Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology

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Myodocopid Ostracoda (Halocypridina, Cladocopina) from Anchialine Caves in the Bahamas, Canary Islands, and Mexico
Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Iliffe
93 pages, 64 figures, 2 maps, 9 tables
1998 (Date of Issue: 13 July 1998)
Number 599, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Halocyprid Ostracoda from the Bahamas (four species (two new) in three genera from anchialine caves) and the Yucatan Peninsula (two species (one new) in two genera) are described and illustrated. The new species are Spelaeoecia mayan, Deeveya exleyi, and Danielopolina exuma. Supplementary descriptions are presented of Spelaeoecia styx Kornicker in Kornicker et al., 1990, and Danielopolina mexicana Kornicker and Iliffe, 1989. One species is left in open nomenclature as Danielopolina species A. The genus Spelaeoecia has not been previously reported from Mexico, and appendages of Spelaeoecia capax Kornicker in Kornicker et al., 1990, have not been described previously. The ontogeny of Spelaeoecia is discussed, and keys are presented to the species of Spelaeoecia, Deeveya, and Danielopolina.

Supplementary descriptions are presented of the halocyprid Danielopolina wilkensi Hartmann, 1985, and the cladocopid Eupolycope pnyx Kornicker and Iliffe, 1995, from a lava tube in Lanzarote, Canary Islands. One specimen of the cladocopid Polycopiella from the lava tube is left in open nomenclature as Polycopiella species A.

A Review of Morphological Characters of Hydrobioid Snails
Robert Hershler and Winston F. Ponder
55 pages, 21 figures
1998 (Date of Issue: 10 July 1998)
Number 600, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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We provide herein a description of morphological characters of aquatic gastropods of the family Hydrobiidae and of several other families of Rissooidea that resemble these snails in general features. The hydrobiid gastropods comprise the largest group of freshwater mollusks, with more than 1,000 species and more than 400 Recent and fossil genera. This compilation is a prelude to the first rigorous phylogenetic analysis of the higher taxa of this cosmopolitan, yet poorly understood, group, for which at least 70 family-group taxa have been proposed. It also was prepared to fulfill a need for standardization of terminology and interpretation of characters used in taxonomic descriptions of these small, often morphologically simple, snails. Given that taxonomic study of these animals has long been hampered by reliance on a limited number of morphological features, all aspects of the shell and the soft-part anatomy are reviewed as part of this treatment, and we attempt to be maximally inclusive in listing characters. Emphasis is placed on characters considered potentially useful in recognizing and defining hydrobiid clades, although features having utility for species-rank descriptions are summarized in an appendix. For 202 characters, sufficient information was available to delineate states and tentatively identify plesiomorphic conditions (based on outgroup comparisons). Features utilized are from the shell (29 characters), operculum (13), external features (32), pallial cavity (10), digestive system (29), life history (6), female reproductive system (52), and male reproductive system (31). Discussion of many characters is augmented by schematic diagrams and in almost all cases by reference to taxa and published figures illustrating given states. Many characters are extensively annotated, and in some cases new concepts of homology and/or division of characters are proposed.

Natural History of the Sea Fan Blenny, Emblemariopsis pricei (Teleostei: Chaenopsidae), in the Western Caribbean
James C. Tyler and Diane M. Tyler
24 pages, 7 figures, 6 tables
1999 (Date of Issue: 10 August 1999)
Number 601, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The chaenopsid blenny Emblemariopsis pricei Greenfield presently is known only from waters off Belize and Honduras, where it occurs at depths of 1 to 30 m. It is unusual among Atlantic Ocean fishes in partitioning its microhabitat usage according to sex and age. During daylight, females, nonbreeding males, and immatures are found mostly on the surface of soft-coral sea fans (Gorgonia ventalina Linnaeus), whereas breeding males occupy cavities in live scleractinian corals. The cavities are the remains of serpulid worm (Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas)) tubes, which are most often found in elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata (Lamarck)), but which also are found in species of several genera of globose mound corals. Breeding males are dark-headed and range from 17.5 to 28.6 mm standard length (SL). Adult females, adult nonbreeding males, and immatures are semitransparent; mature females attain up to 19.6 mm SL and nonbreeding males up to 24.3 mm SL. Approximately one in eight sea fans at a study reef at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has a blenny present. Pale adult males, presumably seeking tube cavities to occupy, frequently are found on the surface of live coral, especially in the vicinity of cavities occupied by dark-headed males. Pale males immediately enter any tube cavities that become vacant when resident dark-headed males are removed. Upon occupation, pale males turn dark headed overnight, although the full complement of dark pigment that remains evident in preserved specimens takes up to 10 days to develop. Females deposit their eggs in the tube cavities, where the resident breeding male fertilizes and incubates them. Mature females have 21 to 27 large ovarian eggs, and most tube cavities contain an average of about 300 eggs in various stages of development from multiple spawning deposits.

Eumeli Expeditions, Part 1: Tetragonodon rex, New Species, and General Reproductive Biology of the Myodocopina
Louis S. Kornicker and Elizabeth Harrison-Nelson
55 pages, 25 figures, 11 tables
1999 (Date of Issue: 4 January 1999)
Number 602, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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A new species of myodocopid Ostracoda, Tetragonodon rex, is described and illustrated, including all growth stages. Based on morphology only, it is concluded that the adult male is capable of swimming, whereas adult females and juveniles are restricted to the sediment. Gut contents were unidentifiable, except for some foraminiferans. The species has five growth stages, and order of appearance of appendages, as well as their progressive morphological development, are similar to those of other Myodocopina in the subfamily Pseudophilomedinae. Methods for the determination of age of growth stages are discussed, and it is concluded that T. rex does not undergo postadult molting. Evidence for postadult molting in other myodocopid species is reviewed, and it is concluded that the question remains tenuously open for Macrocypridina and Gigantocypris. The production of eggs and mortality in the Myodocopina is discussed, and additional data is reported supporting clutch size being in part a function of adult size. In general, for those few species for which all instars are known, the Cypridinidae appear to have six stages, the Sarsiellidae and Rutidermatidae have five stages, the Philomedinae have six stages, and the Pseudophilomedinae have five stages. Within the Cylindroleberididae, the Asteropteroninae have five to seven stages, the Cylindroleberidinae have six stages, and the Cyclasteropinae have seven stages. Analysis of the relative lengths of adult males and females of the Philomedidae indicates that length differences are not affected by whether or not the adult female is capable of swimming.

Biodiversity of the Domatia Occupants (Ants, Wasps, Bees, and Others) of the Sri Lankan Myrmecophyte Humboldtia laurifolia Vahl (Fabaceae)
Karl V. Krombein, Beth B. Norden, Melinda M. Rickson and Fred R. Rickson
34 pages, 70 figures
1999 (Date of Issue: 29 July 1999)
Number 603, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The myrmecophyte Humboldtia laurifolia is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it is a common understory tree in lowland rainforests. It attracts a diversity of invertebrate associates and possesses morphology and phenology, including expanded, hollow, self-opening internodes and a variety of extrafloral nectaries that facilitate a relationship with ants.

Fourteen ant taxa were collected on H. laurifolia. Technomyrmex albipes (F. Smith) was dominant at many sites. Other ant taxa included Tetraponera sp., Cataulacus taprobanae F. Smith, three species of Crematogaster, Pheidole sp., Tetramorium pacificum Mayr, Dolichoderus sp., Tapinoma sp., Anoplolepis gracilipes (F. Smith), Camponotus sp., Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius), and Polyrhachis bugnioni Forel.

Among other invertebrates found on H. laurifolia was the internode-nesting crabronine wasp Krombeinictus nordenae Leclercq. It is unique among Sphecidae in its attentive maternal care, progressive feeding of pollen to a single larva at a time, and cocoon placement and structure.

Also commonly found nesting in Humboldtia was the crabronine Crossocerus mukalanae Leclercq. It makes a typical crabronine nest, constructing a linear series of cells from fragments of the dried, collapsed plant pith within the internode. The paralyzed prey provided for the larvae were predominantly Diptera, the majority of them nematocerous species; other less common prey included chalcidoid wasps and Ephemeroptera. Several species of Perilampus (Chalcidoidea) are pupal parasites of C. mukalanae, and larvae and adults of species of Staphylinidae found in wasp nests are presumed to be brood predators.

A much less common hymenopteran nesting in internodes was an undescribed species of the social xylocopine bee Braunsapis. Four nests contained one or two females, an occasional male, and immature brood. A larva of a species of Cleridae, presumably a brood predator, was found in two of the nests.

Several invertebrate associates of Humboldtia are clearly ant predators. The fly larva of Platyceridion edax Chandler and Matile (Keroplatidae) is primarily predaceous on worker ants. Also recorded were the larvae of Microdon sp. (Syrphidae), which feed on ant brood, and the pseudoscorpion Haplochernes warburgi (Tullgren), which is predatory on worker ants. The relationship of other associates was less clear. These included spiders (Theridiidae, Hadrotarsinae), the bee Nomada wickwari Meade-waldo (Anthophoridae), the wasps Carinostigmus costatus Krombein (Sphecidae) and Physetopoda fumigata (Turner) (Mutillidae), and numerous specimens of Pscoptera and Collembola.

Also, clusters of an arboreal annelid, Perionyx sp. (Megascolecidae), were found in some internodes, and individuals were noted crawling on stems or leaves during light rains. Adults were observed mating on foliage and were never found on the ground.

The diapausing larva of Krombeinictus nordenae is described in an appendix by Howard E. Evans. It is not significantly different from other crabronine larvae of the genera Crossocerus, Crabro, and Rhopalum, even though the larvae were fed pollen rather than paralyzed arthropods.

Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Fishes in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 9: Family Poeciliidae (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes)
Lynne R. Parenti, Jeffrey M. Clayton and Jeffrey C. Howe
22 pages
1999 (Date of Issue: 10 September 1999)
Number 604, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The known type specimens of poeciliid fishes in the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, published through 1996 are listed. These include approximately 7,707 specimens in 214 lots, including 29 holotype, 2 neotype, 2 lectotype, 29 syntype, and 152 paratype or paralectotype lots of 109 nominal species and subspecies. Of these, 43 specimens in 16 lots, including 1 holotype, 7 syntype, 1 lectotype, and 7 paratype lots of 14 norminal species are listed herein but are missing from the collection.

The listing is arranged alphabetically by current subfamily (following Parenti, 1981), original genus, subgenus, species, and subspecies names. Information for each entry includes genus, subgenus (if any), and species and subspecies (if any) names; author and date of publication; page(s) of original description; figures and plates (if any); current type status; USNM catalog number; number of specimens of adult females, adult males, and juveniles or immature specimens of either sex; a range of standard lengths; locality; collector and date collected; and remarks that include clarification of information in the entry as well as pertinent information on other type material. Each entry ends with the current status of the taxon, if different from that in the original description.

Jimmorinia, a New Genus of Myodocopid Ostracoda (Cypridinidae) from the Bahamas, Jamaica, Honduras, and Panama
Anne C. Cohen, Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Iliffe
46 pages, 23 figures, 4 plates, 1 map, 2 tables
2000 (Date of Issue: 27 April 2000)
Number 605, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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A new genus and two new species of marine Ostracoda (Myodocopina: Cypridinidae), collected mostly from baited traps in the waters of the Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea, are described and illustrated. Jimmorinia gunnari, the type species, is nonluminescent and was captured at 88-99 m depth on a submarine escarpment in Exuma Sound near Lee Stocking Island and Great Exuma Island, Exuma Cays, Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas, and from shallower depths (3-15 m) off Discovery Bay, Jamaica, Roatan Island, Honduras, and the San Blas Islands, Panama, whereas J. gamma was collected only near Lee Stocking Island. Descriptions for adult females are given for both species, and descriptions of adult males and some juvenile stages are given for J. gunnari. Some sexual and geographic variation is described. A table of generic comparisons is presented. Some specimens of the new genus were tested and were found to be nonluminescent. Jimmorinia has an upper lip with fewer glandular processes (nozzles) than are present on the lips of Caribbean bioluminescent species. This paucity of nozzles may be related to a lack of bioluminescent capacity. The reduced number of ommatidia, very unusual in a cypridinid from shallow depths, may be related to the lack of luminosity, or perhaps it indicates an ancestral relationship to cypridinids from greater depths or from an anchialine cave.

Myodocopid Ostracoda from Exuma Sound, Bahamas, and from Marine Caves and Blue Holes in the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Mexico
Louis S. Kornicker and Thomas M. Iliffe
98 pages, 56 figures, 6 maps, 5 tables
2000 (Date of Issue: 21 January 2000)
Number 606, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Sixteen species in four families of myodocopine ostracodes were collected from a submarine escarpment on the SW edge of Exuma Sound at water depths of 62 m to 142 m. Seven new species from this collection are described and illustrated: Vargula exuma, Eurypylus eagari, E. hapax, Eusarsiella ryanae, Rutiderma schroederi, Diasterope procax, and Synasterope browni.

Danielopolina kakuki, a new species of troglobitic (cave-limited) halocyprid ostracod in the family Thaumatocyprididae from Oven Rock Cave, Great Guana Cay, Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas, is described and illustrated. New records are presented for three troglobitic halocyprid ostracodes: Spelaeoecia bermudensis Angel and Iliffe, 1987 (from Church and Bitumen caves, Bermuda), Spelaeoecia mayan Kornicker and Iliffe, 1998 (from Cenote 27 Steps, Quintana Roo, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico), and Danielopolina mexicana Kornicker and Iliffe, 1989 (from Cenote 27 Steps and Cenote Ponderosa in Quintana Roo, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico). The collecting localities are described in detail, and a general discussion is included on marine caves and their biota.

Zoogeography and Systematics of the Lanternfishes of the Genus Nannobrachium (Myctophidae: Lampanyctini)
Bernard J. Zahuranec
69 pages, 25 figures, 34 tables
2000 (Date of Issue: 7 July 2000)
Number 607, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Of those lanternfishes in the genus Lampanyctus (sensu lato) with short or no pectoral fins, 17 species are recognized, removed to the separate genus Nannobrachium, and placed into five species groups. These groups are designated Nigrum (four species), Regale (five species), Cuprarium (two species), Achirus (five species), and Isaacsi (one species).

The genus Nannobrachium includes those species of the tribe Lampanyctini that are characterized by the following features: either a lack of pectoral fins or short fins with a narrow base in adults; vertically elongate, squarish otoliths with smooth margins; reduced musculature resulting in a soft, flaccid body; body profile appearing “pinched” with concave dorsal and ventral profiles behind the head; and swimbladder atrophied in adults.

The four species in the Nigrum group are N. nigrum, from the tropical and subtropical Pacific and eastern Indian oceans; N. atrum, from the temperate North and South Atlantic, South Indian, and Southwest Pacific oceans; N. gibbsi, herein described from the tropical Pacific; and N. indicum, herein described from the tropical Indian Ocean. All have extremely reduced pectoral fins with downward pointing fin rays in the adult.

All five species in the Regale group are confined to the Pacific Ocean: N. regale in the Subarctic and North Temperate; N. ritteri in the eastern North Pacific Subarctic and Temperate; N. fernae in the eastern North Pacific Temperate; N. idostigma in the eastern tropical Pacific; and N. bristori herein described from the North Subtropical Pacific. In the Regale group, the pectoral fin is not as reduced compared with other Nannobrachium groups, and the VLO photophore is low on the side of the body.

The two species in the Cuprarium group are N. cuprarium, bipolar in the subtropical Atlantic, and N. lineatum, from the tropical-subtropical Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans. Both species have black pigmentation on the posterior of the supracaudal and infracaudal luminous glands.

Four of the five species in the Achirus group are herein described: N. hawaiiensis, N. crypticum, and N. phyllisae from the North Central, Equatorial, and Southeast Pacific, respectively; and N. wisneri, circumglobal from the southern temperate and subtropical regions. The previously described N. achirus is circumglobal in the Subantarctic. In all five species, the pectoral fin becomes greatly reduced or is completely lost and covered over by skin in adults.

The Isaacsi group contains only N. isaacsi from the eastern tropical Atlantic. It has the VO2 photophore raised in position, above and slightly forward of the VO1.

Most of the species and species groups show remarkably little overlap in their distributions. Analysis of the distribution patterns revealed distinct patterns concordant, or largely so, with patterns recognized for other oceanic organisms.

Arboreal Beetles of Neotropical Forests: Agra Fabricius, the Novaurora Complex (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini: Agrina)
Terry L. Erwin
33 pages, 102 figures, 1 table
2000 (Date of Issue: 6 March 2000)
Number 608, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The rufoaenea and quararibea groups (section Rufoaenea); the famula, formicaria, and phaenicodera groups (section Erythropus); and the capitata, cyanea, dimidiata, neblina, novaurora, and poguei groups constituted the study group for this paper because they share cribriform elytral interneurs, an easily recognizable attribute for selecting specimens for study. They are referred to as the “Novaurora complex.” The pusilla group, which shares interneur structural features with the Novaurora complex but little else, also was included in the key to groups. All of the above are treated in the key and are tersely described at the group level. The following groups are herein revised.

The novaurora group is a northern Amazon-Orinoco lineage comprising five species with a composite range extending from Ecuador to French Guiana and south into Brazil. Four specific taxa of the novaurora group are described as new (type locality in parentheses): alinahui (Ecuador: Napo Province, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°00′S, 077°25′W), orinocensis (Venezuela: Caño Marcareo, Orinoco Delta), novaurora (Ecuador: Napo province, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°00′S, 077°25′W), superba (Venezuela: T.F. Amazonas, confluence of Rio Negro and Rio Baria, 00°55′N, 066°10′W).

The dimidiata group, predominantly northern Neotropical, comprises 16 species with a composite range extending from Mexico to northern Peru, and east to easternmost Venezuela. Thirteen specific taxa of the dimidiata group are described as new: bci (Panama: Barro Colorado Id., 09°10′N, 079°50′W), duckworthorum (Panama: Barro Colorado Id., 09°10′N, 079°50′W), eponine (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Quepos, Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio, 09°24′N, 084°09′W), falcon (Venezuela: Falcón, Sanare, Finca Tillerias, 09°39′N, 069°45′W), hespenheide (Costa Rica: Heredia, La Selva, 10°26′N, 084°01′W), hovorei (Mexico: Vera Cruz, Estacion Biologica Los Tuxtlas, 18°27′S, 095°13′W), inbio (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Mata de Limón, 09°55′54″N, 084°42′42″W), maracay (Venezuela: Maracay, 10°15′N, 067°36′W), paratax (Costa Rica: Puntarenas, Estacion Biologica Carara, E Quebrada Bonita, 09°46′25″N, 084°36′24″W), pichincha (Ecuador: Pichincha, Santo Domingo, Tinalandia, 00°18′S, 079°04′W), samiria (Peru: Loreto, Cocha Shinguito, 05°08′S, 074°45′W), tuxtlas (Mexico: Veracruz, Estacion Biologica Los Tuxtlas, near 18°27′S, 095°13′W), zapotal (Guatemala: Alta Verapaz, San Cristobal Verapaz, Quixal, 15°23′N, 090°24′W).

The quararibea group is a southern and western Amazon-Pantanal lineage comprising five species with a composite range extending from the upper Xingu drainage of Brazil west into Peru and Ecuador. Four specific taxa of the quararibea group are described as new: magnifica (Peru: Madre de Dios, “Avispas” (Avispal), 12°59′S, 071°34′W), othello (Ecuador: Napo, 20 km E Puerto Napo, Alinahui, 01°04′S, 077°25′W), smurf (Brazil: Amazonas, Taperinha, Santarem, 02°32′S, 054°17′W), suprema (Brazil: Mato Grosso, Rosario Oeste, 14°50′S, 056°25′W).

Distributions are dot-mapped and are discussed in general for each of the species in these three groups. Geographical ranges are given for all the groups of the Novaurora complex herein discussed.

Higher Level Phylogenetics of Erigonine Spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae)
Gustavo Hormiga
160 pages, 48 figures, 79 plates
2000 (Date of Issue: 15 December 2000)
Number 609, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This paper provides the first numerical cladistic analysis of erigonine phylogenetic relationships based on a sample of taxa. A total of 73 characters, most of them morphological, have been scored for 31 erigonine genera plus 12 outgroup taxa. The parsimony analysis of these data supports the monophyly of Erigoninae based on two synapomorphies: the male pedipalpal tibial apophysis and the loss of the female pedipalpal claw. The monophyly of Linyphiidae and of Linyphiidae plus Pimoidae also is supported. One of the largest clades within the erigonines is the “Distal Erigonines clade,” whose monophyly is supported by the loss of the taenidia in the tracheoles and the loss of the distal dorsal spine of tibia IV. The clade composed of Stemonyphantinae plus Mynogleninae is the sister group of Erigoninae. A number of relatively “basal” erigonine lineages, which have been classically regarded as “taxonomically problematic” or “transitional,” retain some plesiomorphic characters typical of other subfamilies, like the haplotracheate system or the taenidia in the tracheoles. The available data suggest that the cephalothoracic sulci and glands found in mynoglenines and erigonines are not homologous.

Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), II: Revision of Sphecodogastra Ashmead, Floral Specialists of Onagraceae
Ronald J. McGinley
iii, 55 p., ill., maps
Number 610, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The bee genus Sphecodogastra Ashmead is revised from the study of approximately 3200 specimens. Eight species are recognized with three described as new. All species are described and diagnosed. The systematic history of the genus, including questions concerning its monophyly, is presented. Flight records are summarized with histogram plots, distributions are indicated by dot maps, and illustrated keys are provided for species identification. Floral association data and daily flight activity records are summarized, and a literature review of nesting biology is presented for four species (S. antiochensis, S. lusoria, S. oenotherae, S. texana). The new species are S. antiochensis (a potentially endangered species), S. danforthi, and S. potosi. Sphecodogastra lusoria (Cresson) is elevated from junior synonymy under S. aberrans (Crawford), and Halictus galpinisae Cockerell is synonymized under S. lusoria. New combinations are S. aberrans (Crawford), S. lusoria (Cresson), and S. oenotherae (Stevens).

Lace Bug Genera of the World, II: Subfamily Tinginae: Tribes Litadeini and Ypsotingini (Heteroptera: Tingidae)
Richard C. Froeschner
28 pages, 20 figures, 2 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 4 January 2001)
Number 611, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This is the second of a planned series providing aids (keys and dorsal habitus drawings of the type species of each genus) for identifying the world's genera of Tingidae and in some cases their included species; it treats two tribes of the subfamily Tinginae: Litadeini Drake and Ruhoff and Ypsotingini Drake and Ruhoff (with tables of distribution of the genera).

For the tribe Litadeini, 14 genera are keyed. To the single genus, Litadea China, cataloged in this tribe by Drake and Ruhoff (1965a), subsequent literature added 10 genera and herein Cephalidiosus Guilbert, Cottothucha Drake and Poor, and Palauella Drake are transferred into the tribe. Keys are given to species of four genera: two in Aristobyrsa, two in Cephalidiosus, two in Psilobyrsa, and five in Stragulotingis; all other genera of Litadeini contain a single species.

For the tribe Ypsotingini, seven genera and two subgenera are keyed. In this paper Euaulana austrina Drake is made a junior synonym of Chorotingis indigena Drake, and Ypsotingis chlaina Drake and Ruhoff is transferred to the genus Engyotingis, in the tribe Tingini, and forms the new combination Engyotingis chlaina (Drake). Keys to species are given for three genera: two species in Dictyotingis, two in Euaulana Drake, and five in Ypsotingis Drake. Of the other four genera, Chorotingis has one species, Derephysia has 16 species, Dictyonota has 28 species, and Kalama has 28 species. Keys for the latter three genera were not included because of lack of specimens at hand.

Systematics of the North and Central American Aquatic Snail Genus Tryonia (Rissooidea: Hydrobiidae)
Robert Hershler
53 pages, 29 figures, 2 maps
2001 (Date of Issue: 18 June 2001)
Number 612, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Morphological variation among members of the genus Tryonia (and its subgenus Paupertryonia) is congruent with a recently published phylogenetic analysis based on mtDNA sequences that showed that these taxa are polyphyletic assemblages of ecologically similar snails. Tryonia is reconstituted as a North and Central American monophyletic subunit of the subfamily Cochliopinae based on a synapomorphy of posterodorsal insertion of the vas deferens into the prostate gland. Presumably derived modifications of the shell, radular teeth, and genitalia unite groups of species within this genus.

Tryonia is redefined and 18 species are recognized in the genus. Congeners are T. aequicostata (Pilsbry, 1890a), distributed in the Florida peninsula; T. cheatumi (Pilsbry, 1935) and T. circumstriata (Leonard and Ho, 1960), Rio Grande basin; T. hertleini (Drake, 1956), interior drainage of northeast Mexico; T. clathrata Stimpson, 1865, and T. gilae Taylor, 1987, lower Colorado River basin; T. angulata Hershler and Sada, 1987, T. elata Hershler and Sada, 1987, T. ericae Hershler and Sada, 1987, T. margae Hershler, 1989, T. monitorae Hershler, 1999, T. rowlandsi Hershler, 1989, T. salina Hershler, 1989, and T. variegata Hershler and Sada, 1987, southern Great Basin; T. porrecta (Mighels, 1845), lower Colorado River basin, Great Basin, Hawaii; T. quitobaquitae Hershler in Hershler and Landye, 1988, Rio Sonoyta basin; T. imitator (Pilsbry, 1899), southern California coast; and T. exigua (Morelet, 1851), Lake Petén Itza, Guatemala. Tryonia protea (Gould, 1855) is found to be a junior synonym of Paludina porrecta Mighels, 1845.

Tryonia kosteri Taylor, 1987, from the Pecos River basin, is found to be a member of the genus Durangonella Morrison, 1945, which was previously known only from the Mexican Plateau. A new North American genus, Pseudotryonia Hershler, is erected for three species previously placed in Tryonia. Pseudotryonia is diagnosed by a combination of genitalic characters. Its congeners are P. brevissima (Pilsbry, 1890b), Florida panhandle; P. adamantina Taylor, 1987, and P. alamosae Taylor, 1987, Rio Grande basin; and an undescribed species from the Tombigbee River basin. A new monotypic genus, Ipnobius Hershler, is erected for Tryonia robusta Hershler, 1989, from Death Valley, California. Ipnobius is diagnosed by genitalic autapomorphies. Lectotypes are designated for Melania exigua Morelet, and Amnicola protea Gould.

Phylogenetic Study of the Neotropical Fish Genera Creagrutus Günther and Piabina Reinhardt (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes), with a Revision of the Cis-Andean Species
Richard P. Vari and Antony S. Harold
239 pages, 97 figures, 60 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 2 November 2001)
Number 613, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Creagrutus Günther (1864) and Piabina Reinhardt (1867) are diagnosed as a monophyletic assemblage on the basis of synapomorphies in various osteological and soft anatomical systems. Synapomorphies in a subset of these systems diagnose each genus and partially resolve the intrageneric phylogeny within Creagrutus. Piabina was found to be nonmonophyletic as previously constituted and is restricted herein to its type species, P. argentea Reinhardt (1867). Creagrudite Myers (1927) and Creagrutops Schultz (1944) share the characters diagnostic for Creagrutus and are considered junior synonyms of that genus in order to make Creagrutus monophyletic. Piabarchus Myers (1928), based on a species originally described in Piabina, was found to lack the derived features of the Creagrutus-Piabina lineage.

A total of 64 species are recognized in Creagrutus (including 37 new species), 56 of which occur east of the Andean Cordilleras and are reviewed in this paper. The number of Creagrutus species herein recognized represents 337% of the number of species considered valid prior to Harold and Vari (1994).

Contrary to recent taxonomic practice, Piabina is recognized as distinct but is limited to a single species, P. argentea Reinhardt (1867), distributed in various rivers of eastern Brazil.

Keys are provided to the species of Creagrutus and Piabina in the major drainage basins within the range of the genera.

Creagrutus nasutus Günther (1876) is considered a synonym of C. peruanus, and Creagrutus boehlkei Géry (1972) is placed into the synonymy of C. amoenus. Creagrutus pellegrini Puyo (1943) is assigned to the characid genus Chalceus.

Lectotypes are designated for Piabina argentea Reinhardt, Leporinus muelleri Günther, Creagrutus nasutus Günther, C. pearsoni Mahnert and Géry, Piabina peruana Steindachner, and C. phasma Myers.

Biology and Systematics of the North American Phyllonorycter Leafminers on Salicaceae, with a Synoptic Catalog of the Palearctic Species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
Donald R. Davis and Gerfried Deschka
89 pages, 451 figures, 1 graph, 6 maps, 4 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 6 December 2001)
Number 614, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Eleven leaf-mining species of Phyllonorycter are recognized as being restricted to the host plant genera Populus and Salix in North America, including Mexico. Previously described species and their new synonyms include the following: P. apicinigrella (Braun); P. apparella (Herrick-Schäffer.) (=P. atomariella (Zeller), P. tremuloidiella (Braun), P. ontario (Freeman)); P. nipigon (Freeman); P. populiella (Chambers); P. salicifoliella (Chambers) (=P. kenora (Freeman)); and P. scudderella (Frey and Boll) (=P. salicivorella (Braun)). The following new species are proposed in this study: P. acanthus, P. deserticola, P. erugatus, P. latus, and P. mildredae. Only P. acanthus and P. deserticola are known to occur in Mexico. Three species groups are recognized primarily on the basis of their similar morphology and, to a lesser extent, on their host preference: the apparella group (including P. apparella, P. deserticola, P. latus, and P. nipigon), which are almost entirely restricted to Populus; the salicifoliella group (including P. acanthus, P. erugatus, P. mildredae, and P. salicifoliella), which feed mostly on Salix and secondarily on Populus; and the hilarella group (including P. apicinigrella, P. populiella, and P. scudderella), which feed primarily on Salix but with one species restricted to Populus. The known life stages of each species are fully illustrated and described, and their distributions are plotted on maps. A synoptic catalog of the 24 Old World species of Phyllonorycter reported from Salicaceae is also provided, wherein P. eophanes (Meyrick) is synonymized under P. iteina (Meyrick). Tentative association of the Palearctic species, based on male genital morphology, with the three proposed species groups is summarized in Table 1.

A Generic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Dendrophylliidae (Cnidaria: Scleractinia)
Stephen D. Cairns
75 pages, 3 figures, 14 plates, 3 tables
2001 (Date of Issue: 5 December 2001)
Number 615, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The Dendrophylliidae comprises 29 genera and 364 valid species, of which 20 genera and 166 species are extant. The earliest known dendrophylliid is from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian) of Serbia, but they are common throughout the fossil record since the Cretaceous and today are worldwide in distribution (except off continental Antarctica) at depths of 0-2165 m. All 29 genera are diagnosed and discussed herein, and representatives (usually the type species) of 27 of the 29 genera are also figured. For each genus, the stratigraphic range and geographic distributions are discussed, and a list of valid species is given, including junior synonyms. Bathymetric ranges are given for all Holocene species and genera. One genus is described as new: Pourtalopsammia. Seven genera previously considered to be in the family are removed from the Dendrophylliidae: Petrophyllia Conrad, 1855 (an oculinid); Turbinacis Gregory, 1900 (a Stylophora; Rhabdopsammia Alloiteau, 1952 (an eusmiliid?); Kumbiopsammia Alloiteau, 1958 (an anthemiphylliid?); Spongiopsammia Kuzmicheva, 1987 (a sponge); Patelopsammia Reig Oriol, 1988 (a fungiid?); and Ilerdopsammia Reig Oriol, 1992 (a caryophylliid). Four other genera, also considered to be dendrophylliids, are herein considered to be of uncertain taxonomic position and are discussed but are not included in the phylogenetic analysis of the dendrophylliid genera: Stereopsammia Milne Edwards and Haime, 1850; Desmopsammia Reis, 1889; Aplopsammia Alloiteau, 1958; and Makridinophyllia Kuzmicheva, 1987. Ceratopsammia Alloiteau, 1958, is newly synonymized with Balanophyllia (Eupsammia). Finally, five new names are proposed for junior homonyms within the genus Balanophyllia.

Phylogenetic analysis of the 29 dendrophylliid genera was done using 10 characters, comprising 41 character states. The monophyly of the Dendrophylliidae is based on its possession of a synapticulotheca in conjunction with having septa composed of only one fan system; preliminary molecular analysis also supports its monophyly. Relationships among taxa were determined based on parsimony (PAUP* ver. 4.0) and successive weighting of characters. The early Jurassic caryophylliid genus Discocyathus was used as the outgroup for the analysis. Twenty-seven equally parsimonious trees of 64 steps resulted from the phylogenetic analysis, each having a tree consistency index of 0.531. Characters that contributed highly to the phylogenetic hypothesis were corallum shape, colony form, budding type, and columella type. The cladograms do not support the interpretation of two subfamilies within the Dendrophylliidae; however, all colonial genera do form a clade. In general, the consensus tree is poorly supported, leading to the conclusion that, because of the paucity of characters available from a data set consisting of both fossil and Recent taxa, phylogenetic analysis of supraspecific coral taxa based solely on corallum morphology will usually produce inconclusive and/or poorly supported results.

Ostracoda (Myodocopa) from Bahamian Blue Holes
Louis S. Kornicker, Thomas M. Iliffe and Elizabeth Harrison-Nelson
99 pages, 69 figures, 8 tables
2002 (Date of Issue: 3 December 2002)
Number 616, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Three troglobitic myodocopid ostracodes (two previously described and one new) in the Order Halocyprida are reported from anchialine waters in inland blue holes on Grand Bahama Island and Andros Island. The adult male and female Deeveya bransoni Kornicker and Palmer, 1987, is described and illustrated, a key is presented to species of Deeveya, and the sexual dimorphism and ontogeny of the genus is discussed.

Ten species of myodocopid ostracodes (seven previously described and three new) in the Order Myodocopida are reported from eight oceanic blue holes in the vicinity of Exuma Cays and Andros Island. The sarsiellid genus Junctichela Kornicker and Caraion, 1978, is reported from the Bahamas for the first time, and the new species J. pax is interpreted to be endemic to Crab Cay Cravasse, Exuma Cays. Descriptions of some myodocopids include brief notes on gut contents (including nematode, amphipod, worm).

No anchialine halocyprid ostracodes have been collected in oceanic blue holes, nor have they been reported from shallow open waters of the Bahamas, from which 28 species of Myodocopida have been reported. Nine species of Myodocopida, which previously had been reported either from the shallow open water of the Bahamas, or the Atlantic shelf of North America, were collected also in the oceanic blue holes. The Simpson Index of faunal resemblance between species of Myodocopida occupying the open ocean and oceanic blue holes is 67, which suggests a close relationship.

A Phylogenetic Study of the Tribe Dryxini Zatwarnicki (Diptera: Ephydridae)
Wayne N. Mathis and Tadeusz Zatwarnicki
101 pages, 154 figures, 2 tables
2002 (Date of Issue: 19 March 2002)
Number 617, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The shore-fly tribe Dryxini is revised, including a cladistic analysis at the generic level, and now includes eight genera. Two of the genera, Omyxa and Papuama, are new, as are their respective type species. Of the remaining six genera, the species are revised for Dryxo Robineau-Desvoidy, Corythophora Loew, Oedenops Becker, and the subgenus Phaiosterna Cresson of the genus Paralimna Loew. In addition, the species of Afrolimna Cogan, Oedenopiforma Cogan, and the limbata group (Paralimna) are reviewed. This study revealed the following synonyms: two genus-group names: Karema Cresson (1929) = Corythophora Loew (1862), and Cyphops Jaennicke (1867) = Dryxo Robineau-Desvoidy (1830); and seven species-group names: Karema loewella Cresson (1929) = Corythophora longipes Loew (1862), Cyphops fasciatus Jaennicke (1867) and Dryxo spreta Osten Sacken (1882) = Dryxo lispoidea Robineau-Desvoidy (1830), Paralimna ligabuei Canzoneri (1987) = Paralimna madecassa Giordani Soika (1956), Oedenops aurantiacus Giordani Soika (1956) and Oedenops flavitarsis Miyagi (1977) = Oedenops isis Becker (1903), and Paralimna (Phaiosterna) vidua Giordani Soika (1956a) = Ephydra bicolor Macquart (1851). Six new species are described in four genera (type locality in parentheses): Dryxo brahma (Sri Lanka. Colombo: Negombo), D. freidbergi (Cameroon. Kribi (beach), Rt. N7), D. india (India. Nedungadu), Omyxa scuta (Iran. 40 km SE Minab), Paralimna (Phaiosterna) longiseta (Dominican Republic. Azua: near Pueblo Viejo (18°24.8′N, 70°44.7′W)), and Papuama ismayi (Papua New Guinea. Central Province: Daramouka Village).

The cladistic analysis was based on 45 morphological characters and resulted in nine most parsimonious cladograms of 55 steps with consistency and retention indices of 0.83 and 0.83, respectively. The tribe is divided into four basal sublineages in the strict consensus cladogram. The first sublineage comprises a single genus (number of species indicated in parentheses), Afrolimna (2), which is Afrotropical in distribution. The second sublineage likewise includes a single genus, Paralimna (>85), including Phaiosterna as a subgenus. Paralimna currently has greater species diversity than the rest of the tribe combined; it is pantropical, with numerous species ranging into subtropical regions. The third sublineage comprises three genera: Dryxo (9), Corythophora (2), and Omyxa (1), with Corythophora as the sister group to Dryxo and Omyxa. Genera of this sublineage occur only in the Old World, with greatest species diversity in Africa. The three genera of the fourth sublineage are Papuama (2), Oedenops (3), and Oedenopiforma (3). In this sublineage, Papuama is the sister group to Oedenops and Oedenopiforma. Oedenops is also pantropical and subtropical in distribution, but Papuama occurs in the Australasian/Oceanian and Oriental regions, and Oedenopiforma occurs in the Old World, primarily Africa and Australia.

Phylogeny of the Genera and Families of Zeiform Fishes, with Comments on Their Relationships with Tetraodontiforms and Caproids
James C. Tyler, Bruce O 'Toole, and Richard Winterbottom
iv, 110 p., ill.
Number 618, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This cladistic study, using 103 putatively informative characters (mostly osteological) of representatives of all of the genera of zeiforms, a primitive tetraodontiform, both genera of caproids, and numerous outgroups, strongly supports the monophyly of zeiforms. The possible relationship of zeiforms with tetraodontiforms and caproids is ambiguous; it is supported in three of the four analyses (data ordered with and without most meristic features and data unordered with most meristic features) but not in the one that we consider the most rational and best justified (data unordered without most meristic features).

Within zeiforms, there is strong support for a phylogeny that requires a substantially different arrangement of genera within a new concept of six monophyletic families (three with subfamilies) in two suborders.

The genus Cyttus (Cyttoidei, Cyttidae) is shown to be the sister group to all other zeiforms (Zeioidei). The study indicates that the zeiform families, as recognized herein, have the following phylogenetic sequence: Cyttidae (Cyttus)—Oreosomatidae (Pseudocyttinae, Pseudocyttus; Oreosomatinae, Allocyttus, reosoma, Neocyttus)—Parazenidae (Parazeninae, Parazen; Cyttopsinae, Cyttopsis, Stethopristes)—Zeniontidae (Zenion, Capromimus, Cyttomimus)— Grammicolepididae (Macrurocyttinae, Macrurocyttus; Grammicolepidinae, Xenolepidichthys, Grammicolepis)—Zeidae (Zeus, Zenopsis).

The newly composed families and subfamilies are systematically defined, and keys to them are provided.

Examples of nearly all of the features used in the phylogenetic analyses and systematic accounts are illustrated.

A A Revision of the Genera Pelomyia Williston and Masoniella Vockeroth (Diptera: Tethinidae)
George A. Foster and Wayne N. Mathi
63 pages, 79 figures, 4 tables
Number 619, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Twenty-four new species are described in two genera (type locality in parentheses): Pelomyia granditarsa (Nevada, USA), P. lobina (Montana, USA), P. planibulla (Washington, USA), P. dentata (Jujuy, Argentina), P. aurantifrons (Cuzco, Peru), P. irwini (Huanuco, Peru), P. nigritarsis (Jujuy, Argentina), P. robustiseta (Jujuy, Argentina), P. vockerothi (Jujuy, Argentina), P. freidbergi (La Paz, Bolivia), P. curva (Cochabamba, Bolivia), P. univittata (Oruro, Bolivia), P. nigripalpis (Oruro, Bolivia), P. undulata (Oruro, Bolivia), P. boliviensis (Cochabamba, Bolivia), P. crassiseta (Aysen, Chile), P. crassispina (Jujuy, Argentina), P. grisecoxa (Curico, Chile), P. melanocera (Osorno, Chile), Masoniella advena (Jujuy, Argentina), M. argentinaensis (Argentina), M. delicata (Moquegua, Peru), M. flabella (Salta, Argentina), and M. spatulata (Aysen, Chile).

The cladistic analysis was done in two steps: first at the level of genera within Pelomyiinae and second for species within Pelomyia. The cladistic analysis of genera within Pelomyiinae was based upon 19 morphological characters and resulted in a single most-parsimonious cladogram of 11 steps with consistency and retention indices of 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. The four genera composing the subfamily Pelomyiinae are divided into two lineages in the cladogram: Masoniella plus Pelomyia as the sister group to Neopelomyia plus Pelomyiella.

Keys at various taxonomic levels are provided as follows: the genera of Pelomyiinae, the species groups of Pelomyia, the species of the coronata group (separate keys to males and females), the species of the melanocera group (combined key to males and females), and the species of Masoniella (combined key to males and females).

A A Monograph of the Family Arrhenophanidae (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea)
Donald R. Davis
80 pages, 255 figures, 9 maps
Number 620, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The systematics, morphology, distribution, and generic phylogeny are summarized for the family. A single autapomorphy, the terminal position of the female ostium at the caudal end of the prolonged and partially separated eighth sternum, distinguishes Arrhenophanidae from its sister family Psychidae. The latter family is further characterized by at least two larval autapomorphies: the presence of four pairs of ventral epipharyngeal setae on the labrum and the complete fusion of the prothoracic lateral pinaculum bearing the spiracle with the pronotum. Cladistic analysis, based largely on antennal and venational characters, of the five recognized genera positions the southeast Asian genus Palaeophanes basally within the family, followed by the Australian genus Notiophanes. The widespread Neotropical genera Arrhenophanes and Dysoptus were found to be the most derived. Larvae of four species, Arrhenophanes perspicilla (Stoll), Cnissostages oleagina Zeller, Dysoptus argus, new species, and Dysoptus prolatus, new species, have been reared. In all known species the larvae construct tough, silken cases and feed on wood decay fungi (Coriolaceae, Hymenochaetaceae, and Polyporaceae).

The family occurs in wet tropical forests of southeast Asia (Palaeophanes, four species), Australia (Notiophanes fuscata), and through much of the Neotropical Region (except the West Indies; Arrhenophanes, Cnissostages, Dysoptus, 21 species). Two genera, Notiophanes Davis and Edwards and Palaeophanes Davis, and the following 18 species are described as new: Cnissostages osae Davis, Dysoptus acuminatus Davis, D. argus Davis, D. asymmetrus Davis, D. avittus Davis, D. bilobus Davis, D. denticulatus Davis, D. fasciatus Davis, D. pentalobus Davis, D. prolatus Davis, D. pseudargus Davis, D. sparsimaculatus Davis, D. spilacris Davis, Notiophanes fuscata Davis and Edwards, Palaeophanes brevispina Davis, P. lativalva Davis, P. taiwanensis Davis, and P. xoutha Davis.

Revision of the Western Atlantic Clingfishes of the Genus Tomicodon (Gobiesocidae), with Descriptions of Five New Species
Jeffrey T. Williams and James C. Tyler
26 pages, 13 figures, 1 table
Number 621, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Extensive collecting efforts involving rotenone sampling throughout the Caribbean Sea during the last four decades have vastly increased the numbers of specimens of cryptic fishes in museum collections. Among such collections containing clingfishes of the genus Tomicodon Brisout de Barneville taken by ourselves and others, we have discovered numerous Caribbean species of Tomicodon in addition to those recognized by W.F. Smith-Vaniz in 1968 (T.fasciatus (Peters, 1859) and T. rhabdotus Smith-Vaniz, 1968). We recognize herein eight more species: three for which names are available—T. rupestris (Poey, 1860), T. australis Briggs, 1955, and T. reitzae Briggs, 2001 (the last erroneously described as a species from the eastern Pacific Ocean); and five species described as new herein—T. briggsi, T. clarkei, T. cryptus, T. lavettsmithi, and T. leurodiscus.

Detritivores of the South American Fish Family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes): A Phylogenetic and Revisionary Study
Ricardo M. C. Castro and Richard P. Vari
189 pages, 71 figures, 23 tables.
Number 622, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The investigation of the inter- and intrafamilial relationships of the Prochilodontidae was investigated based on information from osteological and soft anatomical systems. Synapomorphies uncovered during this study provide additional evidence that (1) the clade formed by the Prochilodontidae plus Curimatidae is the sister group to the clade that consists of the Anostomidae plus Chilodontidae, (2) supports the hypothesis of the monophyly of the Prochilodontidae, Ichthyoelephas Posada Arango (1909), Prochilodus Agassiz (in Spix and Agassiz, 1829), and Semaprochilodus Fowler (1941), (3) demonstrates that Prochilodus is the sister group to the clade formed by Ichthyoelephas plus Semaprochilodus, and (4) partially resolves interspecific relationships.

Recognized genera of the Prochilodontidae are Ichthyoelephas, Prochilodus, and Semaprochilodus. Pacu Agassiz (in Spix and Agassiz, 1829) and Chilomyzon Fowler (1906) are synonyms of Prochilodus.

Ichthyoelephas includes two species: I. humeralis (Giinther, 1859); and I. longirostris (Steindachner,1879). Ichthyoelephas patalo Posada Arango (1909) and I. longirostris neglectus Dahl (1971) are synonyms of I. longirostris.

Prochilodus consists of thirteen species: P. argenteus Agassiz (in Spix and Agassiz, 1829); P. brevis Steindachner (1874); P. britskii Castro (1993); P. costatus Valenciennes (in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1850); P. hartii Steindachner (1874); P. lacustris Steindachner (1907); P. lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836); P. magdalenae Steindachner (1879); P. mariae Eigenmann (1922); P. nigricans Agassiz (in Spix and Agassiz, 1829); P. reticulatus Valenciennes (1850); P. rubrotaeniatus Jardine (1841); and P. yimboides Kner (1859).

Semaprochilodus contains six species: S. brama (Valenciennes, in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1850); S. insignis (Jardine, 1841); S. kneri (Pellegrin, 1909); S. laticeps (Steindachner, 1879);S. taeniurus (Valenciennes, in Humboldt and Bonpland, 1817); and S. varii Castro (1988). Semaprochilodus squamilentus Fowler (1941) is a synonym of S. brama. Prochilodus theraponura Fowler (1906) and P. amazonensis Fowler (1906) are synonyms of Semaprochilodus insignis.

Keys are provided to the genera and species of prochilodontids. Neotypes are designated for Prochilodus argenteus and P. nigricans. Lectotypes are designated for Prochilodus affinis, P. asper, P. brevis, P. cearensis, P. hartii, P. humeralis, P. kneri, P. lacustris, P. longirostris, P. asper var. magdalenae, P. oligolepis, P. reticulatus, P. scrofa, and P. vimboides.

The phylogenetic biogeography of the Prochilodontidae indicates that the family dates back minimally to approximately 12 million years ago, with higher level intrafamilial cladogenic events also dating to at least that time period; these dates are congruent with data from the fossil record for more encompassing groups within the Characiformes. Major shifts of overall bauplan characterize the Prochilodontidae and the major clades within the family, but there is relatively little interspecific diversity. The Prochilodus bauplan has apparently been static for at least 12 million years.

A A Revision of the New World Species of the Shore-Fly Genus Nostima Coquillett (Diptera: Ephydridae)
James F Edmiston and Wayne N. Mathis
108 pages, 255 figures, 3 tables
2005 (Date of Issue: 13 July 2005)
Number 623, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Thirty-eight New World species are revised, including 21 new species that are described (type locality in parentheses): Nostima atriscuta (Jamaica. Portland: Crystal Springs (18°12.5'N, 76°37.9'W)), N. cinnamea (Grand Bahamas Island. Freeport), N. duaguttata (Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Rincon (5 km S; 8°42.1'N, 83°30.8'W; 95 m)), N. footei (Panama. Canal Zone: Balboa), N. franciscana (Jamaica. St. Anns: Runaway Bay), N. lineata (Dominica: Layou (5 km E)), N. lucida (Bolivia. La Paz: Apa (8 km S Chulumani; 16°22'S, 67°30.4'W; 1960 m)), N. lutea (St. Vincent: Kingstown Botanical Garden), N. maculata (Argentina. Tucuman: La Cavera), N. magnifica (Ecuador. Chimborazo: Naranjapata Chilicay), N. melina (Panama. Canal Zone: Kobbe Beach), N. negruzca (Grenada. St. John: Concord Falls (12°07.1'N, 61°43'W)), N. simuliflavida (Dominica. Cabrit Swamp), N. spinosa (Bermuda. Paget Parish: Botanical Gardens), N. stellata (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), N. tresguttata (Ecuador. Napo: Baeza (17 km S; 1815 m)), N. velutina (Mexico. Chiapas: San Cristobal de Las Casas (2160 m)), N. williamsi (Costa Rica. Alajuela: San Mateo, Higuito), N. xenohypopia (Dominican Republic. Pedernales: Sierra de Baoruco, Las Abejas (1300 m)), N. xenoptera (Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Rinc6n (3 km SW, 9°55'N, 84°13'W, 10 m)), N. ypsilona (Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Rincon (3 km SW, 9°55'N, 84°13'W, 10 m)). This study revealed the species-group Nostima niveofasciata Cresson (1947) is synonymous with Nostima canens Cresson (1941).

The cladistic analysis was based upon 10 morphological characters. An analysis using "implicit enumeration" (ie-) of Hennig86 resulted in a cladogram of minimal length. This cladogram has a length of 16 steps, a consistency index of 1.0, and a retention index of 1.0. From the cladogram (Figure 255) and supporting synapomorphies, the following hypotheses can be made: (1) Nostima is monophyletic; (2) Nostima and Garifuna form a monophyletic lineage (supported by three synapomorphies); (3) Garifuna is the immediate sister group of Nostima, and Philygria forms a clade immediately basal to the common lineage of Nostima and Garifuna; and (4) New World species of Nostima are provisionally arrayed into five lineages. Some of these lineages apparently demonstrate a speciation pattern in which peripheral or isolated species diverged from more widely distributed species.

Keys to the tribes and genera of Ilytheinae, as well as to the New World species of Nostima, are provided. Distribution maps are also produced for the New World species.

A Comparative Study of Functional Morphology of the Male Reproductive Systems in the Astacidea with Emphasis on the Freshwater Crayfishes (Crustacea: Decapoda)
Horton H. Hobbs Jr., Margaret C. Harvey, and Horton H. Hobbs III

2007 (Date of Issue: 6 September 2007)
Number 624, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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This study of the functional morphology of the male reproductive system in astacidean crustaceans has allowed for comparisons of representatives of the superfamilies Parastacoidea, Enoplometopoidea, Nephropoidea, and the Astacoidea with a focus on the crayfishes. Tissues from the testes and (to the extent possible) vasa deferentia were prepared for light and scanning electron microscopy and specimens of the following families were used: Parastacidae – Parastacoides tasmanicus tasmanicus, Astacopsis franklinii, Parastacus nicoleti; Enoplometopidae – Enoplometopus occidentalis; Nephropidae – Homarus americanus; Astacidae – Pacifastacus leniusculus trowbridgii; Cambaridae – Cambaroides japonicus, Cambaroides similis, Cambarus (Puncticambarus) acuminatus, C. (Hiaticambarus) longulus, Procambarus (Ortmannicus) fallax, P. (O.) zonangulus, P. (Scapulicambarus) paeninsulanus, and Orconectes (Procericambarus) rusticus. The single organ testis is “H-shaped” in members of the Parastacoidea, Enoplometopoidea, and Nephropoidea and consists of a pair of longitudinal lobes, each composed of an anterior and posterior lobule joined by a transverse commissure or bridge. The derived “Y-shaped” pattern of the testis of the Astacoidea is trilobed and consists of a pair of anterior lobules and a median posterior lobule that in most adult Cambaridae are joined by a trifurcate, constricted stalk, a structure that is lacking in the Cambaroidinae and Astacidae. The sac-like acini lie in the axes of the testicular lobules and produce spermatozoa. As spermatogenesis proceeds, each acinus becomes larger and, with spermiogenesis and the expulsion of spermatozoa into the collecting ducts, undergoes one or two of three fates: (1) acinus regeneration occurs and another cycle of sperm production ensues (adopted exclusively by the Astacidae and Cambaroidinae); (2) secondary acini develop in the wall of existing acini, converting the primary acinus into a passageway to the collecting tubules; or (3) the acinus degenerates and new acini arise from collecting tubules (employed only by the Cambarinae and Cambarellinae).The first and second fates have been adopted by the Parastacoidea, the Enoplometopoidea, and the Nephropoidea. In the Cambarinae and Cambarellinae, the germinal cells are recognizable only in the acinar buds from the collecting tubules and when they assume the role of spermatogonia; they are not evident along the lengths of the tubules nor are they present within an acinus after the onset of spermatogenesis. In all other astacideans examined, the germinal cells seem always to be present in the collecting tubules. Additionally, they appear in the walls of acini by the time the spermatogenic elements are being converted to spermatids, frequently forming clusters, the primordia of secondary acini in the Parastacoidea, the Nephropoidea, and occasionally the Enoplometopoidea. Germinal cells may be disposed in a partial layer or scattered within the walls of an acinus and constitute the initial spermatogonia of a new cycle of sperm production. This is what occurs in the acini of the Astacidae, Cambaroidinae, Parastacoidea, Nephropoidea, and Enoplometopoidea.

A Revision of the New World Plant-Mining Moths of the Family Opostegidae (Lepidoptera: Nepticuloidea) Opostegidae (Lepidoptera: Nepticuloidea)
Donald R. Davis and Jonas R. Stonis

2007 (Date of Issue: 6 September 2007)
Number 625, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The systematics, morphology, and distributions are summarized for the 91 species and 2 subspecies of New World Opostegidae. A phylogenetic analysis using the “parsimony rachet” in Winclada and based on 34 morphological characters for the seven currently recognized world genera indicates the monotypic Chilean genus, Notiopostega, to be the basal taxon. Monophyly of the Nepticuloidea (Nepticulidae + Opostegidae) is well supported by nine morphological synapomorphies. Several synapomorphies distinguish the Opostegidae from all other Lepidoptera. Principal among these are the presence of a single, spinose seta on the larval mandible, adult wing venation extremely reduced with all veins unbranched, frenulum lost in both sexes, antennal flagellomeres each typically with 3 sets of ascoid sensillae, and a pedunculate, typically elliptical, cucullar lobe bearing a well-developed pectinifer on the valva of the male genitalia. Larval biologies of only two New World species are known. Larvae of both species mine primarily the cambium layer in woody plant stems. Results from light trap sampling at the La Selva Biological Station in Heredia Province, Costa Rica, indicated that adult Opostegidae were much more abundant in canopy habitats compared with near-ground level. Four genera (Neopostega new genus, 5 species; Notiopostega Davis, 1 species; Opostegoides Kozlov, 1 species; and Pseudopostega Kozlov, 84 species and 2 subspecies) are recognized for the New World. One genus (Neopostega) and the following 68 species and 2 subspecies are described as new:

  • Neopostega asymmetra
  • Neopostega distola
  • Neopostega falcata
  • Neopostega longispina
  • Neopostega petila
  • Pseudopostega acrodicra
  • Pseudopostega acuminate
  • Pseudopostega apotoma
  • Pseudopostega attenuate
  • Pseudopostega beckeri
  • Pseudopostega bicornuta
  • Pseudopostega bidorsalis
  • Pseudopostega brachybasis
  • Pseudopostega breviapicula
  • Pseudopostega brevifurcata
  • Pseudopostega brevivalva
  • Pseudopostega caulifurcata
  • Pseudopostega clavata
  • Pseudopostega colognatha
  • Pseudopostega concave
  • Pseudopostega conicula
  • Pseudopostega constricta
  • Pseudopostega contigua
  • Pseudopostega crassifurcata
  • Pseudopostega curtarama
  • Pseudopostega denticulate
  • Pseudopostega didyma
  • Pseudopostega diskusi
  • Pseudopostega divaricata
  • Pseudopostega dorsalis dorsalis
  • Pseudopostega dorsalis fasciata
  • Pseudopostega duplicate
  • Pseudopostega ecuadoriana
  • Pseudopostega ferruginea
  • Pseudopostega floridensis
  • Pseudopostega fumida
  • Pseudopostega galapagosae
  • Pseudopostega gracilis
  • Pseudopostega lateriplicata
  • Pseudopostega latiapicula
  • Pseudopostega latifurcata latifurcata
  • Pseudopostega latifurcata apoclina
  • Pseudopostega latisaccula
  • Pseudopostega lobata
  • Pseudopostega longifurcata
  • Pseudopostega longipedicella
  • Pseudopostega microacris
  • Pseudopostega mignonae
  • Pseudopostega monstruosa
  • Pseudopostega obtuse
  • Pseudopostega ovatula
  • Pseudopostega parakempella
  • Pseudopostega paraplicatella
  • Pseudopostega plicatella
  • Pseudopostega resimafurcata
  • Pseudopostega rotunda
  • Pseudopostega sectila
  • Pseudopostega serrata
  • Pseudopostega spatulata
  • Pseudopostega sublobata
  • Pseudopostega subtila
  • Pseudopostega suffuscula
  • Pseudopostega tanygnatha
  • Pseudopostega tenuifurcata
  • Pseudopostega texana
  • Pseudopostega triangularis
  • Pseudopostega truncate
  • Pseudopostega tucumanae
  • Pseudopostega turquinoensis
  • Pseudopostega uncinata

Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Crocodilia and Testudines in the National Mueum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution.
Robert P. Reynolds, Steve W. Gotte, and Carl H. Ernst
49 pages, 1 table
2007 (Date of Issue: 1 January 2007)
Number 626, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The known type specimens of Crocodilia and Testudines in the collection of the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, published through 2006 represent 93 names of taxa. The catalog presents a list of 249 type-specimen records consisting of 39 holotypes, 52 syntypes, 3 lectotypes, 2 neotypes, 132 paratypes, and 21 paralectotypes. The list is arranged alphabetically by family within Crocodilia and Testudines, and alphabetically by genus and species, as described originally within family. Each entry provides both original and current genus and species names, author(s), date of publication, abbreviated type citation, page of original description, and accompanying fi gures and plates (if any), current type status, USNM catalog number, number of specimens, specimen measurement(s), locality, collector, and date collected. Also included for each taxon is the published type locality, type material at other institutions, an etymology, and remarks on corrections or additional data for original type records, changes in type status, and information pertaining to lost, exchanged, or destroyed specimens. An index of scientifi c names follows the catalog.

The Therian Skull : A Lexicon with Emphasis on the Odontocetes
James G. Mead and R. Ewan Fordyce
ix+248 pages, 32 figures, 9 tables
2009 (Date of Issue: 20 October 2009)
Number 627, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Cetaceans form one of the most unique groups in the evolutionary history of mammals. They have returned to the sea and modified their tail as an efficient means of locomotion. As they adapted to the limited visibility in the aquatic environment, the odontocetes developed a system of echolocation that resulted in extensive modifications to the skull bones. This made descriptive comparisons very difficult and early anatomists unwittingly composed new terms for anatomical structures that had already been named in other taxa. This made anatomical comparisons, based on the literature, extremely tenuous. This lexicon is an attempt to remedy that situation in that it provides headwords and definitions for all the terms that have been used in describing the mammal skull and notes the synonymous terms. The lexicon includes the human nomenclature (Nomina Anatomica), the veterinary nomenclature (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria) and the nomenclature that is used in descriptive comparative anatomy. The lexicon covers not only extant but extinct mammalian groups and is extensively indexed.

The Smithsonian Institution African Mammal Project (1961–1972) : An Annotated Gazetteer of Collecting Localities and Summary of Its Taxonomic and Geographic Scope
David F. Schmidt, Craig A. Ludwig, and Michael D. Carleton
viii + 320 pages,150 figures, 20 maps, 12 tables.
2008 (Date of Issue: 30 July 2008)
Number 628, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Conceived and directed by Henry W. Setzer, the African Mammal Project (1961–1972) covered portions of 20 countries concentrated in the northern, western, and southern regions of Africa and generated over 63,000 specimens of mammals. The geographic foundation of this ambitious field program is documented as an annotated gazetteer that provides coordinate data for 785 cardinal collecting localities, collectors’ names and dates of collection, general ecological descriptions, and mammalian genera obtained at each site. In georeferencing localities, emphasis was given to primary archival sources—original specimen labels, collectors’ field journals, and contemporaneous field maps. Most localities surveyed fell within the Northern Savanna and Southern Savanna biotic zones. The Mediterranean, Sahara Desert, Guinea High Forest, and Southwest Arid zones were moderately sampled; the Southwest Cape and Afromontane zones were minimally represented.

The principal inventory method applied by field teams involved multiple transect lines of snap traps, supplemented by hunting, roost searching, mist-netting, and specimen purchasing. Total collecting effort varied immensely among countries, from 13 days (Chad) to 770 days (South Africa), and the number of specimens obtained was strongly correlated; length of dedicated site inventory mostly ranged from 3 to 8 days of collecting effort per cardinal locality. The resulting 63,213 vouchers include examples of 15 orders, 47 families, and 208 genera of African mammals; Rodentia (70%) and Chiroptera (20%) are most abundantly represented. The historical genesis of the African Mammal Project and its scientific goals as developed by H. W. Setzer are reviewed in the introduction to the gazetteer.

A Generic Revision and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia)
Stephen D. Cairns and Frederick M. Bayer
iv + 79 pages,19 figures, 4 tables.
2009 (Date of Issue: 28 January 2009)
Number 629, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Primnoidae consists of 36 genera, 7 subgenera, and 233 valid species, making it the fourth largest octocorallian family. Species occur in all ocean basins, especially the Antarctic, at depths of 8–5850 m, making primnoids the deepest-living gorgonacean octocorals. Primnoids are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine life and serving as proxies for isotopic analyses to determine paleotemperatures. Diagnoses of the primnoid genera and subgenera are based primarily on their type species, and specimens are illustrated by means of scanning electron microscopy, often using stereo images to allow better appreciation of the topology and interconnection of the calycular sclerites. A history of the higher classification of the family is given. Each genus is briefly discussed, and also included are a synonymy of pertinent references, a summary of the geographic and bathymetric ranges, and the deposition of the type specimens of the type species. Four new genera, two new subgenera, one new species, and seven new combinations are proposed. A list of the 233 valid species and the 14 infraspecific taxa is provided along with the purported junior synonyms. An indented dichotomous key is provided for identification of the genera and subgenera. Phylogenetic analysis of the genera and subgenera was performed using 27 morphological characters comprising 94 character states. The cladogram does not consistently support the conventional arrangement of genera into five subfamilies, thus this classification is not followed herein. The origin of the primnoids is inferred to be from an ancestor living in the Antarctic.

A Review of African Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Coleophoridae), with New Taxa Reared from Native Fruits in Kenya
David Adamski, Robert S. Copeland, Scott E. Miller, Paul D. N. Hebert, Karolyn Darrow, and Quentin Luke
vi + 68 pages, 62 figures, 13 maps, 2 tables
2010 (Date of Issue: 30 March 2010)
Number 630, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Twenty-five species of African Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) are reviewed; 12 species are redescribed, and 13 species are described as new. Rearing of Lepidoptera ancillary to sampling efforts targeted for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids was conducted in and near forested areas in coastal, central highland, and western highland habitats in Kenya. Reared moths were associated with fruits of 64 plant species in 34 families. Two new species, Blastobasis millicentae and Neoblastobasis perisella, were discovered in mixed original type series of species described by Meyrick and also reared from fruit. Eight new species, Blastobasis acirfa, B. aynekiella, B. chuka, B. elgonae, B. kenya, B. glauconotata, and Neoblastobasis ximeniaella, and N. wangithiae, are known only from specimens reared from fruit. One new species, Blastobasis catappaella, was reared from fruit and collected at black light. Finally, two new species, Neoblastobasis laikipiae and Blastobasis mpala, are known only from black light samples. DNA barcodes augmented the ability to discriminate between some closely related species within several genera. Male specimens of Blastobasis kenya, B. acirfa, and B. aynekiella and some associated female conspecifics, in particular, had distinctly different barcodes but were not initially diagnosed using standard morphological features. Subsequently, corroborative morphological features were found to support the DNA barcode data, and both data are discussed herein. Lectotypes are designated for Blastobasis arguta Meyrick, 1918; B. byrsodepta Meyrick, 1913; B. egens Meyrick, 1918; B. eridryas Meyrick, 1932; B. extensa Meyrick, 1918; B. indigesta Meyrick, 1931; B. industria Meyrick, 1913; and B. trachilista Meyrick, 1921. Zenodochium arguta Meyrick, 1918 is transferred to Calosima Dietz, 1910, new combination, and Tecmerium irroratella Walsingham, 1891 and Blastobasis extensa Meyrick, 1918 are transferred to Holcocera Clemens, 1863, new combinations. Neoblastobasis indigesta (Meyrick, 1931), revised status, is transferred to Blastobasis Zeller, 1855. Syndroma Meyrick is a junior synonym of Holcocera Clemens, 1863, and Syndroma lignyodes Meyrick, 1914 is transferred to Holcocera, new combination. The first African records for Holcocera, Calosima, and Neoblastobasis are reported. A key for all African Blastobasinae is included, together with photographs of the adults and illustrations of the male and female genitalia. Distribution maps are provided for all new species reared from fruits. All taxonomic decisions such as new species, lectotype designations, synonymies, and transfers are attributed to the senior author.

Speciation and Dispersal in a Low Diversity Taxon: The Slender Geckos Hemiphyllodactylus (Reptilia, Gekkonidae)
Zug, George R.
xii + 70 pages (note, 3 blanks in front matter) 25
2010 (Date of Issue: 14 December 2010)
Number 631, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Hemiphyllodactylus is a genus of small geckos occurring widely, although uncommonly seen, throughout the Indo-Pacific islands and South Asia. These geckos consist of both bisexual and unisexual species. The unisexual species, Hemiphyllodactylus typus, the most widespread of these geckos, apparently attained its Polynesian to Mascarene distribution (invasion) through accidental human transport. The bisexual species have much smaller distributions, geographically restricted to island groups or limited continental areas. Until the early 1990s, most bisexual populations were considered subspecies of H. typus. In the last two decades, herpetologists have regularly used species epithets proposed for the region under their investigation. This resurrection of species names has occurred largely without explanation or taxonomic study. This study examines the morphology of Hemiphyllodactylus throughout its known range, using 13 regional samples, first examining the differentiation of unisexual and bisexual populations and individuals, then the possibility of regional differentiation among the different bisexual populations. Variation and consistency in morphology in and among the regional sample identify the existence of a wide-ranging unisexual species, H. typus, and at least eight geographically restricted bisexual species. Available museum specimens for some regions are adequate to characterize eight bisexual species, H. aurantiacus, H. ganoklonis n. sp., H. harterti, H. insularis, H. larutensis, H. margarethae, H. titiwangsaensis n. sp., and H. yunnanensis. Potentially unique bisexual populations occur in Hong Kong, southern Indochina, Borneo, and Sri Lanka, but samples are too small to adequately characterize these populations. The origins and evolution of the species are examined, and the study concludes with a taxonomy for the identified species.

Conserving Wildlife in African Landscapes: Kenya’s Ewaso Ecosystem
Nicholas J. Georgiadis, editor
vi, 132 pages 37 figures, 10 tables
2011 (Date of Issue: 17 June 2011)
Number 632, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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During the last two decades, conservation strategies in Africa have changed from an almost exclusive focus on large mammals in protected areas to an emphasis on conserving ecological processes at the level of entire landscapes and on the role of human communities. The papers assembled in this volume address diverse aspects of conserving the Ewaso landscape in northern Kenya, where concerted and prodigious efforts to conserve wildlife and natural resources have achieved substantial progress. Topics range from interpreting evidence for continuity and change in patterns of human settlement in the region to describing ecological interactions between wildlife, people, and livestock that are harmful or helpful; from the challenges of adapting livestock management in the presence of predators to legal mechanisms for conserving wildlife habitat on private land. In the final chapter, results of a strategic planning exercise are described for conserving essential elements in the entire landscape—the first of its kind in Kenya. Today, national policy and political will are still insufficiently aligned with this landscape conservation imperative to effect the changes that are necessary to conserve Kenya’s biodiversity. We hope this volume will help propagate awareness about the importance and threatened status of Kenya’s ecosystems and promote confidence that a policy can be crafted that will reverse their decline.

A Revision of the Genus Aulacigaster Macquart (Diptera: Aulacigastridae)
Alessandra Rung and Wayne N. Mathis
x, 132 pages 220 figures, 18 maps
2011 (Date of Issue: 11 April 2011)
Number 633, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The world’s described species of the genus Aulacigaster Macquart, now numbering 55, are revised. New species from the Afrotropical (2 species), Neotropical (37 species), and Oriental regions (2 species) are described, and the genus is divided into seven species groups, of which six are Neotropical. Keys to the species groups and to the known species occurring in the Afrotropical, Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Oriental regions are provided. Diagnoses, detailed distributional data for species of the genus, notes on the biology, and illustrations (photographs and drawings) are included to facilitate species identification. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to test the monophyly of the genus Aulacigaster and to discover relationships between included species, hence indicating the monophyly of the species groups. The ingroup includes a total of 24 exemplar congeners. Outgroup sampling includes exemplars from the putative sister group, Curiosimusca. Analyses with and without successive weighting recovered a monophyletic Aulacigaster and indicated clades within the genus.

A Revision of the Primnoidae (Octocorallia:Acyonacea) from the Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea
Cairns, Stephen D.
iv, [1], 55p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
2011 (Date of Issue: 11 May 2011)
Number 634, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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Nineteen of the 31 octocoral species (61%) known from the Aleutian Islands belong to family Primnoidae, which form large deep-water (9-2,514 m) colonies providing habitat for one of the most productive fisheries in the North Pacific. These 19 species are described or redescribed and figured unless recent descriptions have been published. Eight new species are described, two in the genus Thouarella and six in the genus Plumarella. These two genera are redefined and differentiated by emphasizing the nature (keeled or not) of the inner side of their marginal scales and the inner side's articulation or lack thereof with the outer surface of the underlying opercular scales. Dicholaphis is proposed as a new subgeneric rank of the genus Plumarella, characterized by having polyps arranged on all sides of its branchlets, not on alternate opposite sides. A key is provided for the eight species of Aleutian Plumarella, and all 35 valid species in the genus are listed, including three new combinations: P. superba, P. abietina, and P. recta. A history of the Aleutian primnoids is recounted. Six primnoid species are reported from the Bering Sea, all of which also occur in the Aleutian Islands. Two-thirds of the Aleutian-Bering Sea primnoids are endemic to this region.

Variation, Systematics, and Relationships of the Leptodactylus bolivianus Complex (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)
W. Ronald Heyer and Rafael O. de Sá
viii, 58 pages, 21 figures, 20 tables
2011 (Date of Issue: 6 September 2011)
Number 635, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The Leptodactylus bolivianus complex has been considered to consist of one or two species, L. bolivianus alone or L. bolivianus and L. insularum. Detailed morphological analyses were undertaken to evaluate variation in the complex, which ranges from Costa Rica through Panama, across northern South America in the river valleys draining to the Caribbean, and throughout much of the Amazon basin with southern limits in Bolivia. Members of the complex also occur on several islands off Nicaragua, Panama, and Colombia. Analyses of morphological and advertisement call data indicate that there are either two or three species comprising the complex. Analysis of molecular data strongly supports recognition of three species, one of which is described as a new species, Leptodactylus guianensis. The three species comprising the L. bolivianus clade are most closely related to the L. ocellatus clade within the genus Leptodactylus.

A Revision of the Nearctic Species of the Genus Trixoscelis Rondani (Diptera: Heleomyzidae: Trixoscelidinae)
George A. Foster and Wayne N. Mathis
viii + 128 pages, 187 figures, 1 table
2012 (Date of Issue: 11 January 2012)
Number 637, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The Nearctic species of the genus Trixoscelis Rondani are revised. Thirteen new species are described, seven new combinations and three new synonyms are proposed, and three species groups are characterized. Keys to the 38 known species are provided. Diagnoses, detailed distributional data for the species of the genus, notes on the biology, and illustrations (photographs and drawings) are included to assist species identification. A phylogenetic analysis was performed to test the monophyly of the genus Trixoscelis and the included species groups. The ingroup includes a total of 38 exemplar species. Outgroup sampling includes the following exemplar genera: Neossos, Waterhousea, Fenwickia, Aneuria, and Xenura. Analyses, including implied weighting, recovered a monophyletic Trixoscelis and species groups if the Mongolian genus Paratrixoscelis is included within Trixoscelis.

Systematics of the Spider Family Deinopidae with a Revision of the Genus Menneus
Jonathan A. Coddington, Matjaž Kuntner, and Brent D. Opell
i–iv, 61 pages, 32 figures, 1 table
2012 (Date of Issue: 13 July 2012)
Number 636, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The enigmatic and rare spiders of the family Deinopidae are known for their extremely large ocelli and their unique habit of casting their small cribellate webs over nocturnal pedestrian or aerial prey. Although the monophyly of the family has not been controversial, deinopid descriptive systematics has been neglected since the original species descriptions. The first goal of this monograph is to test the monophyly of Deinopidae and its genera and thus to establish a phylogenetically informed taxonomy of the species. We provide the first phylogeny of this family on the basis of 53 morphological and 3 behavioral characters scored for 17 deinopid species and 2 outgroups. Extant deinopid spiders belong to two genera: the larger pantropical Deinopis MacLeay, 1839, diagnosed by the extreme size of their posterior median eyes, and the smaller Menneus Simon, 1876, of the Old World (sub)tropics with normally sized eyes. Avella Pickard-Cambridge, 1877, and Avellopsis Purcell, 1904, are junior synonyms of Menneus as their type species are nested throughout Menneus phylogeny. The second goal is to revise the non-Deinopis species of Deinopidae. Here, we recognize, diagnose, illustrate, describe, and phylogenetically place the 14 known Menneus species. Africa currently has six species: Menneus camelus Pocock, 1902, from South Africa; M. capensis (Purcell, 1904) new combination from Western Cape, South Africa; M. darwini new species from Tanzania; M. dromedarius Purcell, 1904 (removed from synonymy of M. camelus), from South Africa and Madagascar; M. samperi new species from Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; and M. tetragnathoides Simon, 1876 (M. affinis Tullgren, 1910 new synonym), from Angola, Malawi, and Tanzania. Australasia currently has eight species: M. aussie new species from eastern Australia and New Caledonia; M. bituberculatus new species from Queensland and Indonesian West Papua; M. superciliosus (Thorell, 1881) from eastern Australia; M. nemesio new species from New South Wales; M. neocaledonicus (Simon, 1889) from New Caledonia, M. quasimodo new species from Western Australia; M. trinodosus Rainbow, 1920 (Deinopis insularis Rainbow, 1920, new synonym), from Queensland and New South Wales; and M. wa, new species, from Western Australia. We propose Avella angulata L. Koch, 1878, Avella despiciens O. P.-Cambridge, 1877, and Avella unifasciata L. Koch, 1878, as nomina dubia. Paleomicromenneus lebanensis Penney, 2003, the earliest known fossil, is similar to Menneus. Menneus is phylogenetically sister to Deinopis, and within Menneus we recover a grade of Australasian species that includes the African M. capensis, followed by a distal clade of African species with peculiar asymmetric somatic morphology.

Gliding Mammals: Taxonomy of Living and Extinct Species
Stephen M. Jackson and Richard W. Thorington, Jr.
i–vi, 1–117 pages
2012 (Date of Issue: 28 March 2012)
Number 638, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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There are 64 species of extant gliding mammals that are currently recognized, which are divided into six different families. These comprise eight species of gliding marsupials that live within Australasia and include six species of lesser gliding possums of Petaurus (family Petauridae), one species of greater glider of Petauroides (family Pseudocheiridae), and one species of feathertail glider of Acrobates (family Acrobatidae). The flying squirrels of the tribe Pteromyini within the rodent family Sciuridae represent the greatest diversity of gliding mammals, with a total of 48 species in 15 genera currently recognized, and occur throughout Asia, Europe, and North America. A second group of gliding rodents, known as the scaly-tailed flying squirrels, comprises six species from the family Anomaluridae that live in central and western Africa. The most specialized and unique of the extant gliding mammals are the enigmatic colugos, or flying lemurs, of the order Dermoptera that comprise two species and occur throughout Southeast Asia and the Philippines. In addition to the extant species there are various fossils of extinct species that are thought to have had an ability to glide, although there has been a lot of debate over most of these taxa. These fossil taxa include 3 marsupials, 18 dermopterans, 51 flying squirrels, 7 species of scaly-tailed flying squirrels, and 1 extinct species in each of the families Myoxidae, Eomyidae, and Volaticotheriidae. The taxonomic status of many living and extinct gliding mammals is still in a state of flux, and significant further revision of the taxonomic status of many groups still needs to be resolved.

The Maned Wolves of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park
Emmons, Louise H.
xii + 135 pages
2012 (Date of Issue: 30 April 2012)
Number 639, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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We studied the behavioral ecology of maned wolves (Canidae: Chrysocyon brachyurus) for 10 years in Cerrado habitat of Noel Kempff National Park, Bolivia. Most data were collected by GPS-collar technology, which yielded over 37,000 locations in 27 collar deployments on 10 individuals. The eight chapters introduce the study area and methods (1) and describe daily and seasonal activity (2); movements and ranges (3); diet and energetics (4); social interactions and reproduction (5); disease exposure, morbidity and mortality (6); maned wolf conservation (7); and finally, we synthesize the results in an overview of maned wolf behavioral ecology, with hypotheses about the unique form and function of this atypical canid (8). Activity was temperature related and sharply nocturnal in the dry season but partly diurnal in the rainy season. Adult home ranges were 40–123 km2, with strong seasonal variations in land use. Maned wolves averaged 14 km/night travel in dry months and 7 km/night during wet months. Breeding pairs shared territories with contiguous borders, which did not overlap with neighboring pairs. Young females twice stayed until adulthood on natal territories, as presumed helpers, and acquired the territory upon disappearance/death of the adult females. Females were the holders of territories into which males moved to form pairs. Young males all emigrated. By 8 years old, maned wolves showed extreme tooth wear, and dental disease was a major cause of morbidity. Habitat loss is the chief conservation issue for the species, but drought-related resource loss appears to be reducing the study area population.

Catalog of Type Specimens of Recent Mammals: Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
Fisher, Robert D. and Craig A. Ludwig
iv + 97 pages
2012 (Date of Issue: 23 October 2012)
Number 640, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
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The type collection of Recent mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 843 specimens bearing names of 820 species group taxa of Rodentia (Sciuromorpha and Castorimorpha) as of July 2011. This catalog presents a list of these holdings, which comprise 798 holotypes, 14 lectotypes, seven syntypes (30 specimens), and one neotype. In addition, we include three holotypes and 10 specimens that are part of syntype series that should be in the collection but cannot be found and three syntypes that were originally in this collection but are now known to be in other collections. One specimen that no longer has namebearing status is included for the record. Forty-one of the names are new since the last type catalog. One new lectotype is designated. Suborders and families are listed as in Wilson and Reeder. Within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically. Within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, type locality, date of collection and name of collector, collector’s original number, and comments or additional information as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen serve as a condition report and will be linked to each electronic specimen record.

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