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Panama California Exhibition, San Diego 1915-1916


  • Amero, Richard. "The Southwest on Display at the Panama-California Exposition." Journal of San Diego History 36 (1990): 183-220.
    Amero presents a detailed history of the Panama California Exhibition. He discusses the planning process as well as many of the buildings and their distinctive use of Southwestern motifs. Includes numerous photographs.
  • Bokovoy, Matthew F. "Peers of Their White Conquerors: The San Diego Expositions and Modern Spanish Heritage in the Southwest 1880-1940." New Mexico Historical Review 78:4 (2003): 387-418.
    The 1915 Exhibition focused on the southwest and it's cultures with an extensive section devoted to Native Americans including displaying Hopi, Navajo, and Pueblo Indians in “their natural state.” The author also discusses the 1935 Exposition and the relationship between Whites and Mexicans.
  • Kropp, Phoebe. "There is a Little Sermon in That:Constructing the Native Southwest at the San Diego Panama-California Exposition of 1915." The Great Southwest of the Fred Harvey Company. Ed. Marta Weigle. Phoenix:Heard Museum, 1996.


  • Barnd, Natchee Blu. "Erasing Indians in the Making of Paradise: Race, Space, History and San Diego's Panama - California Exposition of 1915." M.A. Thesis: University of California San Diego, 2002.
  • Bates, Cheryl Lei. "The Life and Times of Gilbert Aubrey Davidson." M.A. Thesis: University of San Diego, 1995.
  • Bokovoy, Matthew Francis. "San Diego's Expositions as ‘Islands on the Land', 1915, 1935: Southwestern Culture, Race and Class in Southern California." Ph.D. Dissertation: Temple University, 1999.
    Topics covered include the myths of agricultural boosterism, the role of popular anthropology in the construction of ethnic identity, and the representations of Native American culture and Indian resistance within ethnic dioramas during the 1915 exposition. The section on the 1935 San Diego fair analyzes New Deal policy, the California Dream, and the “culture of abundance.”
  • Jansen, Gail Ann. "The Political - Economic Aspects of Architectural Choice at the Panama California Exposition, San Diego 1915: Why Bertram Goodhue?" M.A. Thesis: University of California Los Angeles, 1999.
  • Kropp, Phoebe S. "All Our Yesterdays: the Spanish Fantasy Past and the Politics of Public Memory in Southern California." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California San Diego, 1999.
    The author states that a movement to construct a tourist mission road, El Camino Real, established the popularity of the Spanish past in the early years of the century. The staging of the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego in 1915 provided a key moment for a definition of the region in terms of its Spanish image.

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  • Panama-California Exposition ~ San Diego ~ 1915-1916 (The San Diego Historical Society)
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