92 species being recognized, of which 52 are described as new. The subgenus, which is exclusively New World in distribution, is characterized in the adult stage, and its relationships are briefly discussed. A key to the species, based primarily on the male genitalia, is presented. Diagnostic characters and descriptions are given for all species, the male genitalia are figured, and distribution maps are presented. The subgenus is divided into 16 species groups, which are characterized, their distributions are given, and relationships of the contained species are discussed. Of the 52 names available before this work, 40 are still recognized as valid. Six synonymies are proposed herein: C. martinmoselyi Botosaneanu under morio (Burmeister); alayoi Botosaneanu under moesta Banks; punctulata Flint under parana Flint; catarinensis Flint under scopuloides Flint; and brustia Ross and alamosa Denning under laguna Ross. One species, barrettae (Banks), is resurrected from the synonymy of mexicana (Banks).


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) of the Tuléar Reef Complex, SW Madagascar
Louis S. Kornicker and Bernard A. Thomassin
134 pages, 86 figures, 2 tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 22 January 1998)
Number 595, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Twenty-four species (16 new), representative of all five myodocopid families, plus one left in open nomenclature, are described and illustrated from collections from the Tuléar Reef Complex, SW Madagascar. Specimens were collected by personnel of the Station marine d'Endoume et Centre d'Océanographie (CNRS-VRA n° 41), Marseilles, France, between 1969 and 1972. The distribution of Myodocopina in the area and the faunal resemblances in the populations living in various parts of the reef, as indicated by Simpson Indices, are discussed.


Thesaurus of Sponge Morphology
Nicole Boury-Esnault and Klaus Ruetzler, editors
55 pages, 306 figures
1997 (Date of Issue: 2 December 1997)
Number 596, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

This is a vade mecum of terms for describing all aspects of sponge morphology, such as habit, surface structure, consistency, and anatomy. Definitions of microscopic features include aquiferous system, cytology, reproductive structures, skeletal architecture, and calcareous and siliceous spicules. Terms were selected and reviewed by an international group of 10 experts in sponge systematics, during several workshops. Each entry is accompanied by a precise diagnosis and an illustration. Terms listed as “rejected” are those judged unsuitable, redundant, or preoccupied. The thesaurus will aid descriptions in future systematic papers, computerized data banks, and identification keys. The literature cited presents a historical perspective on similar attempts to create a precise terminology of sponge morphology and helps to further clarify the selected terms.


A World Classification of the Harmacloninae, a New Subfamily of Tineidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea)
Donald R. Davis
81 pages, 346 figures, 8 maps, 1 table
1998 (Date of Issue: 22 January 1998)
Number 597, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

The systematics, phylogeny, morphology, and distribution are summarized for the newly proposed subfamily Harmacloninae. Synapomorphies distinguishing this subfamily from the sister group, Myrmecozelinae, include (1) unique wing coupling system consisting of raised scales along the ventral hindmargin of the forewing interlocking into similar scales along the dorsal subcostal area of the hindwing; (2) pretarsus without arolium and pseudempodial seta; (3) the presence of paired abdominal tympanic organs; (4) enlargement of the sternal apophyses on the second abdominal sternum; and (5) aedoeagus with a basal, midventral keel. Cladistic analysis of the 22 species, using the genus Gerontha of the Myrmecozelinae as an outgroup, resulted in the recognition of two monophyletic genera: Micrerethista, with 10 of the 11 recognized species concentrated in the Oriental/Australian regions and a single species from equatorial Africa, and Harmaclona, consisting of 11 pantropical species. The following taxa are described as new: Micrerethista africana, M. bifida, M. denticulata, M. dissacca, M. fasciola, M. fusca, M. nigrapex, M. resima, Harmaclona afrotephrantha, H. hexacantha, H. robinsoni, H. tetracantha, and H. triacantha. Distribution maps and keys are provided for all species. Diagnostic characters of all taxa are fully illustrated by line drawings and photographs.

The vicariant distributions of certain Harmacloninae suggest a minimum age of more than 90 m.y. for the subfamily. If tympanic organs in Harmacloninae evolved primarily as a defense against insectivorous, echolocating bats, as has been proposed for other Lepidoptera, then this would indicate that echolocating bats must have appeared earlier than the Harmacloninae—at least by the beginning of the late Cretaceous.


A Revision of Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) of the Central West Atlantic Region
Belinda Alvarez, Rob W.M. van Soest and Klaus Ruetzler
47 pages, 23 figures, 18 tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 11 September 1998)
Number 598, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Abstract

Twenty-one species of the family Axinellidae (sensu Lévi) reside in the central West Atlantic region, from the Carolinas to the southern Caribbean. They are distributed in seven genera, and five are new species: Axinella pomponiae, A. meandroides, Pseudaxinella(?) zeai, Dragmaxia undata, and Auletta tuberosa. A taxonomic diagnosis of these genera and species indicates that the nominal genera Teichaxinella de Laubenfels and Homaxinella Topsent previously recorded from the region are invalid and that in the study area their species can be allocated to Axinella. Acanthella and Ptilocaulis, traditionally grouped with the Axinellidae but recently allocated to the families Dictyonellidae and Desmoxyidae of the Order Halichondrida (sensu van Soest et al., 1990), are included in this revision because the scope of the other families has not yet been established. Ptilocaulis, at least, is shown to be closely related to Axinella.


Displaying 551 - 600 from the 642 total records