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Expositions Universelles, Paris 1867


  • Troyen, Carol. "Innocents Abroad: American Painters at the 1867 Exposition Universelle, Paris." American Art Journal 16 (Autumn 1984): 3-29.
    Wanting to present the best examples of American art in Paris to show that America's artistic skill matched its industrial prowess, a committee of the nation's leading artistic minds were gathered to select pieces to present as a part of its fine art exhibit. American cultural confidence was shattered, however, when only one medal was awarded to an American work, placing them below the French and English. This article includes discussion of individual works that were part of this exhibition, illustrations and reproductions of some of the artwork, and an index of all the works that comprised the exhibition.


  • Nikou, Mehrangiz. "National Architecture and International Politics: Pavilions of the Near Eastern Nations in the Paris International Exposition of 1867." Ph.D. Dissertation: Columbia University, 1997.
    The concept of national pavilions was debuted at the 1876 exposition. However, instead of Near Eastern countries of the Ottoman Empire defining their own identity through national architecture, their cultural identity was determined by the representations constructed by European commissioners and architects. These representations reflected the interests of Napolean III's political agenda. Includes illustrations and a bibliography.
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