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Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco 1915


  • Eggener, Keith L. "Maybeck's Melancholy: Architecture, Empathy, Empire, and Mental Illness at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition." Winterthur Portfolio 29: 4 (1994): 211-26.
    This article examines the Palace of Fine Arts and its creator, Bernard Maybeck. Through architecture, he tried to build an environment where the structure, viewer, and artworks would be linked, conveying to the visitor the feeling of "melancholy," or sadness and seriousness, that the artworks evoked. The mental disorder "melancholia" in the early 1900s and its relation to Maybeck's structure is also addressed. Illustrations and photographs are included.
  • Ewald, Donna and Peter Clute. "America in Photographs: The Enchanted City." American History Illustrated 27: 3 (1992): 46-57.
    In the aftermath of the 1906 earthquake, businessman Reuben Hale spearheaded the formation of a committee to create an exposition that would celebrate the opening of the Panama Canal. This article includes numerous photographs documenting various aspects of the fair such as its construction and the "Zone," the fair's amusement district.
  • Lundberg, Robert. "The Art Room in the Oregon Building: Oregon Arts and Crafts in 1915." Oregon Historical Quarterly 102:2 (2000): 214-227.
    Surveys the artistic holdings in the Oregon Building Art Room at the Exposition including basketry, books, furniture, music, paintings, and photography.
  • Reinhardt, Richard. "Day of the Daredevil." American Heritage of Invention and Technology 11:2 (1995): 10-21.
    Tells the story of Lincoln Beachey, a thrill seeking aviator who plunged to his death as spectators watched from the shores of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, and Art Smith, an aviator who flew successfully at the same fair. Photographs are included.
  • Shields, Scott A. "The Panama Pacific International Exposition Silver Spade." Silver Magazine March/April (2000):24-25.
    In 1911, President William Taft went to San Francisco to break ground for the Pan-Pacific Exposition of 1915. During the groundbreaking, he used a sterling silver spade created especially for the occasion; one of the few sterling silver shovels ever made in the U.S..
  • Williams, Reba White. "Prints in the United States, 1900-1918." Prints Quarterly (Great Britain) 14: 2 (1997): 151-73.
    This article focuses on the history prints in the early part of the twentieth century and makes mention of the Panama-Pacific Exposition as the host of the first large exhibition of American prints. Appendix D includes a list of American prize winners at the fair.


  • Bolton, Marie. "Recovery for Whom?: Social Conflict After the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, 1906-1915." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Davis, 1997.
  • Lee, Anthony Wallace. "Public Painting in San Francisco: Diego Rivera and His Contemporaries." Ph.D. Dissertation: University of California, Berkeley, 1995.
  • Powell, Chandra A. "A Study of James Earle Fraser's 'End of the Trail': A New Interpretation for the Image of the Defeated Native American." Master's Thesis: Oklahoma City University, 1998.


  • Bonnett, Wayne. City of Dreams: Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Sausalito, CA: Windgate Press, 1995.
  • Bruml, Laura and Paul J. Hershey. Electric Lights Dazzling: An Account of One Family's Visit to the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition. Los Angeles: Info-Miner Research, 1999.

Web Sites

  • The Panama Pacific International Exposition: Bibliography by Location
    Website: Connect to website
  • The Way California Could Be: The Panama-Pacific International Exposition
    Website: Connect to website
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