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Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences

Displaying 1 - 39 from the 39 total records
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The Red Alga Polysiphonia (Rhodomelaceae) in the Northern Gulf of California
George J. Hollenberg and James N. Norris
21 pages, 10 figures
1977 (Date of Issue: 25 August 1977)
Number 1, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Taxonomic studies of Polysiphonia show 14 species to be present in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. One of these, P. sphaerocarpa var. cheloniae is described herein as a new variety, and is found growing exclusively on the green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas L. This and three other species are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of California. The distribution of six other species is extended.


The Echinoderm Fauna of Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean
David L. Pawson
115 pages, Vol. 10, 4 figures, 12 plates, 5
1978 (Date of Issue: 1 May 1978)
Number 2, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Two recent intertidal collecting expeditions and existing museum collections have added much to knowledge of the Ascension Island echinoderm fauna. Twenty-five species are now known from Ascension; eight are new records. One new species, Holothuria (Halodeima) manningi, and one new subspecies, Echinometra lucunter polypora, are described. Diadema ascensionis Mortensen is regarded as a subspecies of D. antillarum Philippi, and Pseudoboletia atlantica H. L. Clark is regarded as a subspecies of P. maculata Troschel.

The echinoderm fauna of Ascension Island includes 8 amphi-Atlantic species, 3 western Atlantic species, 4 eastern Atlantic species, 5 circumtropical species, 4 species shared only with St. Helena, and I endemic species. There are in addition three endemic subspecies. Twelve species are shared with St. Helena, and both islands are closely similar in terms of numbers and relationships of their faunal components. Colonization of both islands by planktonic larval stages is suggested. Dendrochirotid holothurians, which lack such larval stages, are not represented at either St. Helena or Ascension. The structure of the Ascension fauna seems to have been determined by vagaries of ocean surface and subsurface currents. In contrast, Bermuda, which sits astride the Gulf Stream, has a fauna that is entirely typical of the West Indian region to the the south.


Salt Tectonics and Basement Fractures: Key Controls of Recent Sediment Distribution on the Balearic Rise, Western Mediterranean
Gilbert Kelling, Andrés Maldonado and Daniel Jean Stanley
52 pages, 19 figures, 9 tables
1979 (Date of Issue: 19 October 1979)
Number 3, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The Balearic Rise is a morphologically and structurally complex feature on the southern margin of the Balearic Platform, in the western Mediterranean. Originating as a foundered block in Late Miocene time, the rise has acquired a sedimentologically diverse cover of Plio-Quaternary sediments. A study by means of high-resolution reflection profiling (3.5 kHz) and gravity/piston cores emphasizes the effects of a variety of sedimentary processes and of structural controls in the genesis of these Plio-Quaternary sequences. During this geologically recent time interval the Menorca Canyon-Valley-Fan system has exerted an important influence on the sedimentary development of this marginal feature.

On the basis of the 3.5kHz profiles, eight categories of acoustic response of the seafloor and shallow subbottom sediments have been defined and can be linked to distinctive sub-environments of the rise that are characterized by specific sedimentary and structural attributes. Abrupt variations in thickness of the Plio-Quaternary sequence attest to the continuing activity of faulting, which has generated a horst-and-graben morphology across most of the rise. More continuous subsidence is evident below the Menorca Fan but even here subrecent fracturing, accompanied by salt-diapirism, has produced a physiographic and sedimentologic complexity which differs significantly from most of the currently accepted submarine fan models.

The cored sediments fall into five main types: bioclastic (and terrigenous) sand, silt, turbidite mud, hemipelagic mud, and calcareous ooze. Combinations of these sediment types form three principal associations or sequences: channel sands, turbiditic sequences, and hemipelagic sequences. Four distinct core assemblages are also recognized, on the basis of predominant sediment type and sequence: channel sand assemblage, proximal turbiditic/hemipelagic assemblage, hemipelagic/turbiditic mud assemblage, and basin plain assemblage.

Radiocarbon dating of core samples yields average sedimentation rates of 6 to 7 cm per thousand years, the highest rates being encountered on the Balearic Basin plain and in the main Menorca Fan channel while the lowest rates occur in the hemipelagic muds of the elevated regions of the rise. Most of the thick channel sands were deposited between 23,000 and 16,000 years BP, during the last major lowering of sea level.

The Menorca Fan differs significantly in physiography and sediment distribution from most other modern submarine fans, mainly because of the reduced importance of overbank flow and channel migration, which results from the activity of shallow fractures and the blocking effects of salt-diapirs, together with the exceptionally coarse grade of material supplied to the fan.


Submarine Canyon Wall Sedimentation and Lateral Infill: Some Ancient Examples
Daniel Jean Stanley
32 pages, 17 figures
1980 (Date of Issue: 13 February 1980)
Number 4, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Submarine canyon wall and tributary sequences at three Annot Sandstone localities in the French Maritime Alps record early-stage resedimentation events in proximal sectors of the Tertiary Annot Basin. Canyon margin lithofacies are distinctive in that they comprise a more variable suite of stratal types than intracanyon slope, canyon axis, distal fan and basin series of the same formation. Characteristic criteria include the highly variable geometry and spatial distribution of the series of strata, irregular bedding thickness, paleocurrent directions that diverge from the predominant regional patterns, and discontinuities within the formation and between the Annot Sandstone and the older marine shale series (Eocene Marnes bleues) forming the canyon margins. Three distinctive sandstone stratification types dominate the “grès d'Annot” canyon wall association: type 1 units, moderately to well-stratified and massive (often amalgamated), emplaced by debris flow and a continuum of sediment-fluid flow mechanism, not specifically identifiable in the field; some thick sand layers may represent deposition as ‘quick’ beds from high-concentration underflows, possibly gradational between liquified and turbidity current flows; type 2 units, displaying slightly to extensive deformed horizons within but not throughout the beds, probably are related to liquefied flow and post-depositional liquefaction processes; and type 3 units, emplaced ‘en masse’ and in some cases showing complete disruption of primary stratification (chaotic bedding), are identified as slides and slumps. In addition to the three above types, lower proportions of graded, generally thin ‘classic’ sandstone turbidites (Ta-b, Tb-c, and Tb-e) and mudstone turbidites are recognized.

Although they appear as distinctly different entities in the field, a genetic relation between some depositional types is suggested. The mapped facies diversity is interpreted in terms of flow transformation, that is, the release of different sediment types along the dispersal path from a single sediment gravity flow as it evolves during its progression downslope. The diversity of mass flow products at the three canyon margin localities records a variable succession of transformation phases on the relatively steep slopes (locally in excess of 10°) within a short distance from the point of initial failure. The distinctive aspect of “grès d'Annot” canyon margin sedimentation is the repetitive erosion→transport→deposition pattern of lateral infill. Definition of these proximal lithofacies serves to better understand the origin of the more distal marine fan and Annot Basin plain sequences seaward of the three canyon localities examined and also can be applicable to the study of modern canyon-fan settings.


The Saint-Antonin Conglomerate in the Maritime Alps: A Model for Coarse Sedimentation on a Submarine Slope
Daniel Jean Stanley
25 pages, 12 figures, 1 table
1980 (Date of Issue: 23 July 1980)
Number 5, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The Upper Eocene to Lower Oligocene Saint-Antonin Conglomerate, a formation more than 1000 m thick well exposed in the French Maritime Alps, about 30 km north of the Mediterranean coast, comprises coarsening-upward successions, or megasequences, of silty shale-siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate sections. The megasequences include coarse channelized deposits associated with coarse lenticular and fine-grained sheet facies that are identified as migrating channels and lobe and channel overflow deposits. Microfossils in the finer-grained units indicate dispersal in an open marine, outer shelf to upper bathyal environment where minimal depths ranged from 100 to 200 m. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of facies successions, assemblage of stratification types and sedimentary structures, and petrology of the various textural grades indicate submarine progradation on a slope, or in a slope basin, seaward of a fan delta system. The Saint-Antonin Conglomerate is more similar to alluvial fans than to some of the gravel-rich submarine fan deposits that accumulate on a gentle gradient at the base of a slope. The coarsening-upward megasequences record a strong tectonic overprint, including a northward shift of the basin margin on which these strata were deposited, concurrent andesitic flows and structurally-induced fan delta switching on the adjacent land. This latter phenomenon was largely responsible for the irregular back-and-forth migration of the sandstone and gravel-rich tongues on the upper slope. Emplacement of poorly sorted (disorganized) conglomerates and pebbly sandstones, and of strata displaying crudely stratified inverse grading or preferred clast fabric, was largely by debris flow and associated high-concentration dispersions. Slumping, turbulent flows with some bed-load traction and turbidity currents also were effective mechanisms for the transport of sediment to proximal depositional sites on the slope. Modern counterparts of the Saint-Antonin Conglomerate are probably to be found on the leading edge of plates, rift margins and other tectonically-active coastal chain-bounded margins where coarse terrigenous sediments bypass narrow shelves and are transported directly on steep mobile slopes.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the North American Atlantic Coast
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
28 pages, 14 figures, 10 tables
1980 (Date of Issue: 11 July 1980)
Number 6, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all available distributional data on the recent benthic foraminifera off the North American Atlantic Coast was constructed from 142 papers published over the last 130 years. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 150 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e. unsynonomized). Catalog 2 lists alphabetically synonomized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonomized and synonomized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonomized species names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the last 130 years, 1303 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera off the North American Atlantic Coast. Through synonomization this number was reduced to 876 of which 149 occur at 20 or more of the 542 sample sites. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 149 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic distribution through examination of the maps. Seven species are coastal in their distribution, 71 occur mainly at depths of less than 200 m, 41 at depths of greater than 200 m, and 30 are ubiquitous. Thirteen species alter their depth distribution with latitude.

Geographically, the species group into 6 categories. Thirty-one species occur from Florida to Cape Hatteras, 26 from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod, 4 from Cape Cod to Newfoundland, 22 from Florida to Cape Cod, 40 from Cape Hatteras to Newfoundland, and 26 are ubiquitous. Because of the overlapping distribution of the species, no simple boundaries can be drawn for faunal provinces. We recognize two major overlapping faunal provinces: a northern province from Newfoundland to Cape Hatteras and a southern province from Florida to Cape Cod.


The Distributional Ecology and Zoogeographical Relationships of Stomatopod Crustacea from Pacific Costa Rica
Marjorie L. Reaka and Raymond B. Manning
iii, 29 pages
1980 (Date of Issue: 7 October 1980)
Number 7, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Twenty species of stomatopod crustaceans, primarily shallow-water forms, are recorded from Costa Rican localities. Earlier records for size, depth distribution, habitat, and latitudinal distribution are summarized for each species. Habitat use and co-occurrence of species are analyzed, and the zoogeographical relationships of East Pacific species are discussed.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico, Volume 1
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
443 pages, 129 figures
1981 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1981)
Number 8.1, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published (presence or absence) distributional data on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico was constructed from 77 papers published since 1918. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 296 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names (in the same numerical line order as Catalog 1) with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 60 years, 1219 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico. Through synonymization, these were reduced to 848 species, of which 295 occur at 16 or more of the 426 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 295 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic distribution through visual examination of the maps. Twenty overlapping categories describe the depth distribution of the commonly recorded species. The depth distribution of 15 species varies considerably around the Gulf.

Geographically the 295 most commonly recorded species may be grouped into 11 categories. Forty-eight percent of the species are ubiquitous around the Gulf. Circum-Gulf of Mexico provincial boundaries cannot be recognized but preliminary analysis distinguishes concentric benthic foraminiferal provinces whose margins can be related to particular depths and physiographic regions.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico, Volume 2
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
487 pages
1981 (Date of Issue: 31 December 1981)
Number 8.2, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published (presence or absence) distributional data on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico was constructed from 77 papers published since 1918. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 296 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names (in the same numerical line order as Catalog 1) with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 60 years, 1219 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the Gulf of Mexico. Through synonymization, these were reduced to 848 species, of which 295 occur at 16 or more of the 426 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 295 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic distribution through visual examination of the maps. Twenty overlapping categories describe the depth distribution of the commonly recorded species. The depth distribution of 15 species varies considerably around the Gulf.

Geographically the 295 most commonly recorded species may be grouped into 11 categories. Forty-eight percent of the species are ubiquitous around the Gulf. Circum-Gulf of Mexico provincial boundaries cannot be recognized but preliminary analysis distinguishes concentric benthic foraminiferal provinces whose margins can be related to particular depths and physiographic regions.


Articulated Coralline Algae of the Gulf of California, Mexico, I: Amphiroa Lamouroux
James N. Norris and H. William Johansen
155 pages, 143 figures, 2 maps
1981 (Date of Issue: 7 October 1981)
Number 9, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Amphiroa (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) is a tropical and subtropical genus of articulated coralline algae and is prominent in shallow waters of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Taxonomic and distributional investigations of Amphiroa from the Gulf have revealed the presence of seven species: A. beauvoisii Lamouroux, A. brevianceps Dawson, A. magdalensis Dawson, A. misakiensis Yendo, A. rigida Lamouroux, A. valonioides Yendo, and A. van-bosseae Lemoine. Only two of these species names are among the 16 taxa of Amphiroa previously reported from this body of water; all other names are now considered synonyms. Of the seven species in the Gulf of California, A. beauvoisii, A. misakiensis, A. valonioides and A. van-bosseae are common, while A. brevianceps, A. magdalensis, and A. rigida are rare and poorly known. None of these species is endemic to the Gulf, and four of them, A. beauvoisii, A. misakiensis, A. valonioides, and A. rigida, also occur in Japan.


The Marine Algae of Tunisia
Ernani G. Meñez and Arthur C. Mathieson
59 pages, 1 figure
1981 (Date of Issue: 19 October 1981)
Number 10, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A taxonomic study of the marine flora of Tunisia, North Africa, was conducted during 1973-1975. A total of 169 species, 37 Chlorophyta, 36 Phaeophyta, 96 Rhodophyta, of benthic marine algae were collected from 29 sites along the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia. Of the 169 species, 57 taxa are newly reported for the country. Of these, 16 represent genera previously unreported.


Sohm Abyssal Plain: Evaluating Proximal Sediment Provenance
Daniel Jean Stanley, Patrick T. Taylor, Harrison Sheng and Robert Stuckenrath
48 pages, 23 figures, 5 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 23 October 1981)
Number 11, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The southernmost part of the Sohm Abyssal Plain in the Northwest Atlantic Basin is geographically distal with respect to the major source of Quaternary terrigenous material transported from the Canadian Maritime Provinces. An assessment of the proportion of more locally introduced sediment relative to that derived from distal sources is based largely on size and compositional analyses of Quaternary piston core samples. These data are supplemented by radiocarbon dating of selected core samples, bottom photographs, conductivity-temperature-depth profiles, and seismic records.

The premises of the study are that (a) locally derived sediment should be most abundant near high-relief bathymetric features such as seamounts and abyssal hills, and (b) such material should contain enhanced proportions of reworked volcanic debris and alteration products. Core analyses reveal that the amounts of these are directly related to proximity of volcanic ocean-bottom features, and that a significant, although not total, amount of such volcanic materials recovered from cores are derived from submarine weathering of basalt. Associated with this assemblage are nannofossils, dating from the Quaternary to the Upper Cretaceous, reworked from older strata. This increased proportion of volcanic and related products and reworked faunas near seamounts and basement rises strongly implies that such topographic features continue to serve as major source terrains. Locally derived volcanic materials, however, are usually disseminated and masked on the Sohm Abyssal Plain, particularly in sectors receiving large amounts of terrigenous turbidites and biogenic suspensates, and/or undergoing reworking by bottom currents.

We propose that the volcanic fraction can serve as a useful index, or “yardstick,” to interpret the role of locally derived material in abyssal plain sedimentation. A sedimentation model is developed to illustrate the premise that as access to land-derived sources diminishes, the proportion of terrigenous components is reduced while pelagic and volcanic fractions are enhanced. Thus, sediment accumulating in abyssal plains almost totally isolated from terrigenous sources would comprise significant amounts of pelagic (including wind-blown) and volcanic components. Our model illustrates that even in an abyssal plain, such as the Sohm, which has had an important and direct access to abundant distally derived terrigenous sources, particularly during the Pliocene and Quaternary, the locally supplied reworked volcanic products account for a significant fraction of the total abyssal plain sediment fill.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities
Klaus Ruetzler and Ian G. Macintyre, editors
109 pages, 16 figures, 20 plates, 9 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 10 June 1982)
Number 12, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The results of the first series of multidisciplinary investigations of the Caribbean barrier reef complex near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, are reported in 34 papers in this volume, which begins with a summary of past work on the Belizean reefs and cays. The first section treats the structure of barrier reef habitats in the vicinity of Carrie Bow Cay, influential physical parameters such as tides and currents, geological and sedimentological history of lagoon, reef, and island substrates, and the island's environment, including its climate and the effects of hurricanes. Subsequent papers analyze the distribution of endolithic microorganisms in carbonate substrates, and the diversity, standing crop, and production in selected lagoon and back-reef habitats. Related contributions report on the benthos of an unusual submarine cave and on the surface zooplankton over reef and lagoon bottoms. One section is devoted to the systematics and local distribution of flora and fauna. Marine plants covered are plankton diatoms, benthic algae—including a detailed study of the red alga Polysiphonia—and sea grasses. Faunistic studies focus on hydroids, medusae, stony corals, octocorals, sipunculans, anthurid isopods, pycnogonids, a marine chironomid, ophiuroids, and crinoids. In the papers on Polysiphonia, hydroids, stony corals, and anthurids, all species are illustrated for identification by nonspecialists; figures of important or unusual examples are shown in the other systematic contributions. New species are described among anthurids, pycnogonids, and ophiuroids. A section on ecological responses discusses the reaction of algae to grazing pressure, the life history of an ichthyo-parasitic hydroid, the growth response of the reef coral Montastrea annularis to a light gradient, and associations between zoanthids and their sponge hosts. Included in this section are discussions of the ecology of the zoanthid Isaurus duchassaingi, settlement behavior and development of the bivalve Malleus candeanus, and behavioral ecology of two closely related reef fishes, genus Acanthemblemaria. The volume concludes with two general surveys of the barrier reef and cays, which discuss the Carrie Bow reef section and cay in relation to the overall barrier reef complex.


Uniform Mud (Unifite) Deposition in the Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean
Christian Blanpied and Daniel Jean Stanley
40 pages, 15 figures, 2 tables
1981 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1981)
Number 13, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Unifites are nearly structureless, often thick, layers of clayey silt and silty clay that appear compositionally homogeneous and generally show a subtle fining-upward trend. Formed by uniform and faintly laminated muds, unifites are deposited from rapidly emplaced single gravity-flow events. Along the Hellenic Arc, unifites are restricted to small trench basins and interpreted as an end-member gravity-emplaced facies. Unifites are not truly homogeneous and the petrological distinctions observed are closely related with the trench basin depositional site relative to steep margins bounding the trench plain. The faintly laminated portions of unifites contain a higher silt content; the uniform mud portions are slightly better sorted and display an upward increase of planktonic tests. The sand fraction is dominated by clastic aggregates eroded from older margin sediments; unifites also comprise a large silt-size nannofossil content (including reworked forms).

The increased uniformity basinward of unifites records deposition from turbidity current-related flows of diminished concentration that spread over large areas of a flat trench floor. Faint laminae may be related to phases of flocculation and depositional sorting of the sediment load during transport, and to the hydraulic jump affecting a flow upon its arrival on a near-flat basin floor. The slower-moving tail releases the uppermost nonlaminated, graded unifite mud term. The thickness of Hellenic unifites is a function of entrapment of moderate amounts of material in small trench plains. The homogenization process essential for unifite deposition involves relief bypass, i.e., the preferential entrapment of coarser or denser fractions in slope depressions, while finer or less dense particles are transported further downslope across irregular seafloor features. Unifite deposition records the interplay of: (1) complexity of dispersal paths and accessibility of sediment to the trench basin, (2) redepositional processes, grain-support mechanisms and gravity-induced flow characteristics, (3) type of material transported, (4) extent of textural segregation and compositional sorting during flow, (5) slope relief bypassing process, and (6) selective entrapment of essentially fine-grained particles in the more distal trench catchment basins. Mediterranean unifites can serve to interpret uniform mud facies on both active and passive margins and in the rock record.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera in the Caribbean Region
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
iii, 382 p., maps, ill.
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 November 1982)
Number 14, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region was constructed from 99 papers published since 1839. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 131 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 140 years, 1868 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean region. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 1189, of which 130 occur at 13 or more of the 338 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for these 130 most commonly recorded species.

The majority of these species were assigned to a ubiquitous geographic distribution category and, because most samples are restricted to shallow shelf areas, to a shallow shelf depth distribution category. Only 14 species do not conform to these distribution patterns.

Because of the sample framework, no conclusions can be reached with regard to possible foraminiferal provincial subdivisions within the Caribbean region.


The Crustose Coralline Algae (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae) of the Hawaiian Islands
Walter H. Adey, Roberta A. Townsend and William T. Boykins
706 pages, 52 figures, 66 plates, 3 maps
1982 (Date of Issue: 17 December 1982)
Number 15, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Crustose corallines were collected from a wide range of depths (intertidal to about 300 m) throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. A total of 25 species in 10 genera are recognized on the basis of habit, anatomy, morphology, and ecology, including one new genus and 10 new species. Generic and specific keys for the differentiation of the Hawaiian crustose corallines are also provided.

The ecology of each species, in terms of depth distribution and habitat, is also given, and the potential use of these plants in determining paleoenvironments in the Hawaiian Neogene is discussed.

The Caribbean and Hawaiian crustose coralline floras are briefly compared. The large number of “pair species” and the parallelism in subfamily, generic, and “pair species” ecology indicate that coralline evolution is very slow. The crustose corallines are potentially excellent paleoecological indicators for the Tertiary.


Distribution and Systematics of Foraminifera in the Indian River, Florida
Martin A. Buzas and Kenneth P. Severin
598 pages, 5 figures, 5 maps, 6 tables
1982 (Date of Issue: 22 November 1982)
Number 16, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The Indian River, a shallow, 195 km long estuary, is bounded on the east by a barrier island. Three inlets divide the barrier island, providing exchange with the Atlantic Ocean. Twelve areas covering the length of the estuary were sampled for living foraminifera. Altogether, 17,348 individuals belonging to 94 species were identified. The mean number of individuals and the number of species generally increase from north to south.

The densities of the 15 most abundant species, comprising 95% of the total number of living individuals, were analyzed by canonical variate analysis. The first canonical axis discriminated the inlets and the northernmost (Haulover) area from the rest. On the second canonical axis, the 12 areas were arranged in a north-to-south series. Examination of the data confirms that the analysis succinctly summarizes foraminiferal distribution in the Indian River.

Taxonomic notes are given for each species, and almost all species are illustrated. Ishamella apertura, new genus and species, is described and illustrated.


The Genus Caulerpa from Central Visayas, Philippines
Ernani G. Menez and Hilconida P. Calumpong
427 pages, 11 figures, 8 maps
1982 (Date of Issue: 5 October 1982)
Number 17, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

This taxonomic study of Caulerpa shows 20 taxa occurring in Central Visayas, Philipines, including Caulerpa reyesii, new species. Of these, three are newly reported from the Philippines and seven taxa are new records from Central Visayas.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, II: Kinorhyncha
Robert P. Higgins
487 pages, 51 figures, 78 plates, 11 tables
1983 (Date of Issue: 18 May 1983)
Number 18, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Eighteen new species, including one new genus of Kinorhyncha, are described from the reef ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Pycnophyes neapolitanus Băcescu, 1968, is considered a junior synonym of P. ponticus Zelinka. Pycnophyes quadridentatus Zelinka, 1928, and P. flagellatus Zelinka, 1928, are synonymized under the former taxon and placed in Paracentrophyes, new genus (Neocentrophyidae), represented by a new species from the study area. Other genera represented by the remaining new species are extensively reviewed, species names are corrected to agree in gender, distribution records and keys to adults are compiled, and phylogeny discussed. Species distribution and richness are discussed. A maximum of 13 species representing four genera were found in a single local sample. This is contrasted with similar data from other parts of the world. Certain local species appeared to prefer or were restricted to fine, organically rich, low energy mangrove sediments as opposed to the more heterogeneous sediments with Thalassia beds and the even higher energy sediments of the coral reef proper.


Parallel Laminated Deep-Sea Muds and Coupled Gravity Flow-Hemipelagic Settling in the Mediterranean
Daniel Jean Stanley
19 pages, 7 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 31 March 1983)
Number 19, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The origin of fine-grained deep-sea facies is often blurred because of interplay of diverse transport mechanisms: sediment gravity flow, traction related to fluid-driven circulation, and pelagic and hemipelagic “rain” mechanisms. Physical and chemical attributes of the Mediterranean amplify petrologic differences, thus facilitating distinction between mud types in this sea. Important attributes include small distances between sediment input and depositional site, generally low bottom current velocities in the deep basins, and shallow depths that permit preservation of carbonate components, an important criterion for mud facies definition. Particularly important in the Mediterranean are periodic development of intense water mass stratification and pycnoclines which act as sediment barriers, i.e., deviation of low concentration sediment gravity flows, and temporary retention of particles from turbid layer flows and hemipelagic settling. Release and differential settling of terrigenous silt and clay flocs and reworked benthic and planktonic (largely coccolith and foraminifera) components from well-marked density interfaces occur in a manner such that particles are segregated according to size and density. The resulting varve-like deposits display fine parallel laminae of alternating coccolith- and terrigenous-rich layers that show diverse fining-upward trends. Finely laminated sections of this type accumulate more rapidly than hemipelagites and are distributed over larger surfaces than mud turbidites. Analysis of bedform, texture-fabric, composition, geometry, and rates of sedimentation help distinguish (1) fine parallel laminated muds derived from coupled sediment gravity flow and hemipelagic settling from (2) laminated mud turbidites, (3) laminated hemipelagites, and (4) contourites as commonly defined. Study of mud lithofacies in small to moderate size seas, such as the Mediterranean, holds promise for better interpretation of deep-marine fine-grained deposits.


Systematics and Ecology of the Sea-Urchin Genus Centrostephanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) from the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans
David L. Pawson and John E. Miller
15 pages, 5 figures, 5 tables
1983 (Date of Issue: 26 September 1983)
Number 20, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Surveys by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersibles have revealed the presence of large populations of black Centrostephanus, superficially resembling Diadema antillarum Philippi, along the shelf edge prominences off the east coast of Florida in depths of 48-80 meters. Typical habitats are aggregations of dead coral rubble, with seasonal growths of leafy red algae. Some aspects of the biology of these echinoids are described.

We affirm that only a single species of the genus, Centrostephanus longispinus (Philippi), occurs in the Atlantic Ocean. As Fell (1975) and Serafy (1979) have shown, western Atlantic populations can be referred to the subspecies Centrostephanus longispinus rubicingulus H.L. Clark, which usually differs from the typical subspecies in possessing uniformly black spines rather than banded purple and yellowish white spines when fully grown. C. besnardi Bernasconi from Isla Trindade, Brazil, is herein synonymized with C. longispinus rubicingulus. C. coronatus (Verrill) from California and the Galapagos Islands differs little from C. longispinus and the two species may yet prove to be subjective synonyms. There is some evidence to suggest that Gulf of California populations of C. coronatus differs from California populations at the subspecies level.


Seagrasses from the Philippines
Ernani G. Menez, Ronald C. Phillips and Hilconida P. Calumpong
40 pages, 26 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1983)
Number 21, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Seagrasses were collected from various islands in the Philippines during 1978-1982. A total of 12 species in seven genera are recorded. Generic and specific keys, based on vegetative characters, are provided for easier differentiation of the seagrasses. General discussions of seagrass biology, ecology, collection and preservation are presented. Local and world distribution of Philippine seagrasses are also included.


The Red Algal Genus Audouinella Bory (Nemaliales: Acrochaetiaceae) from North Carolina
Craig W. Schneider
25 pages, 3 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 21 December 1983)
Number 22, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A monographic study of Audouinella in the Atlantic waters of North Carolina reports 15 taxa from coastal and continental shelf habitats. Three of these, A. affinis, A. hoytii, and A. ophioglossa, herein described as a new species, are endemic. Audouinella bispora and A. daviesii are reported from the Carolina flora for the first time. The taxonomy from several historical reports is elucidated, and taxonomic confusions in this complex are clarified.


Neogene to Recent Displacement and Contact of Sardinian and Tunisian Margins, Central Mediterranean
Maurice G. Gennesseaux and Daniel Jean Stanley
21 pages, 9 figures
1983 (Date of Issue: 14 December 1983)
Number 23, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The seafloor between Sardinia, Tunisia, and Sicily occupies a key sector essential for understanding the geological evolution of the central Mediterranean. Although plate motion is generally considered as an explanation, this structurally complex region remains poorly defined. To interpret better the Neogene evolution, we prepared a detailed bathymetric chart and a map showing structural provinces and post-Miocene sediment patterns, which are constructed on the basis of seismic data (primarily a dense network of 30 KJ Sparker and 3.5 kHz profiles). The data suggest that the present-day configuration of the Tunisian and Sardinian margins results, in large part, from the contact of the southern part of the Corsican-Sardinian microplate with North Africa.

Several dominant structural-stratigraphic trends are recognized in this study area: (1) NNW-SSE and NW-SE trends in the northwestern part of the study area are most likely related to the formation of the Algéro-Balearic Basin since the late Oligocene. (2) Pronounced NNE-SSE trending structural axes (largely normal faults) are related to the near-parallel (N-S) tilted fault blocks in the Tyrrhenian Sea east of Sardinia. One of these tectonic structures on the margin east of Sardinia may possibly extend southward (190°-200°) onto, and across, the Tunisian margin. The largest, most obvious physiographic features south of Sardinia, including seamounts, ridges, and canyons, are associated with these trends. These features, for the most part of middle to upper Miocene age, are believed closely related to the opening and subsidence of the Tyrrhenian Sea. (3) Morphological, structural, and stratigraphic-sedimentary trends, particularly off Tunisia, suggest Pliocene-Quaternary compression (E-W trending tectonics and depositional axes), resulting from the northward movement of Africa. (4) Important NW-SE structural-depositional trends (many extensional, some strike-slip) of Miocene to Quaternary age dominate the Strait of Sicily area east of Tunisia and south of Sicily. These may be related to displacement along the Calabrian-Sicilian Arc and to a collisional regime between the arc, the Corsican-Sardinian block, and African margin.

We believe that the present configuration of the two margins resulted from plate contact and welding during several major Miocene events and also from subsidence, first, of the Algéro-Balearic Basin and, then, of the Tyrrhenian Sea. In theory, the Tunisian margin and adjacent land have been subjected to compression as a result of seafloor spreading and collision. The physiographic trends and subsurface structural-stratigraphic configuration we map, however, reveal a predominance of Neogene to Recent structures, primarily of extensional origin.


The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, III: New Marine Isopoda
Brian Kensley
497 pages, 41 figures, 2 tables
1984 (Date of Issue: 6 November 1984)
Number 24, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

One new genus, Chalixanthura, and twenty-four new species of isopods are described and figured. These include Chalixanthura scopulosa, Eisothistos petrensis, Accalathura setosa, Apanthura cracenta, Pendanthura hendleri, Cymodoce ruetzleri, Dynamenella quadrilirata, Paracerceis cohenae, Paracerceis glynni, Metacirolana agaricicola, Metacirolana halia, Metacirolana menziesi, Gnathia rathi, Astacilla regina, Stenetrium bowmani, Stenetrium patulipalma, Stenetrium spathulicarpus, Bagatus punctatus, Angliera psamathus, Microcharon sabulum, Joeropsis bifasciatus, Joeropsis personatus, Munna petronastes, and Microcerberus syrticus. Figures and/or descriptions are also provided for Stenetrium minocule Menzies and Glynn, Stenetrium stebbingi Richardson, Joeropsis coralicola Schultz and McCloskey, and Joeropsis rathbunae Richardson. With a few exceptions, all material comes from the coral reef system at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. Depth and ecological data, where available, are provided.


Geomorphologic Trends in a Glaciated Coastal Bay: A Model for the Maine Coast
R. Craig Shipp, Stephanie A. Staples and Walter H. Adey
178 pages, 14 figures
1985 (Date of Issue: 24 June 1985)
Number 25, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A detailed geomorphic study was conducted along the glaciated shoreline of Gouldsboro Bay, Maine. The purpose of this study was to classify and map the geomorphic features as a preliminary step in the investigation of the late Quaternary evolution of the area. The distribution of geomorphic features was determined by the interpretation of vertical and oblique aerial photographs and ground-truth maps.

For easier descrimination, the dominant coastal geomorphic features are separated into high- and low-intertidal regions. The high-intertidal features are defined by a distinct combination of sediment/bedrock type, geometry, and size. The major feature in this intertidal region are pocket beach, linear fringing beach, marsh, and exposed bedrock. The low-intertidal features are distinguished by differences in sediment type and grain size. Mud flat, mud/rock flat, sand/rock flat, rock ledge, and mussel bar are the significant features in this intertidal region.

The geomorphology of Gouldsboro Bay is a function of three components. First, the Paleozoic bedrock lithology and structure, modified by late Cenozoic dissection and erosion, is the major component determining the regional coastal geomorphology. Second, the distribution pattern of late Wisconsin glacial moraines controls the dispersion of sediment, which strongly influences the local shoreline geomorphology. Third, the physical factors of wave exposure and winter ice effects are important processes that modify shoreline geomorphology. In turn, the degree of influence by these two physical factors is a function of shoreline orientation and fetch. Based on the interaction of these three components, Gouldsboro Bay can be broken into three distinct geomorphic zones: an exposed, seaward zone, a semi-exposed, central zone, and a protected, landward zone. This geomorphic classification appears suitable for the remainder of coastal Maine, and may have a wide application in areas such as the interpretation of stratigraphic sequences and the distribution of biological communities.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast from Oregon to Alaska
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
iii, 234 p. , maps
1985 (Date of Issue: 30 August 1985)
Number 26, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the living and dead recent benthic foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast (Oregon to Alaska) was constructed from 31 papers published since 1886. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 139 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 100 years, 523 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 404, of which 138 occur at 6 or more of the 157 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 138 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distribution through visual examination of the maps. Eight species are coastal in their distribution, 63 occur mainly at depths of less than 200 m, 27 at depths greater than 200 m, and 40 are ubiquitous with depth. Many species appear to alter their depth distribution with latitude, but this may be due to a poor sampling framework.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into three categories. Forty-two species occur mainly to the north of 52°-55°N, 22 species occur mainly to the south of 52°-55°N, and 74 species are latitudinally ubiquitous within the area of study. This preliminary analysis indicates a possible faunal break in the region of Queen Charlotte Island.


Catalog of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Philippines
Paul C. Silva, Ernani G. Menez and Richard L. Moe
234 pages, Vol. 1, 115 figures, 196 plates, 30
1987 (Date of Issue: 1 December 1987)
Number 27, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

All published records of benthic marine algae from the Philippines are assembled in a catalog with the taxa arranged according to an assumed phylogenetic scheme to the rank of family. The taxonomic framework takes into consideration recently published opinions. Each taxonomic synonym is accompanied by a citation of the author who first proposed the synonymy. Additional taxonomic and nomenclatural notes are provided where deemed useful. Type localities are indicated for all accepted names and taxonomic synonyms.

Cyanophyceae (blue-green algae) comprise 19 genera with 61 species. They are arranged according to the Geitlerian system, accompanied by a reconciliation with the Drouetian system. Their nomenclature is based on a 1753 Linnaean starting point rather than the later starting points specified by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Rhodophyceae (red algae) comprise 130 genera with 506 specific or infraspecific taxa, of which 35 have Philippine type localities.

Phaeophyceae (brown algae) comprise 23 genera with 154 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 27 have Philippine type localities.

Chlorophyceae (green algae) comprise 37 genera with 251 species or infraspecific taxa, of which 20 have Philippine type localities.

Portieria Zanardini 1851 is adopted in place of Chondrococcus Kützing 1847, Eupogodon Kützing 1845 in place of Dasyopsis (Montagne) Montagne 1847, and Hincksia J.E. Gray 1864 in place of Giffordia Batters 1893. In addition, new binomials are proposed in Gelidium, Halymenia, Callophyllis, Sporolithon, Gracilaria, Ceramium, Polysiphonia, and Hormophysa.

The catalog is preceded by a brief history of Philippine phycology.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast from California to Baja
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
479 pages, 765 figures, 14 tables
1986 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1986)
Number 28, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the recent, living and dead benthic foraminifera off the North American Pacific Coast (California and Baja California) was constructed from 89 papers published since 1896. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 131 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

During the past 90 years, 1117 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 798, of which 130 occur at 35 or more of the 875 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 130 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distributions through visual examination of the maps. Sixty-five species are restricted to depths of less than 200 m, 45 occur mainly at depths of less than 2000 m, 2 only at depths of greater than 200 m, and 18 are ubiquitous with depth. The depth distribution for many species changes with latitude, but this may be due to a poor sampling framework.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into seven categories. Forty-two species are latitudinally ubiquitous to the study area (Cape Mendocino to Cape San Lucas and the Gulf of California), 52 species occur from Point Conception to Cape San Lucas and in the Gulf of California, 5 species range from Point Conception to Punta Eugenia and are also found in the Gulf of California, 5 species occur from Cape San Lucas to Punta Eugenia and in the Gulf of California, 5 species range from Cape Mendocino to Cape San Lucas, 10 species range from Cape Mendocino to Punta Eugenia, and 11 species occur from Point Conception to Punta Eugenia. A major faunal break occurs at Point Conception.


A History and Annotated Account of the Benthic Marine Algae of Taiwan
Jane E. Lewis and James N. Norris
102 pages, 44 plates, 5 tables
1987 (Date of Issue: 8 June 1987)
Number 29, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Records of the benthic marine algae of the Island of Taiwan and neighboring islands have been organized in a floristic listing. All publications with citations of benthic marine green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta), and red algae (Rhodophyta) in Taiwan are systematically arranged under the currently accepted nomenclature for each species. The annotated list includes names of almost 600 taxa, of which 476 are recognized today. In comparing the three major groups, the red algae predominate with 55% of the reported species, the green algae comprise 24%, and the browns 21%. Laurencia brongniartii J. Agardh is herein reported for Taiwan for the first time.

The history of modern marine phycology in the Taiwan region is reviewed. Three periods of phycological research are recognized: the western (1866-1905); Japanese (1895-1945); and Chinese (1950-present). Western phycologists have apparently overlooked the large body of Japanese studies, which included references and records of Taiwan algae.

By bringing together in one place all previous records of the Taiwanese marine flora, it is our expectation that this work will serve as a basis for further phycological investigations in the western Pacific region.


Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera off the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America
Stephen J. Culver and Martin A. Buzas
187 pages, 166 figures, 3 maps, 109 tables
1987 (Date of Issue: 10 September 1987)
Number 30, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

A computer file of all published distributional data (presence or absence) on the recent, living and dead benthic foraminifera off the Mexican and Central American Pacific coast was constructed from 21 papers published since 1896. Manipulation of this file produced 5 catalogs and 115 maps.

Catalog 1 lists alphabetically species names with publication and locality information as recorded in the literature (i.e., unsynonymized). Catalog 2 lists synonymized species names with publication and locality information. Catalogs 3 and 4 list alphabetically all unsynonymized and synonymized species names, respectively. Catalog 5 lists synonymized names by increasing latitude and longitude.

Over the past 90 years, 447 names have been used to record benthic foraminifera in the study area. Through synonymization, this number was reduced to 377, of which 114 occur at 5 or more of the 119 sample localities. Computer-generated maps were drawn for the 114 most commonly recorded species.

Species were grouped by depth and geographic (latitudinal) distribution through visual examination of the maps. Thirty-two species are restricted to depths of less than 200 m, 22 occur mainly at depths of less than 2000 m, 22 at depths of greater than 200 m, 5 at depths of greater than 2000 m, 11 are found between 200 and 2000 m, and 22 are ubiquitous with depth.

Latitudinally, the species are grouped into three categories. Sixty-six species are latitudinally ubiquitous in the study area, 47 species are found only to the south of Puerto Angel (16°N) and one species is found only north of Puerto Angel. Although the majority of species are ubiquitous, a faunal break is probably indicated by the species restricted to the south of Puerto Angel.


Case Study of Natural Population Collapse: Post-Hurricane Predation on Jamaican Staghorn Corals
Nancy Knowlton, Judith C. Lang and Brian D. Keller
136 pages, Vol. 3, 50 figures, 2–32 plates, 15
1990 (Date of Issue: 28 June 1990)
Number 31, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, formerly a dominant reef builder at intermediate depths along the Jamaican north coast, was devastated in 1980 by Hurricane Allen and its short-term aftereffects. Between 1982 and 1987, populations of A. cervicornis generally continued to decline at three monitored areas, approaching local extinction at one site. Feeding by the snail Coralliophila and the polychaete Hermodice carunculata, and “gardening” behavior of the damselfish Stegastes planifrons played important roles in the collapse of staghorn populations. All three consumers remained abundant seven years after the hurricane. Growth of algae following die-off of the urchin Diadema antillarum in 1983 and perhaps disease also contributed to the failure of A. cervicornis to recover. Although the timing and relative importance of these factors differed among sites, collapse of all three populations and substantial predator-associated mortality were the most striking features of these results. Threshold models of predation suggest that the hurricane increased the relative importance of predators, causing coral populations to continue to decline rather than return to their previous high densities. The generally patchy distribution of A. cervicornis in space and time throughout its range may reflect an ability to persist at either low or high densities with predators, interacting with fluctuations in density caused by extrinsic perturbations (e.g., storms, epidemic disease). Preliminary surveys provide evidence of events elsewhere in the Caribbean that are comparable to those documented for Jamaica. Sensitive coupling of unusually severe disturbance with routine biological processes may have long-term effects that limit our ability to explain local patterns of distribution, abundance and diversity in areas where this species has the potential to dominate.


Hydrographic and Meteorological Studies of a Caribbean Fringing Reef at Punta Galeta, Panamá: Hourly and Daily Variations for 1977-1985
John D. Cubit, Ricardo C. Thompson, Hugh M. Caffey and Donald M. Windsor
53 pages, 28 figures, 31 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 18 April 1988)
Number 32, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

This report describes hourly and daily conditions of hydrographic and meteorological factors monitored on a fringing coral reef on the Caribbean coast of the Republic of Panamá from January 1977 through December 1985. The methods of monitoring are described in detail, including the performance of various types of equipment under the harsh physical conditions at this site. The data include the following variables: mean hourly wind speed and direction; maximum hourly wind speed and direction; daily maximum and minimum air temperature; hourly air temperature; hourly solar radiation; hourly rainfall; hourly water level; hourly upstream and downstream sea temperatures; and daily salinity. These values are listed directly, with statistical summaries for time of day, days, and months.


Turbidites Reworked by Bottom Currents: Upper Cretaceous Examples from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Daniel Jean Stanley
79 pages, 63 figures, 3 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 2 June 1988)
Number 33, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Sedimentological study of the Late Cretaceous volcaniclastic deposits in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, emphasizing primary structures and bedforms, reveals a remarkable suite of sandy lithofacies. An inventory of the different sand types in several formations shows that a natural continuum of deposits exists between downslope-directed gravity flow and bottom current-tractive “end-member” deposits. Most sandy strata, herein termed “intermediate variants,” record primary emplacement by turbidity currents, probably from the north, and a subsequent reworking of these layers by bottom currents flowing toward the west. The sand layers accumulated in a proximal setting, perhaps slope aprons, and these were then reworked along bathymetric contours. The lower portion of sand layers typically displays the original graded (A) turbidite division, while the texturally cleaner mid and upper parts of such strata usually show structures more typically associated with tractive transport. Photographs of polished slabs and large thin sections of the diverse Cretaceous sand layer types on St. Croix, reproduced at a 1:1 scale, may serve as a basis for comparison with other deep-water formations in the modern and ancient record. They may be most useful in interpreting sequences such as those on St. Croix where a solely turbidite or gravity-emplaced interpretation is inadequate.

This petrologic investigation also sheds further light on the paleogeography of the region. Examination of the sandy volcaniclastic sequences supports earlier hypotheses that they accumulated in a tectonically active island-arc setting. A strong tectonic and volcanic imprint is displayed by the syndepositional deformation of fabric, bedforms, and primary structures. Paleocurrent analyses indicate that, in what was to become the northeastern part of the Caribbean, the predominant bottom-current trend during Late Cretaceous time was roughly parallel to the surface circulation pattern, i.e., directed toward the west. The vigorous reworking of coarse sand and granule turbidites, and the development of bioturbation structures in tractive deposits indicate that, although the paleo-Atlantic was geographically much narrower, bottom-water circulation in this region was not restricted nor were bottom waters anoxic. Recognition here of the diverse suite of reworked sandy turbidite lithofacies, poorly documented to date, can hopefully serve to clarify other cases in both the modern and rock record where there has been interaction between bottom currents and turbidity currents.


Seagrasses
Ronald C. Phillips and Ernani G. Menez
104 pages, 57 figures, 39 maps, 4 tables
1988 (Date of Issue: 29 December 1988)
Number 34, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

This work presents general and current information on seagrass ecology, physiology, biology, distribution and evolution. Additionally, all known taxa of seagrasses are keyed to recognized species. Forty-eight species are described and illustrated, with accompanying maps to indicate their world distribution.


Swimming Sea Cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea): A Survey, with Analysis of Swimming Behavior in Four Bathyal Species
John E. Miller and David L. Pawson
18 pages, 4 figures
1990 (Date of Issue: 1 June 1990)
Number 35, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

New information on swimming behavior of four species of deep-sea holothurians has been obtained using the research submersibles Johnson-Sea-Link (Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution) and Pisces V (University of Hawaii, HURL Program). Hansenothuria benti Miller and Pawson and Enypniastes eximia Theel were studied off the Bahama Islands, Paelopatides retifer Fisher off the Hawaiian Islands, and Pelagothuria natatrix Ludwig off the Galapagos Islands. Video recordings were made of swimming behavior, and individuals of all species were collected at the time of observation. Four contrasting life modes are represented: H. benti lives and feeds on the seafloor, but when disturbed it can swim vigorously for several minutes by rapidly flexing the anterior and posterior ends of the body into S curves. Enypniastes eximia swims almost continuously, briefly settling to the seafloor to ingest surface sediments. The bulbous body is propelled upwards by rhythmic pulsation of a webbed anterodorsal veil; stability during swimming is maintained by counteractive flexing of posterolateral veils. Paelopatides retifer lives on or near the seafloor and has been found up to 300 meters above the seafloor. The swimming behavior of this species combines locomotory movements of the two preceding species. An anterior veil pulsates, and the posterior half of the body flexes into S curves. Pelagothuria natatrix is truly pelagic, floating or drifting near the seafloor or high in the water column. Swimming is effected by infrequent and irregular pulsation of an enormous anterior veil. There is no evidence to suggest that P. natatrix descends to feed on the seafloor.

Published data on the approximately 25 known species of swimming holothurians are summarized. Probable reasons for swimming behavior are discussed. Swimming appears to be most useful in predator avoidance, escape from physical hazards, locomotion, seeking out suitable substrata for feeding, and dispersal of juveniles or adults.


Foraminiferal Densities and Pore Water Chemistry in the Indian River, Florida
Martin A. Buzas and Kenneth P. Severin
iii, 38 p. : ill.
1993 (Date of Issue: 19 May 1993)
Number 36, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

Two stations were established about 10 m apart at a depth of about 1 m at Link Port, Florida. One consisted of quartz sand and the other of quartz sand with a dense stand of seagrass. At the surface of each station and at a depth of 10 cm at the grass site, four replicate samples consisting of 5 ml each were taken every fortnight from 27 March to 6 November 1978 (17 sampling times, 204 samples). The taxa Quinqueloculina, Elphidium, Ammonia, Bolivina, and Ammobaculites comprising 98% of the fauna were enumerated. In addition, pore water chemistry was measured for temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, Eh, NH3, PO4, Si, NO2, and NO2, + NO3.

General linear models were used to analyze the bare surface-grass surface, and grass surface-grass 10 cm data sets. Foraminiferal densities were evaluated for differences between sites, periodicity, sites × periodicity (interaction), and environmental variables.

Differences in overall density between the bare surface-grass surface sites were not significant for the three most abundant taxa (Quinqueloculina, Elphidium, and Ammonia). At the grass site the density for all taxa were significantly lower at 10 cm than at the surface (very few individuals were observed at 10 cm).

Hypotheses for periodicity and interaction were significant for all taxa in all comparisons except for Bolivina in the bare surface-grass surface analysis. At the bare surface, maximum densities occurred in spring while at the grass surface in summer. Although densities were low at 10 cm, no synchronization between the grass surface and 10 cm was evident.

The environmental variables were significant for all taxa in both comparisons. The environmental variables are, however, highly correlated. To alleviate this difficulty, a principal component analysis was performed on these variables. The first three components included all of the 10 variables. Subsequent multiple regression of foramineferal densities and the principal components indicated that usually at least two components, accounting for most of the variables, were statistically significant. Thus, no simple relationship between pore water chemistry and density is apparent. The very large difference in density between the grass surface and 10 cm depth is much more strongly related to the pore water chemistry than the smaller differences with time at the surface sites.


Nile Delta Drill Core and Sample Database for 1985-1994: Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program
Daniel Jean Stanley, James E. McRea, Jr. and John C. Waldron
428 pages, 10 figures, 2 tables
1996 (Date of Issue: 6 December 1996)
Number 37, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

This document is designed to serve as the catalog for a complete set of lithologic logs of 87 sediment borings drilled in the northern Nile delta of Egypt in the course of the Nile Delta Project, from 1985 to 1994. The project, part of the Mediterranean Basin (MEDIBA) Program, was initiated to interpret the recent geological evolution of this depocenter, from the time of its formation about 8000 years ago to the present. The data set includes the major petrologic attributes of these borings, which range in length from ∼20 to 60 m. The results of textural and sand-sized compositional analyses of 2500 core samples are provided, as well as the ages of 358 radiocarbon-dated samples to as old as ∼35,000 years before present. These data constitute the foundation of the Nile Delta Project's investigation. A review of the methods employed in the field and laboratory and an inventory of published articles and theses completed through 1994 as part of this multidisciplinary and multinational effort also are presented. This database facilitates the distinction between anthropogenic and natural factors that determine the evolution of the delta. It is intended to provide a comprehensive record of subsurface deposits in the northern delta, accumulating in late Pleistocene to Holocene time, to be used by those agencies and specialists responsible for monitoring the rapidly changing Nile delta depocenter.

The information published in this document is accessible electronically on the Internet from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History Gopher Server at URL “gopher://nmnhgoph.si.edu/11/.paleo” or via hypertext document (http) at “http://nmnhwww.si.edu/gopher-menus/.” Further information can be obtained from the National Museum of Natural History's Collection and Research Information System (CRIS) Program, Washington, D.C. 20560.


Proceedings of the Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium
Michael A. Lang, Ian G. Macintyre, and Klaus Rützler, Editors
xii + 529 pages
2009 (Date of Issue: 23 November 2009)
Number 38, Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences
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Abstract

The Smithsonian Marine Science Symposium was held on 15–16 November 2007 in Washington, D.C. It represented the first major dissemination of marine research results since the establishment of the Smithsonian Marine Science Network (MSN). The 39 papers in this volume represent a wide range of marine research studies that demonstrate the breadth and diversity of science initiatives supported by the MSN. The first section contains an overview of the MSN along with papers describing the multidisciplinary investigations spanning more than 37 years for the four Smithsonian marine facilities that constitute the Network: the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center at the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland; the National Museum of Natural History’s Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce, Florida; the Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program, with its Carrie Bow Marine Field Station in Belize; and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama. Subsequent papers represent findings by Smithsonian scholars and their collaborators on overarching topics of marine biodiversity, evolution, and speciation; biogeography, invasive species, and marine conservation; and forces of ecological change in marine systems.


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