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zoology - 12 titles

Author:  Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
Title/Imprint: Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particuliere, avec la Description du Cabinet du Roy
l'Imprimerie Royale: Paris , 1749-1804

Buffon's masterpiece is this comprehensive account of our entire knowledge of the natural history, geology, and anthropology. Of the 50 volumes he hoped to produce, only 36 were completed in his lifetime, and 8 more were produced by the count de Lacépède. Our collection is not complete, containing vols. 1-30 (of 37) and 6 (of 7) supplemental volumes.

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Author:  Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
Title/Imprint: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol.8
pp.6037-38; London , 1673

This is the first of over 300 letters that the pioneering microscopist Leeuwenhoek sent to the Royal Society. This letter reported on his discovert of red blood cells, the stinging apparatus of bees, the proboscis and feet of lice, and the structure of bees' eyes.

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Author:  Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck (1744-1829)
Title/Imprint: Systême des Animaux sans Vertèbres ou Tableau Générale des Classes, des Ordres, et des Genres de ces Animaux
Paris , 1801

As curator of the invertebrates at the Jardin des Plantes, Lamarck had the opportunity to examine these animals (and the ones in his personal collection) in great detail and in this book he put forth his new classification scheme for them. He based his work on the new research being done by Cuvier and others and established the modern layout for the classification of invertebrates. Our book was a presentation copy from Lamarck himself.

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Author:  Georges, baron Cuvier (1769-1832)
Title/Imprint: Le Règne Animal Distribué d'Après son Organisation, Pour Servir de Base à l'Histoire Naturelle des Animaux et d'Introduction à l'Anatomie Comparée
4 vols.; Deterville: Paris , 1817

This 4-volume work marked a great advance over the classification of animals devised by Linnaeus. Cuvier's research showed that animals needed to be grouped in four separate groups (vertebrates, molusks, articulates, and radiates) based on their structure. This marked a change from the belief in a linear hierarchy of animals leading up to humans.

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Author:  Carlo Ruini (fl.1598)
Title/Imprint: Anatomia del Cavallo, Infermità, et Suoi Rimedii
Gasparo Bindoni: Venice , 1599

This work, first printed in 1598, is the first book devoted exclusively to the anatomy of an animal other than that of humans. Ruini goes into great detail on equine anatomy and physiology and has been favorably compared with Vesalius's De Fabrica.

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Author:  Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)
Title/Imprint: De Motu Animalium
2 vols.; Angeli Bernabò: Rome , 1680-81

In this classic work, Borelli managed to explain how the muscles of animals moved based on the science of mechanics. He compared the muscles and their linkages to bones in terms of centers of gravity and forces applied to levers, thus showing how people walked, birds flew, etc.

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Author:  Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680)
Title/Imprint: Bybel der Natuure … of, Historie de insecten
2 vols.; I. Severinus: Leiden , 1737-38

Swammerdam is regarded as one of the finest 17th-century microscopists. He made thousands of observations with his instruments and this work, only published well after his death, formed the basis of the modern understanding of insects.

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Author:  René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumir (1683-1757)
Title/Imprint: Mémoires pour Servir à l'Histoire des Insectes
6 vols.; l'Imprimerie Royale: Paris , 1734-42

This 6 volume unfinished series was a milestone in the development of entomology. He experimented with the insects to find out more about their behavior and development.

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Author:  Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876)
Title/Imprint: De Ovi Mammalium et Hominis Genesi Epistolam ad Academiam Imperialem Scientarium Petripolitanam
Leopoldi Vosii: Leipzig , 1827

Baer was a pioneer in the study of embryology and comparative embryology. This book marks his important discovery that mammals develop from eggs, specifically mammalian ova.

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Author:  Theodor Schwann (1810-1882)
Title/Imprint: Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Überstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachsthum der Thiere und Pflanzen
Sander'schen Buchhandlung: Berlin , 1839

This book by Schwann marked the origins of modern histology as he announced his discovery that the cell was the basic structural unit for plants and animals. His realization that the mammalian ovum is a simple cell that becomes a complex organism led to his publishing this work.

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Author:  Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Title/Imprint: Mémoire sur la Fermentation Appelée Lactique
pp. 913-916; Mallet-Bachelier: Paris , 1857

Pasteur's brilliant career started ealry with his work on fermentation. This short article discusses the results of his interests in practical industrial research problems. Starting with alcohol fermentation, Pasteur moved along to milk fermentation and saw that yeast was capable of reproducing itself without free oxygen. This "Pasteur effect" led to great advances in bacteriology. Our copy of this article was detached from: Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des Sciences, t.45, no.22.

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Author:  August Weismann (1834-1914)
Title/Imprint: Die Continuität des Keimplasma's als Grundlage einer Theorie der Vererbung
Gustav Fischer: Jena , 1885

Weismann was an early proponent of genetics and in this work discussed his development of the concept of a "germ-plasm" that carried the traits of the parents to their children. This work was a Herald of Science in the original edition of 1955. It was replaced as Herald 200 in the 1980 edition by the articles on the discovery of DNA (the modern germ-plasm) by Watson and Crick.

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