Search form

Blog Icon Facebook Icon Twitter Icon Tumblr Icon Instagram Icon Flickr Icon YouTube Icon RSS Icon Email Icon

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology

Displaying 1 - 50 from the 642 total records
Previous | Next 50

Notes on Some Stomatopod Crustacea from Southern Africa
Raymond B. Manning
17 pages, 4 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 1 January 1969)
Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (10,601 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A small collection of stomatopods taken during the course of an ecological survey by the University of Capetown has provided the author the opportunity of redescribing the rare Lysiosquilla capensis Hansen, a species restricted to southern African waters. Analysis of the large series of Pterygosquilla armata (H. Milne-Edwards), which also has populations off South America and New Zealand, supports an earlier suggestion that the three populations are subspecifically distinct. The collection also includes several new records for southern African waters.


Species of Spalangia Latreille in the United States National Museum Collection (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
B. D. Burks
7 pages, 3 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (5,386 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A reappraisal of species of Spalangia in the USNM collection. The types of nine species described by Ashmead, Girault, Richardson, and Howard are all redescribed, their present condition given, and lectotypes designated, if necessary. Spalangia brasiliensis Ashmead is synonymized under chontalensis Cameron; muscidarum var. texensis Girault is synonymized under cameroni Fullaway. Spalangia attae, from the nest of an Atta ant in El Salvador, and dozieri, parasite of the sarcophagid fly Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend in Puerto Rico, are described as new.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: Bethyloidea (Hymenoptera)
Howard E. Evans
14 pages, 16 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (9,672 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Two families of Bethyloidea are known to occur on Dominica: Bethylidae and Dryinidae. The family Bethylidae is represented by 19 species, of which 13 are here described as new. The two genera most commonly collected and containing the largest number of species are Parasierola and Goniozus; each genus contains 5 species on Dominica, and keys are presented for separating these species. The remaining genera are Apenesia and Dissomphalus (3 species each) and Pseudisobrachium, Anisepyris, and Holepyris (1 species each). Of the 19 species, only 6 are known to occur on other islands, one of these also on continental South America. The family Dryinidae is represented by one species of Mesodryinus and one species of Prodryinus, both described as new and both so far as known restricted to Dominica.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: West Indian Stenomidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)
W. Donald Duckworth
21 pages, 30 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (10,716 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

All the species of the microlepidopterous family Stenomidae known to occur in the West Indies are reviewed regarding their taxonomic history, zoogeography, identity, and morphology. Two new species are described, Chlamydastis dominicae and Mothonica cubana, one of which C. dominicae, is the first representative of the genus Chlamydastis recorded from the West Indies. Keys to the species based on structures of the male and female genitalia and characters of the wing maculation are provided. Distribution maps, photographs of the adults, drawings of the male and female genitalia, and all known biological information are included.


A Monograph of the Cephalopoda of the North Atlantic: The Family Cycloteuthidae
Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper
24 pages, 3 figures, 9 plates, 3 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 9 June 1969)
Number 5, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (13,112 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A new family of oegopsid cephalopods, Cycloteuthidae, is erected as a result of the elevation of Naef's subfamily Cycloteuthinae. Cycloteuthis sirventi Joubin, 1919, is redescribed based on new material from the Atlantic Ocean. A new genus, Discoteuthis, and two new species, D. discus and D. laciniosa, are described from the Atlantic Ocean. Larvae of C. sirventi and D. laciniosa are described. The distributions of the species of cycloteuthids in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans are presented. The relationships of the family, genera, and species are discussed.


A Revision of Six Species of the Flavus-Bidentatus Group of Eunice (Eunicidae: Polychaeta)
Kristian Fauchald
15 pages, 6 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 June 1969)
Number 6, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (9,437 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The species here revised have yellow, bidentate subacicular hooks and branchiae limited to a short anterior region. They include E. biannulata Moore (1904), E. kobiensis McIntosh (1885, holotype examined), E. segregata (Chamberlin, 1919a, restricted), E. semisegregata, new species, E. valens (Chamberlin, 1919b, types examined), and E. websteri, new name for E. longicirrata Webster (1884, holotype examined). The relationship between the six species is discussed.


Recent Ostracodes of the Family Pontocyprididae Chiefly from the Indian Ocean
Rosalie F. Maddocks
56 pages, 35 figures, 5 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1969)
Number 7, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (31,403 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Recent ostracodes of the marine family Pontocyprididae may be identified as easily by the carapace as by appendage characteristics, especially by the five discrete central muscle scars. The five genera and three subgenera are each distinguished by a diagnostic arrangement of the muscle scars, as well as by carapace shape and characters of the appendages and genitalia.

From collections of the International Indian Ocean Expedition, from other collections at the Smithsonian Institution, and from the type “Challenger” material of Brady (1880), 48 species and 2 subspecies (12 new, 8 pre-existing, 30 in open nomenclature) are described here and assigned to four genera. Two new subgenera, Ekpontocypris and Schedopontocypris, are established within the genus Propontocypris.

The following species and subspecies are new: Propontocypris (Propontocypris) crocata, P. (P.) quasicrocata, P. (P.) paradispar, P. (P.?) lobodonta, Propontocypris (Ekpontocypris) litoricola, P. (E.) l. litoricola, P. (E.) l. admirantensis, P. (E.) mcmurdoensis, P. (E.?) epicyrta, Propontocypris (Schedopontocypris) bengalensis, Australoecia mckenziei, A. abyssophilia.


Morphology, Ontogeny, and Intraspecific Variation of Spinacopia, a New Genus of Myodocopid Ostracod (Sarsiellidae)
Louis S. Kornicker
50 pages, 26 figures, 6 plates, 7 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 22 August 1969)
Number 8, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (24,394 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Morphology, biology, and variability of a new genus with four new species are described from collections of deep-sea ostracods obtained by the Lamont Geological Observatory and Woods Hole Biological Laboratory in the Atlantic, Antarctic, and Indian Oceans. Adult females far outnumber males in collections, but juvenile males and females are present in equal numbers indicating that adult males are short lived. Microtome sections of male and female genitalia document that the male transfers sperm to the female in ovoid spermatophores which are attached externally. Examination of stomachs shows that members of the new genus are carnivores—feeding on copepods, ostracods, and nematodes. Apparently adult males do not eat. A key is presented for identification of early instar stages by means of examination of sixth and seventh limbs.


An Analysis of Nesting Mortality in Birds
Robert E. Ricklefs
48 pages, 11 figures, 26 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 12 December 1969)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (27,277 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This study was initiated to evaluate nesting mortality of birds as a feature of the environment and as a selective force in the evolution of reproductive strategies. Representative nesting-success data from the literature for most groups of birds were transformed into daily mortality rates to eliminate differences among species in the length of the nest cycle. These data are presented by taxonomic groupings and for passerines by geographical region and nest construction and placement.

The strength and pattern of various mortality factors are described in detail. Predation, starvation, desertion, hatching failure, and adverse weather are the most prevalent factors, but nestsite competition, brood parasitism, and arthropod infestation may be important in some species. It is demonstrated that the various mortality factors can be identified by characteristic patterns of nesting losses involving differences in mortality rates between the egg and nestling periods and the within-nest component of mortality rates.

Among Temperate Zone passerines, field-nesting and marsh-nesting species have the highest mortality rates while those species nesting in trees, especially in cavities, enjoy higher success. Starvation is prevalent in marsh and field species but desertion is more restricted to tree-nesting species. In general, arctic species have lower mortality rates and tropical species higher rates, although there is a similar gradient from arid to humid regions within the tropics. The relative abundance of a species is related directly to its mortality rate in arctic regions, but is not in temperate and tropical regions.

Birds of prey generally have low mortality rates although starvation is often a major factor. Nesting losses in seabirds are caused primarily by crowded conditions in colonies and loss of eggs due to inadequate nest construction. Chick deaths come about primarily through their wandering away from parental care which is most common in the semiprecocial Charadriiformes. Precocial shorebirds and water birds enjoy higher egg success than ground-nesting passerines but game birds exhibit similar mortality rates. Little is known of the survival of precocial chicks after hatching except that mortality rates may be initially quite high and decrease with age. The fate of altricial birds after fledging is also poorly documented.

It is postulated that interspecific differences in mortality rates are determined by evolutionarily acceptable levels of adult risk to lower mortality rates of offspring through parental care, adult adaptations of morphology and behavior for foraging which result in limitations on nesting adaptations, environmental unpredictability which reduces the effectiveness of adaptations, and—most import—the diversity of predators to which a species must adapt.


Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with Comments on Faunal Change and Sampling
Charles W. Myers and A. Stanley Rand
11 pages, 2 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (8,453 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

One hundred species of amphibians (32) and reptiles (68) are estimated to occur on Barro Colorado Island, on the basis of approximately 47 years of collecting. The island is a seasonally wet, tropical forest locality in man-made Gatun Lake, central Panama. The faunal composition has not been static since the island's formation in 1912-1914. Some species have disappeared from the island whereas some others seem to be recent arrivals. Faunal change is at least partly correlated with vegetational succession, as old clearings change toward mature forest. The extirpation of certain “edge” species and their failure to have recolonized the laboratory clearing indicates that it is easier for a resident population to become extinct than for new colonization to occur. The sampling of such a complex, tropical herpetofauna is shown to be not so difficult as might be expected. Man-hours of collecting are plotted against percent of the herpetofauna for several collections, indicating that nearly one-half of the species can be collected in a few weeks of intensive effort in the rainy season. Approximately 80 percent of the species recorded from the island had been collected by 1931, after only about a decade of sporadic, unsystematic collecting by various persons. The generalization that tropical species have lower population densities than temperate species may not be valid for such groups as frogs and lizards but does seem true of snake faunas in low, humid forest regions. Snakes also are more difficult to collect in the tropics because of shifts in habits. There is a great expansion of tropical snakes into arboreal situations and a general avoidance (by all vertebrates) of rock and log microhabitats, which are frequently occupied by large arachnids. Small terrestrial snakes of lowland tropical forests tend either to be fossorial or to inhabit the leaf litter, where they are difficult to detect. Seasonal aggregations of snakes are rare in the wet tropics.


Habitats, Flora, Mammals, and Wasps of Gebel 'Uweinat, Libyan Desert
Dale J. Osborn and Karl V. Krombein
18 pages, 13 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 27 August 1969)
Number 11, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (10,047 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The habitats at Gebel 'Uweinat, Libyan Desert, at the juncture of Egypt, Libya, and Sudan, are described and illustrated by photographs. Annotated lists are presented of the 55 species of plants collected there, 6 species of mammals, and 30 species of wasps.


Tracheotaxy as a Generic Criterion in Himantariidae, with Proposal of Two New Bothriogastrine Genera (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha)
R. E. Crabill, Jr.
9 pages, 23 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (5,487 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Two new Bothriogastrine genera are proposed and based upon three species, two of them new, thereby recording for the first time the presence of the subfamily in the New World. The characterizations utilize a new intertaxic criterion, tracheotaxy, the study of tracheal configurations and patterns, which is introduced herein and described. Some evolutionary inferences are suggested. Additionally, other new criteria are employed, e.g., the nature of the pretarsal parungues. A key to all known Bothriogastrine genera is appended.


An Illustrated Key to the Families of the Order Teuthoidea (Cephalopoda)
Clyde F. E. Roper, Richard E. Young and Gilbert L. Voss
32 pages, 2 figures, 16 plates, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 18 August 1969)
Number 13, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (14,446 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A dichotomous key to the twenty-five families of cephalopods of the order Teuthoidea is presented. A supplementary chart of basic, external teuthoid characters is included. Representatives of each family are illustrated. The current state of systematics within each family is briefly discussed.


Indian Ocean Kinorhyncha: 1, Condyloderes and Sphenoderes, New Cyclorhagid Genera
Robert P. Higgins
13 pages, 23 figures, 3 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (7,928 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Condyloderes multispinosus (McIntyre, 1962), new genus, new combination; Condyloderes paradoxus, new species; and Sphenoderes indicus, new genus, new species (phylum Kinorhyncha) are described from the coasts of Scotland and India.


A Monograph of the Cephalopoda of the North Atlantic: The Family Joubiniteuthidae
Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper
10 pages, 6 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (4,829 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Joubiniteuthis portieri (Joubin, 1912) is redescribed on the basis of new material from the Atlantic Ocean. Valdemaria danae Joubin, 1931, is synonymized with Joubiniteuthis portieri, and the peculiar hectocotylus previously described for V. danae is shown to be an artifact. The validity of the family Joubiniteuthidae Naef is confirmed. The Joubiniteuthidae is thought to be most closely related to the Mastigoteuthidae and Promachoteuthidae.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: The Mosquitoes of Dominica (Diptera: Culicidae)
Alan Stone
8 pages
1969 (Date of Issue: 9 July 1969)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (6,346 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Twenty-two species of mosquitoes are reported from the island of Dominica, seventeen for the first time. The synonymy of Wyeomyia medioalbipes (Lutz) is discussed and W. adelpha Dyar and Knab is resurrected, with W. ablabes Dyar and Knab and W. rolonca Dyar and Knab placed as synonyms of it. Notes on biology and distribution are given for all species.


The Taxonomic Status of the Controversial Genera and Species of Parrotfishes with a Descriptive List (Family Scaridae)
Leonard P. Schultz
49 pages, 2 figures, 8 plates, 13 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 10 December 1969)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (33,353 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This, the second major paper on scarid fishes by the author, discusses several difficult-to-identify species and brings together under one taxon certain males and females, previously thought to represent two or more species. Taxonomically controversial genera and species in the late Dr. J. L. B. Smith's two major papers (1956, 1958) on parrotfishes are correlated with conclusions reached in this report.

Included is a current descriptive list (with 38 color illustrations) of 11 genera, 5 subgenera, 68 species, and 5 subspecies. Important taxonomic changes: Scarus fehlmanni, new species from the Red Sea, is placed in the subgenus Xenoscarops Schultz along with Scarus perrico (Jordan and Gilbert). The genus Scarus Forskål is divided into three subgenera: Scarus Forskål, Xenoscarops Schultz, and Callyodon Scopoli. Sparisoma Swainson is divided into two subgenera: Callyodontichthys Bleeker and Sparisoma Swainson. Scarops Schultz is monotypic. Pseudoscarus jordani Jenkins, Callyodon africanus Smith, and Scarus paluca Gosline and Brock are synonyms of Scarops rubroviolaceous (Bleeker). Bolbometopon Smith, with Cetoscarus Smith as a synonym, has two species: B. muricatus Cuvier and Valenciennes and B. bicolor (Rüppell). Scarus pulchellus Rüppell is the adult female of B. bicolor. Ypsiscarus Schultz has two species, Y. ovifrons (Temminck and Schlegel) and Y. oedema Snyder. Scarus harid Forskål has three subspecies: harid Forskål, longiceps Cuvier and Valenciennes, and vexillus (Smith). Hipposcarus schultzi Smith is a synonym of S. h. longiceps. Scarus microrhinos Bleeker and S. strongylocephalus Bleeker are synonyms of S. gibbus Rüppell.

Neotypes were established for Scarus psittacus Forskål, Scarus forsteri Cuvier and Valenciennes, and S. sordidus Forskål. A lectotype was selected for Scarus quoyi Cuvier and Valenciennes. Also lectotypes were selected for Scarus baliensis Bleeker, S. bataviensis Bleeker, S. quoyi Cuvier and Valenciennes.


Nearctic Walshiidae Notes and New Taxa (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)
Ronald W. Hodges
30 pages, 46 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 August 1969)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (12,785 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Knowledge concerning the Nearitic members of the Walshiidae is made current by presenting new information concerning distribution and food plants; describing 14 species (Periploca hostiata, hortatrix, P. opinatrix, P. devia, P. dipapha, P. labes, Aeaea placatrix, Sorhagenia baucidis, S. pexa, Siskiwitia alticolans, Perimede eremos, P. parilis, P. circitor, P. maniola) and one genus (Siskiwitia) as new; presenting new keys to separate species of Periploca, Sorhagenia, and Perimede; and presenting a list of the known species.


Life History Notes on Some Egyptian Solitary Wasps and Bees and Their Associates (Hymenoptera: Aculeata)
Karl V. Krombein
18 pages, 28 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 13 August 1969)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (9,962 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

cal notes are presented on seven Egyptian wasps: Chrysura pustulosa (Abeille), Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, Eumenes mediterraneus Kriechbaumer, Rhynchium oculatum (Fabricius), Telostegus melanurus (Klug), Trypoxylon aegyptium Kohl, and Philanthus triangulum abdelcader (Lepeletier); seven Egyptian bees: Hylaeus adspersa (Alfken), Heriades moricei Friese, Osmia latreillei (Spinola), O. aurantiaca Stanek, Megachile variscopa Pérez, M. minutissima Radoszkowski, and M. flavipes (Spinola); and on the sarcophagid fly Miltogrammidium chivae Rohdendorf, parasitic on an unknown species of Megachile bee.


Five Species of Deep-Water Cyclopoid Copepods from the Plankton of the Gulf of Alaska
Gayle A. Heron and David M. Damkaer
24 pages, 28 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 23 September 1969)
Number 20, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (11,262 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This report considers five species of Cyclopoida found in samples collected from 340 to 1275 meters in the Gulf of Alaska. Lubbockia wilsonae, new species, is described. Other descriptions are given for Lubbockia glacialis, Pseudolubbockia dilatata, Ratania atlantica, and Pontoeciella abyssicola.


Ten Rhyparus from the Western Hemisphere (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae)
Oscar L. Cartwright and Robert E. Woodruff
20 pages, 15 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 21, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (13,301 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This is the first report of the genus Rhyparus (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) being found in the Western Hemisphere. It is closely related to Termitodius, a genus known from Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia, but easily recognized by characters given. One South American species from Bolivia is transferred from Termitodius and nine new species are described and illustrated as follows: Rhyparus spangleri from Costa Rica; opacus from Mexico;blantoni from Panama; suspiciosus from Costa Rica; mexicanus from Mexico and Costa Rica; zayasi from Cuba and Jamaica; sculpturatus from Costa Rica; isidroi from Costa Rica; and costaricensis from Costa Rica and Mexico.


A Revision of the Melanesian Wasps of the Genus Cerceris Latreille (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)
Karl V. Krombein
36 pages, 23 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 19 December 1969)
Number 22, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (24,452 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

In the Melanesian area, wasps of the sphecid genus Cerceris Latreille are known only from New Guinea and its offshore islands, the Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands. Keys, descriptions, and illustrations are presented in this revisionary study of the following taxa: female, male Cerceris pictiventris gimmolator Smith, 1864; female C. cristovalensis, new species; female C. cyclops, new species; female C. papuensis, new species; female C. misoolensis, new species; female, male C. karimuiensis, new species; male C. brandti, new species; female, male C. millironi millironi, new subspecies; female C. millironi tulagiensis, new subspecies; male C. millironi malaitensis, new subspecies; female, male C. reicula, new species; female, male C. minuscula sculleniana, new subspecies; female C. minuscula stanleyensis, new subspecies; male C. minuscula korovensis, new subspecies; female C. vechti, new species; female, male C. venusta oceanica Brèthes, 1920, new status (=C. insulicola Tsuneki, 1968, new synonymy); female, male C. venusta keiensis Strand, 1911, new status; female, male C. venusta atrescens, new subspecies; female C. mordax, new species; female C. toxopeusi, new species; female C. vellensis vellensis, new subspecies; female, male C. vellensis obrieni, new subspecies; female, male C. vellensis fordi, new subspecies; female C. vellensis segiensis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis solomonis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis lavellensis, new subspecies; female, male C. bougainvillensis novogeorgica, new subspecies; and C. bougainvillensis bougainvillensis Tsuneki, 1968, new status.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: The Phoridae of Dominica (Diptera)
Thomas Borgmeier
69 pages, 152 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 18 November 1969)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (37,678 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Recent collecting by J. F. G. Clarke, O. S. Flint, Jr., R. J. Gagné, P. Spangler, T. J. Spilman, G. C. Steyskal, and W. W. Wirth for the Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica resulted in a small but representative collection of phorid flies, comprising 16 genera and 82 species, 43 of which are new. Of the latter, 32 belong to the giant genus Megaselia. One new species from Costa Rica has been added: Pachyneurella haplopyga.


Ostracoda in Texas Bays and Lagoons: An Ecologic Study
Charles E. King and Louis S. Kornicker
92 pages, 15 figures, 21 plates, 19 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 25 March 1970)
Number 24, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (37,857 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Ostracods were collected monthly for about one year in Copano Bay, Redfish Bay, and the Laguna Madre, Texas, along a salinity gradient that ranged from 9.7 to 50.0 parts per thousand. This study describes the ostracods encountered and analyzes the environmental factors influencing their distribution.


A Monographic Study of the Mexican Species of Enlinia (Diptera: Dolichopodidae)
Harold Robinson
62 pages, 221 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (33,677 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Fifty-three species are recorded for Mexico, including Enlinia ciliata Robinson previously known from the southeastern United States and 52 previously undescribed. The newly described species are placed in 20 groups as follows: I. E. elegans (closely related to the type-species, E. magistri (Aldrich) of the United States, E. ornata, E. anomalipennis, E. lobata, E. plumicauda, E. crinita, E. interrupta, E. maculata, E. obovata (last two similar to E. sordida (Aldrich) of the West Indies); II. E. marginata; III. (E. ciliata group) E. convergens, E. albipes; IV. E. femorata, E. cristata; V. E. armata, E. fusca, E. distincta, E. hirtitarsis, E. fasciata, E. setosa; VI. E. flavicornis; VII. E. tibialis; VIII. E. elongata, E. chaetophora; IX. E. halteralis; X. E. montana, E. angustifacies, E. maxima, E. latifacies, E. media; XI. E. scutitarsis; XII. E. seticauda, E. ramosa (last also reported from Panama); XIII. E. magnicornis; XIV. E. hirtipes, E. clavulifera, E. fimbriata; XV. E. ventralis, E. brevipes; XVI. E. nigricans; XVII. E. acuticornis, E. frontalis; XVIII. E. caudata; XIX. E. lamellata, XX. E. simplex, E. unisetosa, E. brachychaeta, E. scabrida, E. latipennis, E. seriata, E. ciliifemorata, and E. exigua. General observations include the trends toward spectacularly ornate male wings, legs, abdominal sternites, and genitalia and the preference for sunlight in group I; the simple structure and preference for shade of group XX; preference for soil rather than rock substrates of group III; occurrence on relatively dry substrates of group V; the relatively large size of species of groups VIII and X, and the apparent restriction of group X to higher elevations where other groups do not occur.


The Avifauna of Northern Latin America: A Symposium Held at the Smithsonian Institution 13-15 April 1966
Helmut K. Buechner and Jimmie H. Buechner, editors
119 pages, 4 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 3 April 1970)
Number 26, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (70,995 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

This conference was conceived by William Vogt, who is well known for his early concern with the ecological consequences of the human population explosion, as expressed in his book Road to Survival (New York: William Sloane Associates, 1948). Over three decades of field observation in Latin America have provided him with a view of environmental changes, particularly the destruction of forest vegetation, that few other scholars have experienced. The conference was convened to determine, through an exchange of information, whether the drastic modification and elimination of the wintering habitat of many breeding birds of North America may be responsible for depressed levels of populations.

The assemblage of most of the outstanding scholars of bird life in Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela at the Smithsonian Institution resulted in a remarkable accumulation of information and exchange of ideas. Fourteen individual papers were presented, each of which was followed by discussion. Further discussion took place in a plenary session after the papers on the individual countries. In lieu of resolutions the conferees agreed on a series of suggestions which are presented in these proceedings.

The conference was organized by the Smithsonian Office of Ecology, and made possible by a generous grant from the Conservation Foundation.

We would like to express our gratitude to Paul Slud, Associate Curator, Division of Birds, National Museum of Natural History, for verifying the spelling of scientific names and for his considerable assistance with the final editing.

The Editors


The Tenrecs: A Study in Mammalian Behavior and Evolution
J. F. Eisenberg and Edwin Gould
137 pages, 77 figures, 13 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 9 March 1970)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (68,181 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Tenrecs are found only on the island of Madagascar. The biology of the Tenrecidae is described by field and laboratory studies that focused on comparisons of social behavior and communication in several species. Detailed observations on the behavior of Echinops, Setifer, Tenrec, Hemicentetes, and Microgale are related to ecological adaptations of each genus.

Experimental manipulations of Hemicentetes revealed that a sound-producing organ composed of dorsal quills functions to coordinate the movements of mother and infants. Evolutionary trends in structure and behavior of the tenrecs are discussed. The mammalian feeding niches of Panama and Madagascar are compared.


Some Behavior Patterns of Platyrrhine Monkeys, II. Saguinus geoffroyi and Some Other Tamarins
M. Moynihan
77 pages, 25 figures, 1 table
1970 (Date of Issue: 15 April 1970)
Number 28, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (46,135 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The Rufous-naped Tamarin, Saguinus geoffroyi, is a rather small species of Panama and northern Colombia. It is diurnal, slightly gregarious, omnivorous (with a preference for insects), quadrupedal, and most characteristic of dense scrub and low forest in areas of medium humidity. It interacts with some other species in peculiar ways which may involve social mimicry. It has a few tactile and olfactory signals, a moderate number of vocalizations, and many kinds of visual signals, mostly displays. The communication systems of other members of the genus seem to be similar. They all include points of resemblance to both the Night Monkey, Aotus, and the marmosets, Callithrix and Cebuella. Some of the resemblances are difficult to interpret. The phylogenetic relationships among the three types, and between them and Callicebus, remain thoroughly obscure. There must have been considerable parallel or convergent evolution of either behavioral or morphological characters during the history of the group.


Deep-Sea Cerviniidae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Western Indian Ocean, Collected with R/V Anton Bruun, in 1964
F. D. Por
60 pages, 182 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (21,284 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The Cerviniidae found in abyssal and bathyal catches of Cruise 8 of R/V Anton Bruun are discussed. In eight stations off the East African Coast 15 species of Cerviniidae have been found. The genus Pontostratiotes Brady is represented by six new species, by specimens which belong probably to the three previously known species of the genus, and an as yet uncertain species. A new genus is established for Ameliotes malagassicus, new genus, new species. Two other new species belong to the genera Cerviniella Smirnov and Cerviniopsis Sars. Two other species found in the collections of Vityaz from the Pacific abyssal are found also in this material. The genus Pontostratiotes is discussed, and a new diagnosis of the genus is given.

Adequate gear yielded rich collections of abyssal Harpacticoids of which the present material is only a small part. A few general conclusions about this fauna are advanced.


The Nearctic Species of Orgilus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Carl F. W. Muesebeck
104 pages, 57 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 20 February 1970)
Number 30, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (60,130 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The species of the braconid genus Orgilus are all internal parasites of lepidopterous larvae, principally of the larvae of Microlepidoptera; some have been employed in the biological control of troublesome pest species. The number of different kinds seems to be very great. In the present paper 107 Nearctic species are treated, all except 16 of these previously undescribed. Keys to the genera considered as comprising the subfamily Orgilinae and to the species of Orgilus recognized in the paper are followed by detailed descriptions of the species.


Taxonomy, Sexual Dimorphism, Vertical Distribution, and Evolutionary Zoogeography of the Bathypelagic Fish Genus Stomias (Stomiatidae)
Robert H. Gibbs, Jr.
25 pages, 6 figures, 15 tables
1969 (Date of Issue: 2 December 1969)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (13,774 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

New information on the characters and geographic distribution and a key for identification are presented for the ten recognized species and subspecies of Stomias, of which one, the eastern Atlantic subspecies S. colubrinus orientalis Blache, is considered a full species and is redescribed. The name orientalis, a junior homonym, is replaced by lampropeltis. External sexual dimorphism is demonstrated for all species in three characters: males are smaller than females and have larger eyes and larger postorbital photophores. The magnitude of the dimorphism varies among the species, the most extreme differences in eye and postorbital organ occurring in species in which males attain the least maximum size. Vertical distributions of all except S. danae are estimated by comparing numbers of specimens caught in nonclosing nets with the number of meter-hours of trawling at depth in the known geographic range of each form. All appear to migrate from deeper to shallower depths at night. Most species for which data approach adequacy occur in the greatest abundance between 500-1000 meters during daylight and in the upper 200 meters at night, although concentrations of S. gracilis are deeper than 200 meters at night. In S. colubrinus, however, greatest daytime catches are below 1000 meters and at night below 600 meters. The apparent phylogenetic trends of morphological characters, together with present geographical distributions, suggest that S. brevibarbatus and S. danae represent the earliest evolved stock of Stomias, from which, perhaps simultaneously, the colubrinus-lampropeltis group and S. nebulosus arose. The S. boa group probably arose from nebulosus-like ancestors, with the almost circumtropical S. affinis the earliest and giving rise to S. atriventer in the eastern Pacific and S. boa boa in the Subtropical Convergence, and the latter giving rise to S. gracilis in subantarctic and Antarctic waters and, most recently, to S. boa ferox in the North Atlantic as well as a Mediterranean population that has retained boa boa characteristics.


Ostracoda (Myodocopina) from the Peru-Chile Trench and the Antarctic Ocean
Louis S. Kornicker
42 pages, 25 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 11 February 1970)
Number 32, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (19,558 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Myodocopid ostracods collected on cruise 11 of the RV Anton Bruun to the Peru-Chile Trench in 1965 are described, including four new species. Also described are two new species of the genus Spinacopia from Antarctica collected in 1964 on cruises 11 and 12 of the RV Eltanin. A supplementary description is given of the holotype of Azygocypridina imperator (Brady, 1880), the type-species of the genus.


A Checklist of the American Bidessini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae-Hydroporinae)
Frank N. Young
5 pages
1969 (Date of Issue: 25 November 1969)
Number 33, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (3,870 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A list of the American water beetles of tribe Bidessini (Dytiscidae-Hydroporinae). Type-species are listed for each genus with references to the original designations.


Sublittoral Gammaridea (Amphipoda) of the Hawaiian Islands
J. Laurens Barnard
286 pages, 180 figures, 6 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 15 April 1970)
Number 34, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (119,287 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Gammaridean Amphipoda from depths of 0-30 m on hard bottoms are increased from about 40 to about 120 species, including 59 new species and 9 new genera and subgenera. About half of the species is endemic. Nearly 70 percent of the faunule has come from archipelagoes to the southwest of Hawaii, but only 15 percent of the faunule is of tropicopolitan character. About 20 percent of the fauna has affinities with cool waters of the North Pacific. This is the first significant record of cool-water species of any marine group in Hawaii. Most of these species have a tubicolous ecology, suggesting that nestlers are less successful in completing the long journey from the cool waters of northern continents. All but three species with cool-water affinities have diverged specifically from their mainland ancestors and at least two require erection of new genera to describe their divergence. Other endemic genera of Hawaii have low affinities with tropical Pacific faunas and have affinities with places like Antarctica, the Caribbean Sea, and warm-temperate Australia. The tropical component of Hawaiian Gammaridea is not impoverished by a priori standards of diversity. Few elements expected to occur in Hawaii are missing. No evidence of interisland adaptive radiation has been observed, but several pairs and triads of species with sibling affinities are described as a result of successive waves of immigration of parent species. Since no cool-water stepping stones occur between Hawaii and cool mainland shores of the North Pacific, the divergent cool-water species of Hawaii probably reflect morphological changes occurring after one increment of isolation. Some of these fairly radical changes such as loss of palp articles, coalescence of urosomites, and possibly axial reversal of dominance in gnathopods are seen to be of lower conservative value than heretofore accorded. This upsets classifications in Atylidae, Dexaminidae, Aoridae, and Isaeidae to a significant degree.


Cranial and Bacular Variation in Populations of Spiny Rats of the Genus Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) from South America
Robert E. Martin
19 pages, 12 figures, 4 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 30 January 1970)
Number 35, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (12,446 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Specimens of Proechimys from 12 localities in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, were studied to assess the degree of variation in bacular, cranial, and dental morphology, and pelage. Coefficients of variation and Student's t values were computed for selected cranial measurements to evaluate intra- and interpopulation variation. Studies on tooth wear demonstrated considerable variation in dental occlusal pattern and suggested that taxonomic assignment based entirely on dental morphology may be misleading. Descriptions and illustrations of bacula from most localities indicate that these bones are highly variable in overall dimensions, but have common structural features at a particular locality. Most specimens are tentatively referred to Proechimys guyannensis, although P. canicollis, P. quadruplicatus, and P. steerei were also represented. Proechimys guyannensis is regarded as a highly variable species. It is suggested that subspecific delimitation may not adequately express the variation observable in this species.


A Review of the Genus Harpiosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda), with Descriptions of Three New Species
Raymond B. Manning
41 pages, 43 figures, 1 table
1969 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1969)
Number 36, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (23,393 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Available specimens of the large squillid Harpiosquilla from the collections of the Australian Museum, Sydney, and the Division of Crustacea, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, show that the genus comprises seven species; three of these species are newly described. The species of Harpiosquilla occur throughout the Indo-West Pacific region, from Japan and Australia westward to the Red Sea and South Africa; some species, particularly H. annandalei, H. harpax, and H. raphidea are widely distributed in the region whereas others, including H. indica, new species (India), H. japonica, new species (Japan), and H. stephensoni, new species (Australia), exhibit more limited distribution patterns. All available literature is summarized, and the descriptive accounts are accompanied by notes on biology, development, and distribution.


The Odonata of Dominica, British West Indies
Thomas W. Donnelly
20 pages, 27 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 11 February 1970)
Number 37, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (10,473 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The Odonata fauna of Dominica is, for the first time, treated in detail. Twenty-one species of dragonflies and damselflies are recorded with detailed locality records and ecological notes, and a key is provided to 37 species known or expected to occur in the Lesser Antilles. Scapanea archboldi, new species, is described, and the nymphs of Protoneura ailsa Donnelly and Argia concinna Rambur are described for the first time. Aeshna psilus Calvert and Telebasis sanguinalis Calvert are recorded from the Lesser Antilles for the first time.


Copepods Parasitic on Sharks from the West Coast of Florida
Roger F. Cressey
30 pages, 110 figures, 1 table
1970 (Date of Issue: 30 December 1970)
Number 38, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (15,002 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Thirty-one species of parasitic copepods were taken from sixteen species of sharks caught off Sarasota, Florida. Of these, the following are described as new: Alebion lobatus, Nesippus nana, Kroyeria longicauda, Kroyerina scottorum, and Nemesis spinulosus. It was noted that the spermatophore attached to females of Alebion serve as one of the best taxonomic characters for separating females of this genus.


Myodocopid Ostracoda (Cypridinacea) from the Philippine Islands
Louis S. Kornicker
32 pages, 18 figures, 5 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 11 February 1970)
Number 39, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (15,610 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Seven species (6 new) of myodocopid Ostracoda are described. These were collected in 1967 during an ecological survey jointly sponsored by the University of Hawaii and the Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center.


A Field Guide to the Cidaroid Echinoids of the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea
Thomas Phelan
67 pages, 7 figures, 22 plates
1970 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1970)
Number 40, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (24,385 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Twelve species of cidaroid echinoids from the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea are described, compared, illustrated, and keyed for identification. The first description of the denuded test of Histocidaris nuttingi Mortensen is presented. A lectotype and paralectotype are selected for Histocidaris sharreri (A. Agassiz). Poriocidaris purpurata (Wyville Thompson), previously known from the eastern Atlantic, is reported for the first time from the Caribbean Sea.


Revision of the Aphroditoid Polychaetes of the Family Eulepethidae Chamberlin (=Eulepidinae Darboux; =Pareulepidae Hartman)
Marian H. Pettibone
44 pages, 31 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1969)
Number 41, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (20,587 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The family Eulepethidae is reviewed and revised, based on a reexamination of most of the previous records in the literature. The family characteristics are summarized and its systematic position among the other families of the superfamily Aphroditoidea is discussed.

The family is represented by four genera: Eulepethus Chamberlin (=Eulepis Grube), with a single species; Pareulepis Darboux, including two species and one synonym; Mexieulepis Rioja, with a single species and one synonym; and Grubeulepis, new genus, including four previously described species and three new species. In addition, Eulepis challengeriae McIntosh is considered questionable.


Review of Some Little Known Genera of Serpulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)
Helmut W. Zibrowius
22 pages, 7 figures
1969 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1969)
Number 42, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Go to : Article in digital repository (repository url is stable, and repository may include .pdf of the article and additional related files)
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (14,034 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Serpulids which had been classified in the genera Vermilia, Miroserpula, Chitinopoma, Chitinopomoides, Hyalopomatus, Hyalopomatopsis, Cystopomatus, and Protis are examined and discussed.

The genus Miroserpula should be included in the genus Chitinopoma, as the type-species of both genera are identical. C. serrula, single known species of the genus Chitinopoma, is widely distributed in the Arctic and Boreal Atlantic (America and Eurasia). It is characterized by incubation in special brood chambers on the tube of adult specimens. As C. groenlandica, it has often been confused with a quite different species from the Pacific coast of North America. For this latter species, first described as Hyalopomatopsis occidentalis, the new genus Pseudochitinopoma has been created. Chitinopomoides wilsoni, an insufficiently known species from bathyal depths off Antarctica, may have some affinities with the genus Chitinopoma. Affinities of Chitinopomoides with the genera Spirobranchus and Serpula are excluded.

The bathyal and abssyal forms from the Atlantic (Arctic Basin, Azores, Madeira) and from the Mediterranean, described under the generic names Hyalopomatus and Hyalopomatopsis, and the bathyal Cystopomatus from Antarctica, are closely related. The latter two genera are to be considered as synomyms of the former. The validity of the specific distinctions of these forms, based on the known material, is questionable.

The genus Protis, known from the Atlantic and Pacific, includes forms which in Arctic regions may be found in lesser depths, but which are at least bathyal when not abyssal at lower latitudes (Azores, Romanche deep, Gulf of Mexico, off California). The specific distinctions of these forms are questionable. A serpulid from the infralittoral at Puerto Rico, described as P. torquata, does not belong to the genus Protis.


Revision of New World Species of Anthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae) other than the Anthrax albofasciatus Group
Norman Marston
148 pages, 135 figures, 6 plates, 27 maps
1970 (Date of Issue: 6 July 1970)
Number 43, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (88,471 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A key is given to the species groups of Anthrax in North and South America. Four of the five groups are described and keys are given for included taxa. Each taxon is fully described, its synonymy is compiled, and its distribution is illustrated or summarized. Important taxonomic characters are illustrated. Sixteen taxa comprise the oedipus group, including peruvianus, cordillerensis, and insulanus, new species, and irroratus striatipennis, oedipus aquilus, and pluto nigriventris, new subspecies. Twenty-nine taxa comprise the cephus group, including innubilipennis, inaquosum, nitidus, xanthomeros, hylaios, cathetodaithmos, snowi, costaricensis, koebelei, austrinus, clinopictus, and laticellus, new species; and argyropygus painteri, new subspecies. Nine species comprise the trimaculatus group, including baliopteros, latibasis, and caatingensis, new species. Five taxa comprise the tigrinus group, including xylocopae, new species, and simson habrosus, new subspecies. Evolution of the cephus and tigrinus groups is discussed.


Benthic Ecology of Bahia de San Quintin, Baja California
J. Laurens Barnard
60 pages, 18 figures, 12 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 10 March 1970)
Number 44, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (29,795 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Three important biotic assemblages and several minor associations occur on the soft bottoms of San Quintin Bay. The most obvious assemblage is characterized by the eelgrass, Zostera marina, that covers approximately 20 percent of the study area. A second densely populated assemblage occurs in tidal channels and on their margins and is dominated by a globular ascidian, Eugyra glutinans, and a tube-forming amphipod, Ampelisca compressa. That community merges with a poorly populated Prionospio (polychaete) community occupying sand flats in shallow, quiet water; the two are asymmetrically connected by a facies (or ecotone) characterized especially by two genera of amphipods, Acuminodeutopus and Rudilemboides. A less widespread fourth assemblage, dominated by a polychaete genus Fabricia, occurs primarily adjacent to marshes, especially in the inner reaches of the lagoon. Three phases of the Prionospio community occur, the typical phase and phases dominated by the polychaetes Scoloplos acmeceps and Cossura candida. The Ampelisca-Eugyra community also exists in extreme phases dominated by either of the principal members.

The Prionospio community is interpreted as a base community representing a penetration from the open sea of an analogous community in shallow waters on which is imposed the Zostera community where suitable banks are elevated above the surrounding flats. The Zostera community has few elements in common with the Phyllospadix (surfgrass) community of the open sea. The Eugyra-Ampelisca community occurs mainly in channels and at the feet of banks where water motion is highest in the bay. The Eugyra-Ampelisca community is unique to the literature but has affinities with open-sea Tellina communities.

San Quintin has few of the cosmopolitan taxa usually introduced into bays by humans. The warm-temperate lagoons of California and Baja California have few common denominators probably because of changes imposed by man. Very few species in San Quintin are obligatory inhabitants of lagoons.

San Quintin is unusual in being controlled physiographically by cinder cones; the west arm is a typical lagoon, whereas the east arm has characteristics of a drowned river valley.

A hypothetical system of lagoonal maturation and senescence is proposed in which the depositional influences are accelerated by soft-bodied benthic biota.


Bredin-Archbold-Smithsonian Biological Survey of Dominica: The Crane Flies (Diptera: Tipulidae)
Charles P. Alexander
59 pages, 68 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 17 September 1970)
Number 45, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (31,957 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The crane fly fauna of the Antillean island of Dominica is discussed, based in chief part on a study of the extensive series of specimens collected by various staff members in entomology of the United States National Museum between 1956 and 1966. The only other island of the Lesser Antilles that had been studied in some detail is Saint Vincent, by Williston (1896). Two islands of the Greater Antilles have been discussed by Alexander, Puerto Rico (1932) and Jamaica (1964a). In this report on Dominica 64 species of Tipulidae are discussed, of which 26 are described as new. Virtually all belong to the subfamily Limoniinae, with only 3 species, distributed in as many genera, in the Tipulinae. In the Limoniinae, 3 tribes are represented, the largest being the Limoniini with 32 species or exactly one-half of those presently known from the island. The largest single genus is Limonia Meigen, with 29 species arranged in 6 subgenera, the largest such groups being Geranomyia Haliday with 13 species and Rhipidia Meigen with 8. The second most important tribe is the Eriopterini, with 23 species belonging to 7 genera, the largest genus being Gonomyia Meigen with 10 species in 4 subgenera. The third tribe, the Hexatomini, has only 6 species in 5 genera. Only 2 genera, Limonia Meigen and Gonomyia Meigen, have 10 or more species. Of the total of 28 genera and subgenera in the Dominican fauna no fewer than 19 are represented by a single species each. The following new taxa are described:

Eriopterodes, new genus; Nephrotoma dominicana, new species; Tipula (Microtipula) carib, new species; Limonia (Caenoglochina) wirthiana, new species; L. (Dicranomyia) clarkeana, new species; L. (Neolimonia) gurneyi, new species; L. (Geranomyia) caribica, new species; L. (G.) neptis, new species; L. (G.) spangleri, new species; L. (Rhipidia) eremnocera, new species; L. (R.) steyskali, new species; Orimarga (Orimarga) nimbicolor, new species; O. (Diotrepha) bifidaria, new species; Epiphragma (Epiphragma) caribica, new species; Shannonomyia urophora, new species; Elephantomyia (Elephantomyia) pertenuis, new species; Teucholabis (Teucholabis) fulviventris, new species; T. (T.) tenella, new species; Gonomyia (Gonomyia) dominicana, new species; G. (Lipophleps) acanthomelana, new species; G. (Paralipophleps) cultriformis, new species; G. (P.) dikopis, new species; G. (P.) wirthiana, new species; Eriopterodes celestis dominicana, new subspecies; Erioptera (Mesocyphona) gagneana, new species; Toxorhina (Toxorhina) carunculata, new species; T. (T.) polytricha, new species; T. (T.) subfragilis, new species.


Behavioral and Life-History Notes on Three Floridian Solitary Wasps (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)
Karl V. Krombein
26 pages, 78 figures, 3 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 25 May 1970)
Number 46, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (12,855 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A new trap to attract solitary twig-nesting wasps and bees was developed and tested in Florida. It permits observation and photography of the nesting behavior during nest construction and, subsequently, of the development of the progeny. Observations and photographs were made of the nesting behavior and subsequent development of three sphecid wasps, Isodontia (Murrayella) auripes (Fernald), Podium rufipes (Fabricius), and Trypargilum collinum collinum (Smith).


New Entocytherid Ostracods with a Key to the Genera of the Subfamily Entocytherinae
Horton H. Hobbs, Jr., and H. H. Hobbs, III
19 pages, 9 figures
1970 (Date of Issue: 26 May 1970)
Number 47, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (11,393 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Following a key to the genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae, keys to the species of each of the genera, Ascetocythere, Dactylocythere, and Geocythere precede the descriptions of new species, A. lita, D. coloholca, D. macroholca, D. pughae, and G. nessoides. Entocythere tyttha and a new genus and species, Lordocythere petersi, are also described, and Thermastrocythere harti is synonymized with T. riojai, new combination. All of the new species are from the southeastern part of the United States.


Neotropical Microlepidoptera XVIII: Revision of the Genus Peleopoda (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)
W. Donald Duckworth
30 pages, 55 figures, 3 plates, 8 maps
1970 (Date of Issue: 19 June 1970)
Number 48, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (14,358 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

The oecophorid genus Peleopoda Zeller is revised and one new species, P. convoluta, is described. A key to the species based on structures of the male and female genitalia is provided. All the species are reviewed regarding their taxonomic history, distribution, identity, and morphology. Distribution maps, photographs of the adults, drawings of the male and female genitalia, and all known biological information are included.


A Revision of North American Epigean Species of Asellus (Crustacea: Isopoda)
W. D. Williams
80 pages, 57 figures, 5 tables
1970 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1970)
Number 49, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (39,376 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

A taxonomic revision of North America epigean species of Asellus is given based almost entirely upon a study of male material. Descriptions are given of A. communis Say, A. brevicauda brevicauda Forbes, A. brevicauda bivittatus Walker, new combination, A. intermedius Forbes, A. attenuatus Richardson, A. dentadactylus Mackin and Hubricht, A. montanus Mackin and Hubricht, A. kenki Bowman, A. racovitzai racovitzai, new species, A. racovitzai australis, new subspecies, A. forbesi, new species, A. obtusus, new species, A. laticaudatus, new species, A. scrupulosus, new species, A. nodulus, new species, and A. occidentalis, new species. Asellus militaris Hay is synonymized with A. intermedius, and A. tomalensis Harford is regarded as a questionable name. It is suggested that A. aquaticus is absent from the North American continent. A key for the identification of males is given, and phylogenetic relationships are discussed, taking into consideration the ideas of Hennig (1950).


An Illustrated Catalog of the Neotropic Arctiinae Types in the United States National Museum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Part I
Allan Watson
361 pages, 252 plates
1971 (Date of Issue: 2 June 1971)
Number 50, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology
Display: PDF (Hi-Res) (127,513 kb) | Full Description (from SIRIS)

Abstract

Forming the first part of a two-volume catalog, this publication deals with 445 types of Neotropic Arctiinae. The genitalia and upper surface of each type are illustrated and the coloration of the whole insect briefly described. The status of each type is indicated and lectotypes designated where appropriate. As a result of revisionary work some new synonymy is presented and changes in the generic placement of several species noted.


Displaying 1 - 50 from the 642 total records

Previous | Next 50