Local Mail Posts in the United States
A Bibliography of Items in the National Postal Museum Library of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries

Compiled by Timothy Carr, Francis Duncan, Ph.D., Herbert A. Trenchard, Ph.D. and David Jickling, Ph.D.

Local mail posts were private enterprises that operated mainly in cities circa 1840-1861. Locals provided services the United States Post Office Department (USPOD) did not offer. Frequent daily deliveries and collections of mail, including parcels, as well as mail boxes at convenient locations were among the services they provided, while the USPOD delivered mail only between and among post offices. Some locals operated in association with the USPOD. In addition, some locals offered services that overlapped those offered by other independent mail carriers and express companies. Many locals issued their own stamps.

Stamp collectors have conducted intensive research to identify local stamps and their origins, partly to separate genuine from faked stamps. Their investigations offer insights into a case of small-scale, private enterprises which lost out to a government monopoly. These studies also present information about aspects of the development of cities, commerce, transportation, and, occasionally, a glimpse into the lives of individuals in the United States during the nineteenth century.

Many books and articles, including those listed below, refer to independent mail carriers, express companies and locals. Focusing on locals, and separating them from express companies and mail carriers, permits us to present a manageable bibliography.

Three journals specialize in the study of independent mail concerns, including locals. The Cinderella Philatelist, The Private Post and The Penny Post are devoted to independent mail concerns and their stamps. Each of these journals is indexed. Because of their extensive and specialized coverage, no articles from The Cinderella Philatelist and The Private Post appear in this bibliography. Two articles from The Penny Post are included in this bibliography. Researchers should review each issue of the three journals. One article from The American Philatelist appears in this bibliography. Consult the index to the AP for a listing of articles on locals.

To promote the study of locals in this library, we present the following bibliography. Please note that a faked or forged stamp can remain undetected for many years. Likewise, a misleading passage, article or book remains for the researcher to uncover and correct.

We would like to hear from you regarding this bibliography. Please send your comments to Timothy Carr, NPM Branch Librarian, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560-0570.

Timothy Carr and Francis Duncan, Ph.D., compiled this bibliography, with the assistance of Herbert A. Trenchard, Ph.D, and David Jickling, Ph.D. The latter three are volunteers at the Smithsonian Institution.


Blake, Maurice C., and Wilbur W. Davis. Postal Markings of Boston Massachusetts to 1890. Portland, ME: Severn-Wylie-Jewett, 1949.
Boston Post Office from 1630, with a chapter on independent mails and penny posts. Seven types of private mail carrier concerns covered: 1) independent posts, 2) express companies with private mail service, 3) nationwide express companies, 4) regional expresses, 5) forwarding agents, 6) dispatchers, and 7) private local posts, 1844-58, chiefly Towle's; Libbey & Company; and Barker's City Post. Quotes sources in text. Illustrations.

Boggs, Winthrop S. Ten Decades Ago, 1840-1850 : a Study of the Work of Rawdon, Wright, Hatch and Edson of New York City, to which is added Sundry Comments, and Articles of Interest, Illuminating the Scene of that Time. American Philatelic Society, 1949.
Engravers of stamps for City Despatch Post (1842, 3-cents), United States City Despatch Post (1842, 3-cents), New York Post Office provisional (1845, 5-cents) and U.S. Post Office (1847, 5-cents & 10-cents - first federal postage stamps), among others. This concern became part of theAmerican Bank Note Company in 1858. Illustrations.

Bouvez, J. Les Timbres Locauz des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. Amiens, France: Yvert & Tellier, 1921.
Brief history and description of stamps issued by locals operating circa 1844-60, and a few that operated later. Includes Baltimore; Boston; Camden, NJ; Charleston, SC; Chester, PA; Chicago; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Frankfort, KY; Glen Haven, NY; New York City; Philadelphia; Saint Louis, MO; San Francisco; Troy, NY; West-Town, NY; & Washington, DC. Index and illustrations. Written entirely in French.

Coburn, Jesse L. Letters of Gold: California Postal History Through 1869. Canton, OH: U.S. Philatelic Classics Society, 1984.
Brief section on and list of San Francisco locals operating circa 1849-71. Bibliography and illustrations.

Colson, Warren H. Postage Stamps and Their Collection, A Series of Handbooks Describing the Great Collectors and Collections of The World, Number 1 The Bowers Collection. Boston, MA:Published by author, 1907.
Presents the collection of Dr. W.C. Bowers (1852-1926), which included stamps of some locals operating in New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia, with references to other stamp collections. Illustrations.

Coster, Charles Henry. The United States Locals and Their History. New York: Scott, 1877.
Includes Baltimore; Boston; Charleston, SC; Chicago; Cincinnati; Columbia, Wrightsville, and Easton, PA; New Orleans; New York City; Philadelphia; San Francisco; St. Louis; and Washington, DC, circa 1846-76. First book on American locals; author later a financier with Drexel, Morgan & Co., later J. Pierpont Morgan & Co. Companies indexed. Illustrations.

Ernst, Carl Wilhelm. Postal Service in Boston, 1639-1893. Trustees of the Boston Public Library, 1975.
Service in Boston and all Suffolk County, Cambridge and Somerville in Middlesex County, and Brookline in Norfolk County by the Assistant Postmaster at Boston, 1891-1893. In chronology, entry for June 4, 1857: "Street Letter-Boxes introduced in Boston," and July 1, 1863: "Free Delivery and Collection service begins." Appendix (The Neale Patent) and index.

Ishikawa, Ryohei. The United States Stamp 1847-1869 : Ryohei Ishikawa collection. Published by author, 1982?
Two color copies of local stamps on covers: Bouton's City Despatch Post in New York, with a U.S. 5-cent Franklin and Blood's Despatch Post of Philadelphia, with a U.S. 10-cent Washington. Reproductions are full-sized, or nearly so, with clear markings and legible writing, on page 22 of 154. Book illustrates private collection with no explanatory text.

Karlen, Harvey M., editor. Chicago Postal History; selections that honor the collecting interests of Richard McP. Cabeen. Chicago: Collectors Club of Chicago, 1971.
Chapter on independent mails, local posts, and express services circa 1840-82. Companies listed with dates of operation. Sources in footnotes, illustrations and maps.

Kelly, Denwood. The Denwood Kelly Papers. Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Philatelic Society, 1997- . Produced under the auspices of the Vooys and Harrison Library Fund of the Society.
Local posts of Baltimore: American Letter Mail Co., B. Post, Butcher & Sandy's Despatch Post, City Dispatch Post, and fifteen other concerns, from the writings, correspondence and clipping files of Kelly, a noted collector of local stamps. Volume 1, of a planned multi-volume set.

Kielbowicz, Richard B. News in the Mail: the Press, Post Office, and Public Information, 1700-1860s. Contributions in American History, number 138. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.
Scholarly tracing of Post Office and postal policies affecting newspapers and magazines. Chapter six applies to locals, "Most troubling...was the growth of private mail companies whose intracity and intercity services, using newly completed rail lines, diverted a large portion of the lucrative letter mail from the post office." Notes the 1845 Act exempted "newspapers, pamphlets, magazines and periodicals" from the post office monopoly of delivering mail. Sources in footnotes, bibliography and index.

Knapp, Edward Spring. Philatelic Iconography, being illustrations of rare and unusual stamps, covers, and cancellations included in the Edward S. Knapp collections. New York City, <1941>.
Several black and white photographs of locals, most are on covers.

Luff, John N. The Postage Stamps of the United States. New York: Scott Stamp & Coin Co., Ltd., 1902 <c1897>.
Describes locals in Baltimore; Boston; Charleston, SC; Louisville, KY; and New York City; mainly in connection with carrier stamps, which were issued by businesses carrying mail for the Post Office. Quotes sources, among them official reports. In "Historical Notes" section, Luff quotes extensively from James Leslie on early postal laws and private posts. Illustrations and index.

Mikusko, M. Brady. Carriers in A Common Cause : A History of Letter Carriers and the NALC. rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: National Association of Letter Carriers, 1986.
History of National Association of Letter Carriers who, "In the early days of the Republic received no salaries but were permitted by Congress to collect a fee of two cents for every letter they delivered." However, most citizens chose to pick up their mail at the Post Office. Free delivery in cities with 50,000 or more people started on July 1, 1863 - the first day of the battle of Gettysburg - when 449 mail carriers - USPOD employees - began serving 49 cities. National Association of Letter Carriers was organized in 1889, and book covers mostly post-1889. Illustrations.

Mitchell, William H., compiler. The Standard Reference List of the Private Local Postage Stamps of the United States of America, including those used in Canada, Hawaiian Kingdom and Mexico. Trenton, NJ: E. Fitzgeorge, 1887.
Covers Baltimore; Bayonne, NJ; Boston; Brooklyn; Charleston, SC; Chester, NY; Chicago; Cincinnati; Easton, PA; Frankford, PA; Glen Haven, NY; New Orleans; New York City; Philadelphia; San Francisco; St. Louis; Washington, DC.; West Town, PA; Wrightsville, PA; circa 1845-85. Includes locals with services to Hawaii, Canada, and Mexico. Index.

Morris, Robert Hunter. Postmaster Robert Morris of N.Y.; being letters for the period June 11, 1847 to February 28, 1848 Extracted with a commentary by Winthrop S. Boggs. New York: Collectors Club, 1960.
Short letter (#183) to John Boyd, proprietor of Boyd's Express Despatch, and another (#178)reporting that Boyd does not own the letter box at 17th Street and Irving Place, New York City. Photograph of John T. Boyd on plate 19. Index. See Hahn, Calvet M. "Postmaster Robert Morris Revisited." Collectors Club Philatelist 63, no.. 4 (July-August 1984): 277-88; no. 5 (Sept-Oct 1984): 315-38. The Hahn article presents letters from Postmaster Morris not included in Boggs' work.

Patton, Donald Scott. Boyd's Local Posts in New York City 1844-1882. London: Regent Stamp Co., n.d.
Traces history of Boyd's and describes stamp issues and forgeries. Quotes sources in text.

Patton, Donald Scott. The Local Posts in Brooklyn, N.Y. 1844-1882. London: Regent Stamp; circa 1967.
Lists locals, forgeries of their stamps, and a brief history of companies. Sources in text. Illustrations.

Patton, Donald Scott. The Private Local Posts of the United States; a study of the history of the adhesive stamps with their reprints and forgeries. London: Robson Lowe, 1967
. Covers locals operating circa 1840-82 in New York State, mainly in New York City, Brooklyn, Buffalo and Glen Haven (near Syracuse). Bibliography, illustrations and index.

Perry, Elliott, compiler. Byways of Philately: Privately-owned Posts and Early Locals: In Memory of H. Warren K. Hale. Federalsburg, MD: J. W. Stowell Printing Co., 1966.
Mainly covers Hussey's Post, operating in New York City circa 1844-83; identifies stamps issued, and notes forgeries. Brief chapters on Boyd's City Despatch; A. M. Hinkley's Express Co., and McIntire's City Express Post, all in New York City, as well as Floyd's Penny Post of Chicago. Sources in text. Illustrations.

Perry, Elliott. The First United States Postage Stamp: otherwise known as the United States City Despatch Post. Beverly, MA: Severn-Wylie-Jewett; [1920?]
Suggests U.S. Post Office Department was not as conservative in issuing adhesive postage stamps as often alleged. Uses extensive quotations from Postmaster General reports of 1840 and 1842 to trace history of Greig's City Despatch Post from founding of February 1, 1842 to purchase by U.S. Post Office on August 16, 1842.

Perry, Elliott. One Hundred Years Ago, 1842-1942: commemorating the centenary of the first adhesive stamp to be issued to prepay delivery of letters by city letter carriers in the United States. American Philatelic Society, 1942.
City Despatch Post began February 1, 1842 in New York City and was purchased by the U.S. Post Office on August 16, 1842. The City Despatch Post issued on February 1, 1842, the first adhesive postage stamp in the United States - good only for postage in their delivery area. Successor locals traced until 1856. Sources, chronology, maps and illustrations.

Perry, Elliott Pat Paragraphs. Takoma Park, MD.: Bureau Issues Association, 1981.
Compilation of articles written by Elliott Perry, philatelic dealer and researcher, between June 1931 and February 1958. Section on locals lists about 150 companies operating circa 1840-80. Some companies and their stamps are identified as bogus. Also included are forgeries of stamps issued by genuine and bogus companies. Cities covered: Atlantic City, NJ; Baltimore; Boston; Brooklyn, Buffalo, NY; Chicago; Cincinnati; Fitchburg, MA; Glen Haven, NY; Lancaster, PA; Newark, NJ; New York City; Philadelphia; San Francisco; Washington, DC; and Wilmington, DE. Sources cited in text. Illustrations and index.

Sidak, J. Gregory & Spulber, Daniel F. Protecting Competition from the Postal Monopoly. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 1996.
American Enterprise Institute work on the postal monopoly with sections on the private express statutes, regulation of mailboxes, and other matters. Footnotes, bibliography and index.

Sloane, George B. Sloane's Column; A Compilation of the Subjects Arranged by George T. Turner. West Somerville, MA: Bureau Issues Association, 1961.
"Sloane's"column appeared in Stamps, a weekly, from 1932-58. Locals section divided into "Locals, General" and "Locals." Latter arranged alphabetically by company. Cites sources and illustrations.

Spooner, Lysander. The Unconstitutionality of the Laws of Congress, Prohibiting Private Mails. New York: Tribune Printing Establishment, 1844.
Contends the U.S. Constitution permits Congress, "to establish post-offices and post roads." The twenty-seven point argument printed for the American Letter Mail Company rejects Congressional efforts to suppress private mails while establishing the public post. Presents the Postmaster General's argument for exclusivity and a section on expediency.

Staff, Frank. The Penny Post, 1680-1918. London: Lutterworth Press, 1964.
Claims independent "letter carriers" were allowed under the 1825 law, and carriers were in Albany in 1808, Philadelphia in 1836. "The public supported the Independent Mails by holding mass meetings and agitating against using the government mails until the government rates of postage were reduced." (p. 101-2) See chapter 5, p. 96-104. Footnotes, bibliography, index, appendices, and illustrations.

Tester, H. E. The Literature of Cinderella Philately. London: Cinderella Stamp Club, 1972.
Two-page bibliography of books and articles on U.S. locals.

Tiffany, John K. The History of The Postage Stamps of The United States of America. St. Louis, MO: C. H. Mekeel, 1887.
Has a history of the City Despatch Post founded in New York City by A. M. Greig in 1842 and bought out by the U.S. Post Office to become U.S. City Despatch Post that same year. Reproduces text of the Post Office Department letter and a notice of services offered in 1843.

United States Postal Service. Guide to the Administration of the Private Express Statutes. U.S. Postal Service, Publication 105, April 1997.
Statutory reference and definition for a letter, message, material not considered letters, post routes, private carriage and extremely urgent letter. Eleven advisory opinions of the statutes from USPS General Counsel's office. An "internal document for the managers of business mail entry and the personnel of the Chicago Rates and Classification Service Center...."


Abt, Henry E. "Boyd's City Express Post." Chapters 1-8, Collectors Club Philatelist 28, no. 3 (July 1949): 163-171; no. 4, (October 1949): 272-286; 29, no. 1 (January 1950): 13-29; no. 2 (March 1950): 97-114; no. 3 (May 1950): 159-74; no. 4 (July 1950): 219-41; no. 5 (September 1950): 295-313; no. 6 (November 1950): 371-389.
Account of Boyd's between 1842-69 in context of New York urban history. Sources and illustrations.

Abt, Henry E. "Locals...A Field for the Enthusiastic Collector With Philatelic Scholarship Ideas." Covers 13, no. 5 (May 1953): 16-22.
Author discusses how he began collecting stamps of locals, their importance to the history of American philately, the pleasure of collecting them, and the need for scholarship. Illustrations.

Abt, Henry E. "The New York Penny Post, The Beginning of the Story." Collectors Club Philatelist 28, no. 2 (April 1949): 100-105.
Penny Post served New York City circa 1839-1842 and was predecessor of (Greig's) City Despatch Post. Quotes sources. Illustrations

. Abt, Henry E. "United States Locals, A Basic Force in Postal Progress." Stamps 51, no. 4 (April 28, 1945): 128-129; no. 9 (June 2, 1945): 302-303; no. 12 (June 30, 1945): 446-448; 52: no. 4 (July 28, 1945): 124-127; no. 9 (September 1, 1945): 295-296, 302-303; 1 (October 1, 1945): 58-60, 62
. Traces rise and fall of locals. September article graphs private city post operations 1841-77. Sources and illustrations.

Boker, John R. Jr. "Hale & Co., Boston, Mass. An Independent Mail Carrier." Collectors Club Philatelist 41, no. 5 (September 1962): 213-219.
Contains unpublished letter dated December 12, 1887 from Hale, then 87 years old, to unknown addressee describing originals and stating why Hale stamps are so rare. Letter describes Hale's originals. Letter in author's collection. Boker was named Philatelist of the Century (2nd half), an honor of the Collectors Club of New York marking their 100th anniversary, 1996. Illustrations.

Bulkley, Grant. "Hale & Company, The Independent Mail Post 1844-1845." American Philatelist 92, no. 5 (May 1978): 477-81.
Hale's expanded rapidly and associated with other companies, primarily serving New York City and New England until the federal government forced it out of business. Illustrations of covers.

Cabeen, Richard McP. "Allen's City Dispatch." Collectors Club Philatelist 22, no. 2 (April 1943):116.
An instance of conflict between commercial and government mail service. Edward R. Allen, founder of the Chicago local, was arrested by postal authorities in February 1883 for establishing a private mail service.

Carr, Timothy. "Eden Musee Philatelic Exhibition of 1889." Philatelic Literature Review 47, no. 4 (4th Quarter 1998): 198-206.
First public philatelic exhibition in New York City of worldwide postage stamps, and possibly third ever public exhibition in the United States. Contemporary news accounts reported, "in all probability the finest and most complete collection ever placed before the American public." Collections of postage stamps of one hundred sixty-three countries from the collections of thirty-two men.

Gregory, Charles. "The Hale & Co. Post with an account of a New Discovery." The Metropolitan Philatelist 4, no. 10 (January 1894): 177-182.
Claims unchanged Post Office rates for letters from pre-Revolutionary War times to Polk Administration (1845-49) produced climate for private posts. The discovery was "an unsevered pair of the first type in red, and a single specimen of the blue...," all surcharged.

Greig, Alexander M. The Metropolitan Philatelist 4, no. 11 (February 1894): 208-209.
Reprint of New-York City Despatch Post circular of 1842, with plan and extent of service, with principal office at 46 William Street, with service to Twenty-first Street. "Letter boxes are placed throughout every part of the City in conspicuous places; and all letters deposited therein not exceeding two ounces in weight will be punctually delivered three times a day at 9, 1 and 4 o'clock, at three cents each...."

Hahn, Calvet M. "Adams' City Express and the City Express Post." Postal History Journal 92 (June 1992): 12-25; 93 (October 1992): 6-19.
Analysis of the stamps and covers of the two posts which operated in New York City, circa 1849-1852, to determine the history and relationship of the two locals. Sources cited and quoted in text. Illustrations.

Hahn, Calvet M. "Adams' Express and Independent Mail." Collectors Club Philatelist 69, no. 3 (May-June 1990): 181-239.
Adams' originated in Boston circa 1840 and soon expanded to New York City, and continued mail operations until 1845, after which it operated as an express and investment concern. Article focuses on mail operations. Sources in text. Illustrations.

Hahn, Calvet M. "The Incunabula of Philatelic Literature on Locals and Carriers." Parts 1 - 6. Collectors Club Philatelist 72, no. 3 (May-June 1993): 181-185; no. 4 (July-August 1993): 213-226; no. 5 (September-October 1993): 295-307; no. 6 (November-December 1993); 359-370; 73, no. 1 (January-February 1994): 17-27; no. 2 (March- April 1994): 85-100.
Considers the period of circa 1860-75 as the birth of stamp collecting literature and Charles H. Coster's United States Locals and Their History (noted above in BOOKS section) as a basic work in the study of locals. Research on early dealers, catalogs, illustrated and priced catalogs, albums and journals in an effort to separate genuine issues from forgeries. Discusses the following: Winans local; Winans adhesives; International Letter Express; International Express Adhesives; Warwick's City Dispatch; Warwick adhesives; Compagnie Franco-Americaine; Smith City Express Post, Smith City adhesives; Hourly Express Post; Hourly Express adhesives; Hanley's Express Post; and Souter & Co.'s City Letter Dispatch.

Hale, H. Warren K. "Boyd's City Express Post." Collectors Club Philatelist 10, no. 3 (July 1931):239-242.
Check list and description of stamp issues from 1844 to 1867 for service in New York City.

Harvey, Edward T. "Blood's Despatch." The Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issue 41, no. 4 (November 1989): 230-46.
Traces Blood's Despatch of Philadelphia circa 1842-1862. Describes impact of federal legislation of 1845 and 1861, along with the 1860 decision of the U.S. Circuit Court, Eastern District, Pennsylvania, on forcing locals, among them Blood's, out of business. Uses city directory and other sources contemporary with period. Illustrations, lists of references, chronology and map.

Hennan, Clarence. "Chicago--The Stamps and Mail Service of the Private Posts." Second American Philatelic Congress. American Philatelic Society (1936): 24-34.
After analyzing stamps and available information, and warning of counterfeit issues, concludes that the following locals are genuine: Wells & Co.--Letter Express; McMillan's Despatch Post; Bronson & Forbes' City Express Post; Moody's Penny Dispatch; Whittelsey's Express, Brady and Co.'s Chicago Penny Post; Floyd's Penny Post; Chicago Penny Post; Allen's City Dispatch. Sources in text. Illustrations.

"Honor to James W. Hale." Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News 3 (February 16, 1893): 2.
Biographical sketch of Hale (1801-circa 1891), described as "author of the American cheap postal system." He founded Hale & Company which served mainly New England.

Hunter, Frederick W. "Boyd's City Post, Reference List of Adhesive Stamps." The Metropolitan Philatelist 2, no. 8 (November 1891): 157-161.
Paper read before The Philatelic Society [N.Y.C.] on August 13, 1891, presenting history of Boyd's, with a reference list of its adhesive stamps. Boyd's started in 1844 at 70 Grove Street and moved in 1845 to 45 William Street. Ceased business from 1861 to 1863. Revived by William Blackham in 1863 at 45 William Street, and by 1888 was at 5 Murray Street, "where it is still doing business in delivering, mailing, folding and addressing mail matter."

Hunter, Frederick W. "The Metropolitan Errand and Carrier Express Company." The Metropolitan Philatelist 4, no. 12 (March, 1893): 211-216.
Only local with "a charter from a State to transact a business which the United States Government claims as a monopoly." From August, 1855, the "company consisted in collecting and delivering letters and parcels to or from any house in the city [New York] to any part of the world...," with an office at 11 Pine Street. Reference listing of adhesive stamps issued attached

. Kane, Carl E. with Lee L. Kane. "George Hussey, Stamp Dealer." Collectors Club Philatelist 61, no. 4 (July 1982): 228-232.
Portrays George Hussey, of Hussey's Post, as a master forger of locals and other stamps. Footnotes and illustrations.

Kelly, Denwood N. "Private Posts in Baltimore 1844-1860." Collectors Club Philatelist 50, no. 2 (March 1971): 83- 96; no. 3 (May 1971): 146-168; no. 4 (July 1971): 219-231; no. 5 (September 1971): 290-305; no. 6 (November 1971): 355-363.
Summarizes the following independent posts and dates of operation: American Letter Mail Company, Hale & Co., City Despatch Post, Johnson & Co. City Despatch Post, E. M. B., Butcher & Sandy's Despatch Post, Stringer & Morton's One Cent Despatch, A. B. Post, City One Cent Dispatch, Cook's Dispatch, Despatch Post, Davis' Penny Post, One Cent Despatch, John Wiley & Co., Wood & Co., Gafflin's Despatch; Ricketts & Hall, Turner's Despatch Winan's City Post. Sources in text. Illustrations.

Klemann, John A. "Greig's City Despatch, New York's First Postage Stamp." Sixth American Philatelic Congress. (November 29 - December 1, 1940); 28-32.
Quotes circular of February 15, 1842 establishing the local, the Post Office Department letter of August 1, 1842 purchasing the local, and letters on Greig's resignation from the enterprise in late 1844. Illustrations.

Konwiser, Harry M. "Dead Letter Office History and Markings." S.P.A. Journal 6, no. 9 (May 1944): 296-301; no. 10 (June 1944): 334-9; no. 11 (July 1944): 373-7; no. 12 (August 1944): 448-52; 7, no. 1 (September 1944): 37-41; no. 2 (October 1944): 78-81; no. 3 (November 1944): 133-6; no. 4 (December 1944): 177-9.
"Franklin established (in 1753) what was called 'the penny post.' Letters which were not called for on the day the post arrived were sent the next day by the penny postman - there was only one in Philadelphia - for an extra fee. "Franklin encouraged the same local delivery in other large towns...." - from the July issue, p. 373.

Levi, Frank S. Jr. "The Plating of the City Despatch Post Stamps 1842-1850." Collectors Club Philatelist 34, no. 2 (March 1951): 61-75.
Plating is locating position of stamps on a sheet. City Despatch Post operated in New York.

Lowe, Robson. "Blood's Penny Post." Collectors Club Philatelist 43, no. 4 (July 1964): 205-225; 47, no. 3 (May 1968): 142, 184.
July 1964 article analyzes chronological order in which Blood's Penny Post, operated in Philadelphia circa 1849-61, and issued its stamps. May 1968 article changes some conclusions of July 1964 article. Illustrations.

Needham, H.C. "To the Collectors Club, its officers, directors and members." The Metropolitan Philatelist 31, no. 12 (June 14, 1913): 92.
Letter to the Club, from the Brooklyn, NY register of deeds, referring to gold medal received from it for his collection of United States Local Post stamps. Considers collections of Charles H. Coster and Clarence H. Chapman (gathered and arranged by Charles T. Harbeck) superior. Recognizes contributions of Coster, Sanford, Harbeck and J.W. Scott in compiling his articles on U.S. locals. The Metropolitan Philatelist was the house organ for J.W. Scott Company (October 18, 1913: 168).

Official Opinions of the Assistant Attorneys-General for the Post Office Department from March 18, 1892 to October 24, 1905. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 3 (1909) 162-3.
Opinion No. 1122, May 21, 1897. The entire abstract:
"The streets of cities where free-delivery service has not been established are not post-routes within the statutes forbidding the establishment of a private express; and the operation of a private service for the carriage and delivery of mail matter, including sealed letters, on which no postage has been paid is not prohibited by such statutes."

Perry, Elliott. "100 Years Ago, Supplementary Notes on The Centenary Handbook of 1942." Collectors Club Philatelist 28, no. 1 (January 1949): 3-31; no. 2 (April 1949): 114-124; no. 3 (July 1949): 223-226); 29, no. 1 (January 1950): 55-57.
Presents evidence that stamps issued by United States City Despatch Post, formerly (Greig's) City Despatch Post in New York City, were the first United States government postage stamps.

Perry, Elliott. "Stamps of the U.S. Letter Express." Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News 36, no. 42 (October 21, 1922): 509-11.
Believes this firm did not exist, and stamps of this concern, "on yellowish white wove paper, unwatermarked" are "'space-fillers'...openly sold for just what they were, imitations, at nominal prices," by stamp dealers Hussey, Kline, Taylor and one or two others.

Petri, Pitt. "Private Local Posts in Buffalo, N.Y." Collectors Club Philatelist 32, no. 2 (March 1953): 77-92.
Brief histories of Cutting's Dispatch Post, 1845-56; Spaulding's Penny Post, 1847-circa 1849; Hinwood & Co's Dispatch, 1849-circa 1850; Locomotive Express Post, 1849-circa 1851. Sources cited in text. Illustrations.

Phillips, H. B. "Banta's Fresno and San Francisco Bicycle Mail Frank." Filatelic Facts and Fallacies 2, no. 10 (July 1894): 163-165, 168-170.
Apparently written from personal knowledge, author describes in detail Banta's Bicycle Post, which operated between San Francisco and Fresno from July 6 to July 18, 1894 during a railroad strike.

Rogers, Lindsay. "The Postal Power of Congress; a study in Constitutional Expansion." Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 34, no. 2 (1916): 9-189.
Scholarly work on Congressional establishment of the U.S. Post Office. The extent and scope of the postal monopoly affecting private deliveries of mail is presented on pages 41 through 45. Contends that there is no disputing the "power of Congress to establish a monopoly by forbidding private postal enterprises." Cites sources; table of legal cases (4 pp.); and index.

Schoenfeld, Abe. "Brooklyn Independent Carriers." Stamps 33, no. 6 (November 9, 1940): 210.
Study based on city directories covers 1846-1857. Mentions Walton & Co's City Express Post, Kidder's City Express Post, and Brooklyn City Express.

Scott, John Walter. The Metropolitan Philatelist 18, no. 25 (March 21, 1903): 196.
Editorial by stamp dealer - and father of U.S. philately - admiring Harbeck's stamp albums of U.S. locals shown at Philatelic Society [N.Y.C.] meeting noting, "Locals furnish a history of the country's growth. Government issues can be collected by children. Locals require study by the best intellects of amateurs." Also notes, "Local stamps have been neglected for many years and probably will never again be fashionable. Ten new collectors would put prices at such a figure that none but millionaires could compete. The average local was printed by the hundred, against millions in government stamps."

Stern, Francis E. "The Hartford, Conn. Stamps." Collectors Club Philatelist 41, no. 3 (May 1962): 109-117.
Relates personal search by stamp collector for the "Hartford Local" issued circa 1844. Sources in text. Illustrations.

Stets, Robert J. "U.S. Government Authorized Private Mail Service 1787-1800." Parts 1-3. The Chronicle of the U.S. Classic Postal Issues. 44, no. 4 (November 1992): 233-37; 45, no. 1 (February 1993): 9-13; no. 2 (May 1993): 83-97.
Private postal service "where Congress and the U.S. Post Office decided it was not 'profitable' to supply that service." Presents three types of posts: 1) under contract to the Post Office; 2) operated by local governments; and 3) individually operated posts; circa 1840-61.

Trenchard, Herbert A. "Carriers and Locals at Auction." The Penny Post. 7, no. 2 (October 1997): 9-16.
12,852+ lots of carrier and local stamps sold in 37 "name" (prominent collectors) and 14 auction house sales, from the 1890s to 1980. Includes an introduction to stamp auctions from 1870 to 1890s.

Trenchard, Herbert A. "Carriers and Locals at U.S. International Philatelic Exhibitions, 1913-76," The Penny Post. 7, no. 4 (October 1997): 17-18.
Listing of exhibitors, "at the 1913, 1926, 1936, 1947, 1956, 1966 and 1976 International Exhibitions." Most were held in New York City. Entries include disposition of the collection, when known, either sold privately or at public auction. Illustrations.

Van Den Berg, George. "Philatelic Notes." Stamps. 41, no. 2 (October 10, 1942): 56-7.
Collecting locals "is the least-developed group in the U.S.A. field...." Identifies contemporary collectors of locals: Hurt and Williams Brothers; Frank A. Hollowbush of Allenhurst, NJ; H.W.K. Hale of Montreal; and George Sloane of NYC.


OPINIONS Philatelic Expertizing-An Inside View. New York: The Philatelic Foundation.
Series of numbered volumes--the last was VI and was published in 1992--containing articles summarizing the views of expert philatelists on such problems as authenticity of stamps, including stamps from locals and independent posts, submitted for examination.

Schwartz, Richard. "The Little Stamp that Missed the Boat: A Prince's Letter Dispatch on Cover." OPINIONS II (1984): 146-149.
Examination of whether a stamp of the Prince's Letter Dispatch, which operated in Portland, ME, and its cancellation are genuine.

Schwartz, Richard. "The Long, Long Road to Acceptance: A First Day Cover of the U.S. City Despatch."OPINIONS VI (1992): 1-6.
Examination of the authenticity of a first day cover bearing a 3-cent City Despatch Post stamp. N.B. Prior to the introduction of separate envelopes, one would use a cover or wrapper to shield the message and to list the addressee on it. The paper on which the message was written could be the cover, too.


These publications are arranged alphabetically by auction house and chronologically within the named house. Selected auction catalogs have been cataloged for this branch. They are shelved in the book collection by call number. Search the library catalog for stamp auction catalogs, too. World-wide web address: http://www.SIRIS.SI.EDU. See Trenchard, above, for a comprehensive listing of auctions of local postage stamp collections. Alfred H. Caspary Collection. H.R. Harmer, Inc., NY, March 18-21, 1957.
Eighty-seven page listing (sale 8) of United States carrier and local stamps - a comprehensive collection sold at public auction. Illustrations.

Louise Boyd Dale and Alfred F. Lichtenstein Collections. Harmers of New York Inc., April 19, 1989.
Sale twelve, with eight lots of local stamps, including a 3-cent City Despatch Post stamp on cover with circular date and time cancellation. Illustrations.

Edward S. Knapp Collection of United States and Foreign Postage Stamps. Catalogued by the Philatelic Research Laboratories Inc., for Public Sale at the Parke-Bernet Galleries, 1941, pp. 94-132.
Lists locals alphabetically, often with dates of operation, and gives catalog value.

Joseph B. Leavy Collection of United States Stamps. Scott Stamp & Coin Co., Limited, NY, March 15 & 16, 1897.
Two hundred twenty-eight lots of carrier (p. 54-7) and local (p. 64-9) stamps from collection of first philatelist (1913-1921) of the U.S. National Museum, Smithsonian Institution; entire sale realized $11,200; held at The Collectors Club, NYC. Leavy was a NYC resident and member of the Club before joining the Smithsonian after the 1913 International Philatelic Exhibition in NYC.

Ambassador J. William Middendorf II. Collection of Carriers and Locals. Richard C. Frajola, Inc., Danbury, Ct (No date given)
Price catalog with section on locals listing companies alphabetically, often with short history. Areas represented: Atlantic City, NJ; Baltimore; Bayonne, NJ; Boston, MA; Brooklyn; Camden, NJ; Chester, PA; Chicago; Cincinnati; Cleveland; Detroit; Easton, PA; Glen Haven, NY; Hartford, CT; Hopedale, PA; Milleville, NJ; Morrisville, PA; Newark, NJ; New Orleans; New York City; Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Color illustrations.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt General Collection. H.R. Harmer, Inc., NY, February 4 & 5, 1946.
One lot (one cover): Cook's Dispatch of Baltimore from FDR's stamp collection, a portion of which was sold at public auction. Illustrations.


Scott's Specialized Catalogue of United States Stamps. (Sidney, OH: Scott Publishing Co.).
Catalog of postage stamps, with definitive listing of issues of the United States. Gives definition, illustrations, and prices; updated yearly.


CIS Index to U.S. Executive Branch Documents, 1789-1909: guide to documents listed in Checklist of U.S. Public Documents, 1789-1909, not printed in the U.S. Serial Set. Bethesda, MD:Congressional Information Service., 1990-1994.
Massive indexing and filming project of documents from ratification of the U.S. Constitution to 1909. Library has part six of six parts, without the corresponding full-text microfiche of the documents. Part six covers the Post Office Department.

Index to the Cinderella Philatelist 1961-1985 and to The Private Post 1977-1985. London: L.N. Williams, 1987. Crane, Ian D., Compiler.
These two journals offer many articles on independent mail services worldwide. The two separate indices have subject and author sections.

Author Index to the American Philatelist. Vol. 1-100 (1887-1986). State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, 1990.Peterson, Charles J., Compiler.
Index to the official publication of the American Philatelic Society.

Geographical Index to the American Philatelist. Vol. 1-100 (1887-1986). State College, PA: American Philatelic Society, 1990. Peterson, Charles J., Compiler.
Index to the official publication of the American Philatelic Society, arranged alphabetically by country, with worldwide coverage.

The Penny Post Cumulative Index. Vol. 1-6 (June 1991-October 1996). Peterson, Charles J., Compiler.
The Penny Post is published quarterly by The Carriers and Locals Society, P.O. Box 1574, Dayton, OH 45401. Arranged by author and subject. The Society encourages the study of private mail companies of the nineteenth century, and their postal emissions.

"The Ricketts Index of United States and Possessions," Philatelic Literature Review 44, no. 1 (1st Quarter 1995): 38-63; no. 2 (2nd Quarter 1995): 126-75; no. 3 (3rd Quarter 1995): 216-64; no. 4 (4th Quarter 1995): 308-60; 45, no. 1 (1st Quarter 1996): 20-59; no. 2 (2nd Quarter 1996): 108-146; no. 3 (3rd Quarter 1996): 192-246; no. 4 (4th Quarter 1996): 294-335; 46, no. 1 (1st Quarter 1997): 16-65; no. 2 (2nd Quarter 1997): 430-456; 46, no. 3 (3rd Quarter 1997): 457-467 and 46, no. 4 (4th Quarter 1997):468-522. Ricketts, William R., compiler.
Extensive indexing of carriers (1st Quarter 1995), seven pages, and locals (4th Quarter 1995), thirty-two pages, by "the greatest indexer in philatelic history." [PLR, 44,1: 4]. Original cards in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries.

"United States Local Section of the Philatelic Literature Bibliography Index...," Philatelic Literature Review 39, no. 2 (2nd Quarter 1990): 91-26; no. 3 (3rd Quarter): 173-215. Ricketts, William R., compiler.
Reprint of 1915 United Stamp Company Herald publication. This was a section of the American Philatelic Society Philatelic 1911 to 1926, which stopped at the end of the letter "G."

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